The Fast Cruiser Liners of the Other Shipping Companies Aside From William Lines and Sulpicio Lines

If we adjust the standards a little for fast cruisers in the 1950’s at just below 18 knots then the first “Don Julio” of Ledesma Shipping Lines will qualify a fast cruiser liner. It should be because she was actually the fastest liner of her era! She was the fastest liner of the 1950’s when she was fielded in 1951 and that was true until she was sold to Southern Lines in 1959.

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Credits to Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen

The first “Don Julio” was an ex-”FS” ship but lengthened in Hongkong when converted to a passenger-cargo ship like many of her sister ships here. She was the fastest in her period because she was re-engined to higher ratings. Two former diesel engines from submarines which were Fairbanks-Morse diesels of a combined 3,600 horsepower were fitted to her and this gave her a speed of over 17 knots. She was the former “FS-286” built by Wheeler Shipbuilding Corp. in Brookly, Newy York USA. As lengthened her dimensions were 66.2 meters by 10.0 meters with a cubic measure of 1,051 gross register tons and she was the biggest former ex-”FS” ship that sailed in the country. Later, when she passed on to Philippine Pioneer Lines she was known as “Pioneer Leyte”. On October 23, 1966, she was involved in a collision in Manila Bay and she was subsequently broken up.

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Credits to Philippine Herald and Gorio Belen

The next fastest liner in Philippine waters came in 1960. She was formerly a seaplane tender named “Onslow” and built for the US Navy by Lake Washington Shipyard in Houghton, Washington, USA in 1943. Continuing service in the US Navy after the war she was known as “AVP-48”, a supply ship. Released from the US Navy, she was converted as a passenger-cargo ship. She measured 94.7 meters by 12.5 meters with a cubic volume of 2,137. This ship has two engines of 6,080 horsepower giving her a top speed of 18 knots. She was first known as “President Quezon” in the fleet of Philippine President Lines and later she was known as “Quezon”. When she was transferred to the fleet of Philippine Pioneer Lines she was known as “Pioneer Iloilo” and when she was sold to Galaxy Lines she became the flagship of the fleet by the name of “Galaxy”. She foundered at her moorings in Cebu while laid up on October 19, 1971.

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Credits to Evening News and Gorio Belen

In 1968, the leading company then Compania Maritima ordered the liner “Filipinas” from Bremer Vulkan AG in Vegesack, Germany. This flagship has the dimensions 121.0 meters by 18.1 meters and her cubic measurement was 4,997 gross tons. She had a single Bremer Vulkan diesel engine of 8,800 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 18 knots. As a fast and modern cruiser liner, she was used by the company in the long-distance route to Davao via Cebu and Zamboanga, a very logical route for her. She served the company until Compania Maritima ceased sailing and she was sent to Taiwan ship breaker. She was demolished on April 5, 1985 after just 17 years of sailing. She was probably not purchased by other companies here because during that time it was already obvious that the period of the ROROs has arrived and she was a cruiser.

In 1970, Compania Maritima acquired another cruiser liner, a second-hand one, the former “Hornkoog” of Horn-Linie GmbH. This ship was built by Deutsche Werft AG in Finkenwerder, Hamburg, Germany in 1959. She was renamed here as the second “Mindanao” and she was actually longer but thinner than the flagship “Filipinas” at 134.6 meters by 16.1 meters. She had the cubic volume 3,357 gross register tons. This liner was powered by a single diesel engine which gave her a top speed of 18 knots. It seems this fast cruiser liner was mainly used by Compania Maritima in their Far East routes where their name was Maritime Company of the Philippines. Incidentally, this ship was the last-ever liner acquired by Compania Maritima. This ship was broken up in Taiwan in 1980.

After the first “Don Julio” from Ledesma Shipping Lines, the coalesced company of Ledesma Lines and Negros Navigation, with the latter as survivor, embarked on a series of orders of new fast cruiser liners which were actually all sister ships. This started with the “Dona Florentina” in 1965. She was built by Hitachi Zosen Corp. in Osaka, Japan and she measured 95.7 meters by 13.9 meters. This liner had a cubic measurement of 2,095 gross register tons and a passenger capacity of 831. She was fitted with a single Hitachi diesel engine with 4,400 horsepower and she had a top speed of 17.5 knots. Since this was still the 1960’s and it was just a shade under 18 knots I already qualify her as a fast cruiser liner. She had a fire while sailing on May 18, 1983 and she was beached on Batbatan Island in Culasi, Antique. She was later towed to Batangas where she was broken up on March 1985.

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Credits to Gorio Belen

The beautiful “Don Julio” followed “Dona Florentina” in 1967 and she became the flagship of the Negros Navigation fleet. She was built in Maizuru Shipyard in Maizuru, Japan and she had the same length and breadth of “Dona Florentina”. She was however a little bigger at 2,381 gross tons and she had a higher passenger capacity at 994. She had the same engine and the same horsepower as “Dona Florentina” and her speed was the same, too. This liner had a long career and she even became part of the transfer of Negros Navigation ships to Jensen Shipping of Cebu. She had her final lay-up sometime ins 2000’s and now her fate is uncertain. Her namesake congressman was however still looking for her several years ago, for preservation purposes. Most likely she is gone now.

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Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

In 1971, Negros Navigation rolled out a new flagship, a sister ship to “Dona Florentina” and “Don Julio” but with a bigger engine and a higher top speed. This was the “Don Juan” with the same length and breadth as the two but fitted with 5,000-horsepower B&W engine which gave her a top speed of 19 knots. Her cubic measure was 2,310 gross register tons and she had a passenger capacity of only 740 because she had more amenities. She was built by Niigata Shipbuilding & Repair in Niigata, Japan. This fast cruiser liner did not sail long because on the night of April 22, 1980, she was hit by tanker “Tacloban City” on her port side while cruising in Tablas Strait at night. She went down quickly with a claimed 1,000 number of lives lost. She was reckoned to be overloaded at that time.

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Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

In 1976, Negros Navigation procured a second-hand fast cruiser liner, the “Don Claudio”. During that time, because of the fast devaluation Philippine shipping companies can no longer afford to acquire new liners. This ship was the former “Okinoshima Maru” of Kansai Kisen KK. She was built in 1966 by Sanoyas Shoji Company in Osaka, Japan. Her dimensions were 92.6 meters by 14.4 meters and her cubic dimensions was 2,721 gross tons. Originally, her passenger capacity was 895. She was equipped with a 3,850-horsepower Mitsui-B&W engine that gave her a top speed of 18.5 knots.

All the fast cruiser liners of Negros Navigation were mainly used in the short routes to Bacolod and Iloilo. Later, some were assigned a route to Roxas City, another short route.

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Credits to Philippinje Herald and Gorio Belen

The last shipping company to have a fast cruiser liner was Sweet Lines. She purchased the “H.P. Prior” from Det Forenede in Denmark in 1970 and when they fielded this they ruled the Manila-Cebu route. She was the legendary and first “Sweet Faith” which later battled in that route the equally-legendary “Cebu City” of William Lines. “Sweet Faith” was built by Helsingor Vaertft in Elsinore, Denmark in 1950. She measured 104.0 meters by 14.9 meters and 3,155 gross register tons as cubic measure. This fast cruiser was equipped by two Helsingor Vaerft diesel engines with a total of 7,620 horsepower which provided her a top speed of 20 knots sustained. She was actually the first liner in the inter-island route capable of 20 knots, a magic threshold. She only sailed for ten years here and in 1980 she was broken up in Cebu.

Sweet Lines had another liner capable of sailing at 18 knots when she was still new. This was the former “Caralis” of Tirrenea Spa di Navale of Italy which was built by Navalmeccanica in Castellamare, Italy. She was the second “Sweet Home” of Sweet Lines and she measured 120.4 meters by 16.0 meters and 5,489 gross register tons in cubic capacity and she can carry 1,200 persons. Sweet Lines advertised her and the “Sweet Faith” as the “Inimitable Pair” and the two were paired in the premier Manila-Cebu route. Sweet Lines sold her in 1978 and she became a floating hotel. She capsized and sank while laid up in Manila on November 24, 1981. She was subsequently broken up.

These were the eight other fast cruiser liners that came to the Philippines which were not part of the fleet of William Lines and Sulpicio Lines in which I had an earlier article.

Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated Is Still Fighting Back

When the original shipping company Carlos A. Gothong & Company broke up in 1972, one of the successor companies was Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (CAGLI or Gothong Lines) owned by the scions of the founder Don Carlos A. Gothong. It was eclipsed early by Sulpicio Lines Incorporated which was owned by the once operations manager of the mother company. And then its operation and fleet even got smaller in 1980 when Lorenzo Shipping Corporation of Lorenzo Go and two other siblings went their separate way (this company was later sold to the Magsaysay Shipping Group but later the scions of Lorenzo Go founded the Oceanic Container Lines Incorporated which now has the biggest number of container ships in the country which has the “Ocean” series).

Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. again became a significant national liner company in the 1990’s when again they built a fleet of liners starting in 1986 and more significantly in 1987 when they acquired the sister ships Our Lady of Fatima and the Our Lady of Lourdes. The sister ships Sto. Nino de Cebu (the later Our Lady of Medjugorje) and the beautiful Our Lady of Sacred Heart, both acquired in 1990 cemented their national liner position and the big liner Our Lady of Akita, acquired in 1993 declared their intention to play in the big leagues.

The rising company got absorbed when they acquiesced to the creation of big merged shipping company WG & A (which stood for William, Gothong and Aboitiz) in late 1995 and that included their small fleet of RORO Cargo ships and also their Visayas-Mindanao overnight ferries. In this merged company their main representative to the Board of Directors was Bob Gothong who was close to the Aboitizes and not the eldest Bowen Gothong.

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Butuan Bay 1 by Vinz Sanchez

While Bob Gothong never veered from the Aboitiz orbit (take note it was Aboitiz Jebsens which was in charge of the operations fleet maintenance of WG & A), the other siblings of Bob Gothong were not satisfied with the state of things in the merged company and in 2001 they asked out and the process of divestment began. Even before the divestment was completed the revived Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated already had the Butuan Bay 1 ready to sail the Manila-Cebu-Nasipit route which was considered lucky for them and where they were very strong in cargo historically. Instead of being paid in ships, the Gothong siblings were paid in cash (while Bob Gothong remained with WG&A) and for this to happen a lot of WG&A ships, both ROPAX and container ships had to be sold to China ship breakers for cash.

With the proceeds in the divestment that did not include Bob Gothong, the Gothong siblings led by Bowen Gothong acquired the big Manila Bay 1 and Subic Bay 1 in 2003 and 2004, respectively which were as big as their old Our Lady of Akita which burned in 2000 as the SuperFerry 6. The two was followed by the Ozamis Bay 1, also in 2004 and by the Cagayan Bay 1, the sister ship of SuperFerry 2 and SuperFerry 5, in 2007. At its peak the revived Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated had a total of 5 ROPAXes (RORO-Passenger ships) plus a valuable wharf in the new reclaimed land in Mandaue adjacent the Cebu International Port or Cebu Pier 6. But though they had five ferries, the revived CAGLI was only able to regain a limited presence in the Visayas-Mindanao routes which were once dominated by them together with the Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Incorporated.

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The revived Gothong Lines did not prove to be very successful. When they re-entered liner shipping, many passengers were already leaving the liners and they were going to the budget airlines and the intermodal buses using short-distance ferry-ROROs. Cargo was also shifting too to the intermodal system because of the high container rates and the hassles of hauling container vans to the Port of Manila from road congestion to criminality and to the rampant mulcting of the so-called “authorities”. In those years it seemed there was a surplus of bottoms which meant excess ships, a possible result of liberalization and incentives programs of President Fidel V. Ramos.

Gothong Lines then became notorious for late departures and arrivals because they gave preference to cargo which earns more than carrying passengers and they were actually never strong in the passenger department. Repeated complaints led the maritime authority MARINA (Maritime Industry Authority) to suspend their permit to carry passengers. With that happening Gothong Lines simply converted their ROPAXes into RORO Cargo ships just carrying container vans and vehicles.

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With weakness in this business too, soon Cagayan Bay 1 and Ozamis Bay 1 soon found themselves laid up in the Gothong wharf in Mandaue and Butuan Bay 1 was sold after an engine explosion and it became the Trans-Asia 5 of Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Incorporated (TASLI). So in the recent years it was only Manila Bay 1 and Subic Bay 1 which were sailing for Gothong Lines and it seemed the two was enough for their limited cargo and routes. However, as RORO Cargo ships they were inefficient because of their big engines. But even then Gothong Lines were offering discounts and cheap rates in general which only showed how overpriced are container rates in the country. Recently, Cagayan Bay 1 and Ozamis Bay 1 were sold to the breakers but their hulls are still in the Gothong wharf in Mandaue as of the writing of this article.

Many speculated what will happen next to Gothong Lines with two inefficient and obsolescent ships and some were even asking if they will soon cease operations as their two ships were already clearly old and might even be too big for their routes. For me, I always look at their wharf which they retained and I know it is very valuable in terms of market value. Actually, the container shipping company established by their brother Bob Gothong, the Gothong Southern Shipping Lines Incorporated (GSSLI) does not even have an equivalent although it is the more progressive and booming company.

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Panglao Bay 1

Recently, two RORO Cargo ships arrived in the Gothong wharf one after another and they were still relatively new by Philippine standards. These are the Panglao Bay 1 and the Dapitan Bay 1 and from the look of things they are the replacements of Subic Bay 1 and Manila Bay 1. Actually, some three months ago as of the writing of this article, the Subic Bay 1 was already pulled by tugs and it seems here destination is a ship breaker somewhere in South Asia. That happened when the Panglao Bay 1 was already sailing for them. It is speculated that the Manila Bay 1 will be disposed of when Dapitan Bay 1 will already be sailing. In reality, it is possible she already has a buyer now.

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The Panglao Bay 1 was built in 1995 and her external dimensions are 128 meters by 22 meters with a Gross Tonnage (GT) of 5,930 in cubic volume and a cargo capacity of 4,946 tons in Deadweight Tonnage (DWT). Meanwhile, the Dapitan Bay 1 is officially a Vehicle Carrier and was built in 1992 and has the external dimensions 145 meters by 21 meters and has a cubic volume of 7,073 tons in GT and a DWT of 4,485 tons. This ship has different specifications depending on the maritime database. Whatever, these two ships are already the ships of Gothong Lines for the future and they look like worthy replacements for the Subic Bay 1 and Manila Bay 1 though they are a little smaller (but the engines are smaller too which is a plus). But then Gothong Lines might have already studied their cargo capacity needs and concluded that the sizes of the two fits them just right.

And so Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. is still fighting back. That is good news as they are the bearer of one of the most storied names in Philippine shipping history.

The Ship Design Conflict Within WG & A

On the first day of the year 1996, the “Great Merger” officially happened. This brought the fleets and all assets of William Lines Inc. (WLI), Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) and Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (ASC) under one single company and management except for some very old ferries of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (the likes of Legazpi) and a some ferries and container ships of Aboitiz Jebsens (that was a separate company) which were the container ships acquired from the Ukraine. This was supposedly a preemptive move so local shipping can compete against the purported entry of foreign competition in the inter-island routes which proved to be a bogey or a false story later. How some old shipping families believed that foreigners can enter with a Anti-Cabotage Law in effect that forbids foreign shipping firms from sailing in local routes is beyond me because repeal of any law passes through Congress and our Congress is usually not keen on passing laws that grants free passage to foreigners and if those three liner and container shipping companies are willing, the regional shipping companies and other companies might not be willing and they can also raise a ruckus. But anyway the unlikely merger happened and a very big shipping company was formed from previously competitors.

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Dona Virginia (Credits to Palawan Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Center and Manu Sarmiento)

Any merger usually results in excess assets and in shipping that includes ships aside from management personnel and employees and logistical assets like containers, container yards and buildings. This was easily obvious with the WG&A merger. Since there were excess liners some of it were sent to its regional subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC) like when the Mabuhay 6 (the Our Lady of Good Voyage) and the Our Lady of Lipa were sent there. Meanwhile, all the cruisers liners were offered for sale. They also tried to dispose old and unreliable ROROs like the Dona Cristina, Don Calvino and the Dona Lili that were formerly regional ferries. Actually even some recent liners were also offered for sale. The total was about 10 and that was already about a third of the combined fleet. That also included a handful of container ships.

I knew it early there was a conflict with the disposal of ships when I had as a cabin mate in SuperFerry 7 the cargo manager of William Lines in North Harbor and he was furious because to him it seems that the liners of William Lines were being targeted. Well, that might have been the unintended result of getting Aboitiz Jebsens as fleet and maintenance manager because they will use their old standard in choosing ships (that company was subsequently renamed to WG&A Jebsens to reflect the changed circumstances).

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Don Calvino (Credits to George Tappan and Gorio Belen)

One has to look into recent history to understand this. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation as a liner company did not acquire any liners from 1974 to 1988 and the one they acquired in 1988 was inconsequential as it was just the small and old cruiser liner Katipunan of Escano Lines which became the Legaspi 1. By that time Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had just a few old liners sailing, a combination of former “FS” ships which were on its last legs and a few old cruisers including the pair acquired from Everett Steamship, the Legazpi and the Elcano which were also clearly obsolete already and getting unreliable. It looked to me that without their partner Jebsens Maritime that was influential in their container shipping (which was actually good), they might not have had their blockbuster SuperFerry series.

If one looks at the SuperFerry series of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation, one will easily see its distinguishing characteristics. They are all ROROs (or more exactly ROPAXes) with car ramps at the bow and at the stern, the container vans are all mounted in trailers, trailer caddies hauled them in a fast manner and if possible the two car ramps are both employed so one is dedicated for loading and the other for unloading. Radios are also employed for communication to orchestrate the movement of the container vans so a trailer caddy hauling a container aboard will have a container being unloaded on the way down and markers are used so loading of container vans will not be helter-skelter which can mean difficulty in unloading a container van in an intermediate port.

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Maynilad by Britz Salih

To remedy their serious lack of liners due to non-purchase in the recent years past, Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and Aboitiz Jebsens designed their liners to have short interport hours as in 2 to 3 hours only, the former the preferred time. In Manila and in the endport, the port hours were also very short. With this kind of operation the SuperFerries had a high number of hours at sea on a weekly basis which meant maximum utilization. While a Sulpicio Lines liner will only have a round-trip voyage if the route is Southern Mindanao, an Aboitiz ship will still have a short trip to the likes of Panay within the same week or else do a twice a week Northern Mindanao voyage. With this style, their 4 SuperFerry ships were in practicality the equal of 5 or 6 ships of the competition. Of course with this kind of use of ships a heavy load of preventive maintenance is needed and that happened to be the forte of Aboitiz Jebsens.

When the Chiongbian and Gothong families agreed to the Aboitiz proposal to have Aboitiz Jebsens as fleet and maintenance manager they should have already known was in store and that is the liners should perform the Aboitiz Jebsens way and that meant those which can’t will fall into disfavor and might be the target for culling because with the Aboitiz Jebsens system a lesser number of liners will be needed to maintain their route system and frequencies. Of course at the start WG & A will try to employ all the liners that were not relegated to their subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation. But then new liners were still coming onstream, the liners William Lines, Gothong Lines and Aboitiz Shipping ordered when they were still separate companies. WG & A created new routes and frequencies but in a short time they realized what cannot be maintained because there are not enough passengers or cargo like the routes to Tacloban and Dipolog (Dapitan actually) and the Manila-Dumaguete-Cotabato and Manila-Cebu-Surigao-Davao routes.

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Tacloban City (Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen)

With that “weak” and “inefficient” ships will be targets for culling aside from the old liners and there was no question that cruiser liners will be first in the firing line. That type cannot carry much cargo and their cargo handling in the interport is longer as cargo booms are not as fast in loading and unloading unlike trailer caddies. So it was no surprise that the cruiser liners Misamis OccidentalTacloban City and Iligan City, formerly of William Lines were almost immediately up for sale. The small ROPAX Zamboanga City was also offered for sale because her engines were big relative to her size and capacity (16,800-horsepower engines) and she had no ramps at the bow. That also went true for the slow Maynilad (14-15 knots only on 16,800 horsepower). The problem with these is they were all former William Lines ship, the reason why some former William Lines people were upset. But they accepted Aboitiz Jebsens as the fleet manager and so that will almost inevitably be the result.

Some lesser liners survived. The “Our Lady” ships of Gothong Lines survived because for their size and capacity their engines were small and that speaks of efficiency and though while a little slower they were fit for the short routes like the northern Panay routes (Dumaguit and Roxas City) or in the periphery like Masbate and Eastern Visayas. The northern Panay route also became the refuge of the Our Lady of Naju, a former Gothong ship which was also a cruiser. The passengers and cargo of the route were not big and so a big cruiser liner like the Dona Virginia will not fit. But of course all that favored the former Gothong ships. It might just have been a quirk of fate and not necessarily because the Gothong representative to the WG & A Board of Directors who is Bob Gothong is close to the Aboitizes. But then I wonder how the Our Lady of Lipa survived. For her size she has big engines and speed was not really needed in the Dumaguit/Roxas City route. Was it because they wanted to show up their competitor the old but beautiful cruiser liner Don Julio of Negros Navigation? I thought when the old cruiser liner Misamis Occidental was refurbished to become the cruiser ship Our Lady of Montserrat, a former William Lines vessel she might have fitted the route (she was even re-engined and became all-airconditioned like the Our Lady of Naju). Was her speed not really enough for the route? Or WG & A wants a ship that is really superior to the competition?

Our Lady of Banneux

Credits to Keppel Cebu and Ken Ledesma

It was not surprising then that in the early merger years that former William Lines officers and employees would think it was only their vessels which was on the firing line or chopping block.

The beautiful SuperFerry 11 which was fielded after the merger was also not that favored. Her engines are just about okay for her size, she has the speed but then like the Zamboanga City she has no car ramps at the bow because she also came from A” Lines of Japan. She was also destined for William Lines if the merger did not happen. The beautiful Maynilad would have easily been a SuperFerry in terms of size and accommodations if not for her grave lack of speed. Being excess later the SuperFerry 11 and Maynilad were passed to Cebu Ferries Corporation and they were the biggest ships that company ever had. That was after WG & A created an entirely new route for them, the Manila-Ormoc-Nasipit route which in first report was good. But then along the years WG & A and successor company Aboitiz Transport System (ATS) developed a reputation for being very soft in holding and maintaining routes. In Cebu Ferries the SuperFerry 11 was renamed to Our Lady of Banneux and the Maynilad was renamed to Our Lady of Akita 2 after her top passenger deck was removed. The two happened to be ex-William Lines ships also! Although not clearly disfavored (as she made the SuperFerry grade), the Our Lady of Banneux which can run at up to 19 knots had a grounding incident in Canigao Channel from which she never recovered again.

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The ship Zamboanga by Wilben Santos

So actually the William liners were the great casualties of the merger due to redundancy and incompatibility and that was because they were unlike the original SuperFerry liners and they simply cannot make the SuperFerry grade (well, just like the former “Our Lady” ships of Gothong Lines only one of those made the SuperFerry grade, the former Our Lady of Akita which became the SuperFerry 6). Of course their former Mabuhay 1 and Mabuhay 3 which made the SuperFerry grade lived longer. The former Mabuhay 2 was not lucky as she was hit by fire early which led to complete total loss. In the longer run only the Mabuhay 1 and Mabuhay 3 survived and the Mabuhay 3 as SuperFerry 8 was even leased to Papua New Guinea because of the surplus of liners in WG & A.

The liners of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) were more lucky as they found niche routes and small engines played into their favor. Moreover many of the former Gothong Lines ships were in regional routes and they lived long there including their former small liners the Our Lady of Fatima and the Our Lady of Lourdes which were sister ships. That even included the venerable Our Lady of the Rule and their old Our Lady of Guadalupe which has unreliable engines and I even wonder how she lasted so long. In the regional routes some former ships of William Lines survived like the Our Lady of Good Voyage and the Our Lady of Manaoag.

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Dona Lili (Credits to PNA, Phil. Daily Express and Gorio Belen)

When the Chiongbian family of William Lines divested in 2003 only 2 of their former liners remained in WG & A aside from a few container ships. They were paid off in cash from the passenger and container ships that were scrapped. There were still many Gothong ships in the fleet of WG & A when they divested as most survived the culling but they preferred newly-acquired ships when they restarted independent operations.

And that was the story of the ship design conflict in WG & A which have been one of the reasons why the “Great Merger” unraveled so soon.

The Mabuhay 1/SuperFerry 10

When Sulpicio Lines fielded the great liner Filipina Princess in the premier route to Cebu in 1988, their main competitor William Lines had to suffer silently for several years. That was because sticking to their old Japanese agent that send them ferries from A” Line, they cannot roll out an equivalent and their liner and new flagship Sugbu that was fielded to the Cebu route in 1990 does not begin to match the Sulpicio Lines flagship (although in actual passengers carried, she can according to a research). And to think in their last match-up in this primary route of the country at the start of the 1980’s, their flagship Dona Virginia, which was the biggest and fastest liner in the country then was at least the equal of the Sulpicio Lines flagship Philippine Princess.

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Sun Flower 5 (from Funikichemurase)

In 1992, William Lines was able to field the Maynilad but although she was impressive and modern-looking she was still not the match of the Filipina Princess especially with her great deficit in speed as she was really a slow ship. In 1993, however, William Lines was able to acquire one of the legendary Sun Flower ships from Blue Highway Line, the Sun Flower 5. It had everything a great liner should possess — the size, the beautiful looks, the luxurious interiors and the speed. It was more than a match for the Filipina Princess which suddenly looked dated by comparison. But Sulpicio Lines will not be denied and they also fielded one of the Sun Flower liners from Blue Highway Line, too, the Sun Flower 11. This liner was bigger, just as well-appointed but a little slower. This ship became the Princess of the Orient and so a great battle of flagships began again in the premier route to Cebu.

The Sun Flower 5 was built in 1973 by the Kurushima Dockyard Company in their Onishi shipyard. She was the third in the Sun Flower series of luxury ships which were all sister ships. However, Sun Flower 11, the future Princess of the Orient, was a little different from the rest. She was a stretched version and she had two center funnels in a line. Two later ships, meanwhile, were shortened versions of the series.

Sun Flower 5 was exactly 185.0 meters in length over-all and her beam was 24.0 meters. Her length between perpendiculars was only 170.0 meters. That difference can be gleaned in her long bow that nearly resembles a clipper bow. She was 12,710 in gross tons, her cubic measure, and her deadweight tonnage (DWT), her cargo carrying capacity, was 3,231 tons. The ship had three passenger decks, two car decks and a mezzanine deck for sedans. Her navigation deck also served as the sun deck and accessible to passengers. She had the permanent ship ID IMO 7302108.

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Mabuhay 1 by Britz Salih

The ship’s RORO ramps were already of the modern design. It was no longer located at the bow which was already deemed as more dangerous then as continuous pounding of the waves over the years along with corrosion were already shown to weaken bow ramps. A frontal collision could also prove calamitous for the ship as shown by experiences. What she had were a pair of front quarter ramps on the port and on the starboard sides. She also had a pair of quarter ramps at the stern. That was a very advantageous set-up because docked sideways she can load and unload simultaneously. Docked stern-wise or Mediterranean style, she can also load and unload at the same time. She had three-piece hydraulic ramps which can always be straightened full-out and long, whether it is high tide or low tide, whether she is docked in a high pier or low pier.

Since her front ramps were no longer located at the bow, it no longer needed to be oval. Instead, it was sleek which gave her a more modern look. She had a single center funnel which also served as the stern mast. To complete the modernity, she was a pioneer among liners in using the new and more efficient bulbous stem. This breaks and guides the waters around the ship better so giving the ships’ speed a little boost. Or put it in another way, for the same speed, a little less fuel will be needed. She was equipped with four Hitachi diesel engines with a total output of 26,080 horsepower. This was coupled to two synchronizers in order to turn the two propellers. She had a top speed of 25.5 knots when new which was really fast for that time. To make the voyage more comfortable in rough waters, she was equipped with fin stabilizers.

The original operator of Sun Flower 5 was the Nihon Kosoku Ferry which was under the Terukuni group. She plied the Tokyo-Nachikatsuura-Kochi route. However, the Oil Crisis of 1973 hit the group hard and Terukuni Kaiun went bankrupt but Nihon Shikoku Ferry continued operating. In 1984, the Nihon Kosoku Ferry sold the Sun Flower 5 to her builder, the Kurushima Dock Company and chartered them back in order to continue operating. But Kurushima Dock Company also collapsed and in 1990, the Nihon Enkai Ferry acquired Sun Flower 5 and fielded her in the Osaka-Kagoshima route. In 1991, Sun Flower 5 became the Sun Flower Osaka. Then Nihon Enkai Ferry changed the company’s name into Blue Highway Line.

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SuperFery 10 by Chief Ray Smith

When she came to the Philippines for William Lines in 1993, Sun Flower Osaka was renamed officially as the Wililines Mabuhay 1. But almost nobody called her by her full name and she was simply Mabuhay 1 to most. She started the William Lines series of luxury liners that were beautiful, well-appointed, fast and with good service to match. And with her characteristics, she was really a good and proper progenitor plus a worthy flagship.

In refitting here, her superstructure was largely left untouched and with such, her beautiful lines remained intact. Moreover, William Lines did not try to cram her with passenger accommodations. So for her size and for the standards of the day, her passenger capacity of 2,034 was relatively low. It was just a little over half of the passenger capacity of her main rival Princess of the Orient. Maybe with her intended routes of Manila-Cebu and Manila-Iloilo only with no Mindanao connections, her passenger capacity might have just enough.

The ship had plenty of passenger space as a result and so she had features like conference and function rooms that take up space but which will be unused most of the time. She was intended to be sold as a “floating hotel” where meetings or small conventions can be held and so she has utilities like fax and telephone services and xerox machines. That was not a far-off sell then because liner rates in those days were comparable to hotel rates when the free food was factored in. It was just like staying in a hotel with free conveyance to one’s destination in province. Actually, with this idea, I was able to convince a friend to just take the Princess of the Pacific as their honeymoon suite instead of a hotel in Baguio.

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SuperFerry 10 by Britz Salih

In her sun deck, Mabuhay 1 had a small swimming pool and a wading pool too for children. The sun deck also hosted a playground for children. If that was not one’s taste, there were also video games in the arcade and movies in the theater. For those who liked it “hotter”, one can belt a tune in the videokes or gyrate in the disco. If that was not enough to work a sweat there was also a physical fitness center. However, as a ship feature I noticed that this one was barely patronized. The fitness craze was not yet “on” then for Pinoys. Cruising should be laid back and fun, wasn’t it?

For those who were in a hurry and forgot their grooming for an important meeting or interview, the beauty and grooming salons took care of that. Those in need of relaxation or easing of body pains can go the shipboard massage parlor. The ship had many lounges where passengers can while their time and this included the ship’s many restaurants. This ship with its high net tonnage to passenger ratio had many spaces where one can walk around in the softness of the carpeted floors. The poop decks also served as promenade areas and observation decks. One of the places to visit then for the artistically inclined was the art gallery, a supportive gesture of William Lines to the budding artists of Cebu.

In refitting here, the ship’s gross tonnage (GT) increased to 13,288. She had a local net tonnage (NT) of 5,480 but her deadweight tonnage (DWT) increased a lot to 7,827 tons. She carried the Philippine Call Sign DUHN3.

For William Lines, she sailed to Cebu twice a week and once a week for Iloilo. She took 20 hours for the 393-nautical mile cruise to Cebu and 18 hours for the 343-nautical mile cruise to Iloilo. Locally, her speed was down to 20 knots but that was still fast by local standards. She had an overnight lay-over in Manila every Saturday. Lay-overs like that were very welcome rest to the crew and an opportunity to them to make visits.

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SuperFerry 10 by Chief Ray Smith

Mabuhay 1 did not have that many accommodation classes unlike one will expect for a ship this size. The reason, I surmise, is they respected and used many of the cabin lay-out in Japan. There were four classes in cabin setting, the Special Suite, the Suite, the First Class Cabin for 4 and the De Luxe Cabin for 2 (First Class Cabins have their own Toilet and Baths while De Luxe Cabins only have a wash). There was also the De Luxe (these has better, semi-private bunks), Tourist and Economy. The fare of the highest class was three-and-a-half times the fare of the lowest class.

All the passage classes were entitled to free meals like in the rest of the liner shipping companies before except for Aboitiz Shipping Corporation where meals were not free (but their fares are correspondingly a little less). There were three restaurants according to class group –– the First Class restaurant, the Tourist restaurant and the Economy restaurant. Suite passengers have the option of being served in their cabins. The fare or meal in each class varies a lot along with the plates and table linen as in from none to true restaurant type. It was not eat-all-you-can for rice in the Economy restaurant.

She did not sail long for William Lines because the merger of William Lines, Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) and Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (ASC) happened which produced the super-big (for that time) shipping company William, Gothong & Aboitiz or WG&A Philippines in the first day of1996 (but the agreement was sealed in late 1995). In the combined fleet, she was renamed as the SuperFerry 10. “10” maybe because that signifies perfect or highest. They cannot give the “1” to her because the numbers of the original SuperFerries were not changed and there was already a SuperFerry 1.

There was a question which was the flagship of the WG&A fleet. The big, new ship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation which arrived in 1996 (and which was originally meant to be the new flagship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had there been no merger) was given the number “12”. Initially, both the SuperFerry 10 and SuperFerry 12 held the premier Manila-Cebu, v.v. route which was the indication of which is the flagship. SuperFerry 10, however, is bigger than SuperFerry 12, she was no less luxurious or stunning and their speeds were about equal. They might have been actually co-flagships.

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SuperFerry 10 model (Credits to WG&A and Triztan Mallada)

In WG&A, her accommodation class designations were changed. It was now Economy, Tourist, Business Class, Stateroom and Suite. The last two had to be purchased now on a per-room basis and no longer by person basis. There were also changes in the passage rates. The Economy class became more expensive but the highest classes got cheaper.

In later years, SuperFerry 10 was removed from the Manila-Cebu route and she was paired in rotation with SuperFerry 1 and SuperFerry 8 in the express Manila-Iloilo-General Santos City-Davao route. Later, she was paired with SuperFerry 6 in that route and in other routes like the Manila-Cebu-Cagayan de Oro route. All three had about the same passenger capacity and size and about the same speed too, the bases then for the pairing practice of WG&A. The pairing was a way to maintain the same Manila departures for long routes without resorting to the use of the ship on a short voyage (like a Manila-Iloilo or a Manila-Bacolod route) for the duration of the week. This was most acute in the Davao route where one complete voyage takes five days.

After six years, the merger of the William, Gothong and Aboitiz shipping companies broke apart. The Gothong and Chiongbian (of William Lines) families pulled out from WG&A one after the other. To pay off the divestments, ships (both passenger and cargo) had to be liquidated and sold. This started the one-way trip of WG&A and Cebu Ferries Corporation or CFC (their regional subsidiary) ships to the ship breakers and mainly in China. And, sadly, these were ships that were still in good condition and perfectly sailing as WG&A was really good in ship maintenance through WG&A Jebsens which was the former (and later after the break-up) Aboitiz Jebsens.

Among the casualties of these liquidations, very sadly, was Mabuhay 1 or SuperFerry 10. Together with the Our Lady of Akita 2 (the former Maynilad) and the Our Lady of Naju, they were sent as a batch to a China ship breaker. She was broken up on September of 2002 when she was still a good and reliable ship and just sailing for 9 years here. I just wonder why the divesting partners were not just paid in ships. That move would have been able to preserve our good and great liners instead of them becoming ugly scrap metal.

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From http://www.greenshipspotting.com

And that was the inglorious end of the beautiful and great liner Mabuhay 1, a casualty of a wrong turn in Philippine shipping which was the “Great Merger” that in the end only resulted in the liquidation of two great shipping companies. If that did not happen, I am pretty sure the Mabuhay 1 and the William Lines fleet would have been living until the new millennium and who knows, maybe until now.

The First Liner Built in the Philippines After World War II

In 1957, President Carlos P. Garcia ascended to Malacanang after the death of President Ramon Magsaysay and thereafter he won the Philippine presidency in his own right. While President Magsaysay worked very closely with the Americans and relied on them for the economic development of the country, President Garcia rolled out his “Filipino First” policy. Under that policy, he tried to promote Philippine industries and supported Filipino industrialists, to the consternation of some Americans used to having their way in the country, given first preference and who treated Filipinos like their wards.

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Keel-laying of Hull No.1 (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

Among the industries President Garcia tried to push forward was shipbuilding (shipbuilding is selling steel too and on the same track President Garcia encouraged steel-making which resulted in the establishment of IISMI or Iligan Integrated Steel Mills Inc. which later became the National Steel Corporation or NSC). That made sense, at least on paper, as our country is an archipelago and hence we need a lot of ships. From an enterprise concerned with refitting and lengthening of ships (where before this was done in Hongkong), NASSCO (National Shipyards & Steel Corporation) went into shipbuilding and Hull No. 1 was laid in the NASSCO shipyard (the Bataan National Shipyard) in Mariveles, Bataan in 1957.

Lacking the experience and equipment maybe, the ship took too long to complete. Well, we are a country where engineering is still in infancy. We are not a country where work is fast and based on a production line and our craftsmen are not used to mass production. That is what we get by being proud of our jeepneys and our talyers. Yes, it can fabricate anything but the speed and quality is low. Essentially, we are a country of fabricators.

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Hull No. 1 as the General Roxas (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

Maybe there was a problem of timing and priority too. In the time Hull No. 1 was under construction it was also the same time that reparations ships were beginning to come to the Philippines because the final peace treaty between Japan and her victim countries was already signed. Reparations ships came from the reparations payment of Japan as settlement of the damages she inflicted because of the war she launched in the Pacific in 1941 (but it was just basically payment for public works and infrastructure damage and did not include personal damages which were never paid by Japan unlike Germany).

Hull No. 1 was financed by a loan from the government-owned Development Bank of the Philippines to the tune of P2.5 million or a little over $ 1 million dollars then. Hull No. 1 was launched on July 1959 and completed as a passenger-cargo ship in May 1960 and she became the ship General Roxas of the General Shipping Company. This company previously just operated a fleet of former “FS” ships before which were cargo ships converted into passenger-cargo use. The General Roxas was way ahead in size, quality and comfort compared to the ex-”FS” ships and she was probably the flagship of General Shipping Company which operated routes to Palawan, Romblon, Masbate, Bicol, the Visayas and Northern Mindanao.

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General Roxas when newly-fielded (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

The General Roxas’ external measurements were 84.7 meters by 12.3 meters by 6.7 meters in L x B x D with a Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) of 1,757 tons. Her Net Register Tonnage (NRT) was 968 and her load capacity in Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) was 1,544 tons. The ship was equipped by a single Uraga engine of 2,200 horsepower which gave her a top sustained speed of 13.5 knots when still new. The General Roxas has two sister ships built also by NASSCO and these were the General del Pilar (later the Mactan of Compania Maritima) and the Governor B. Lopez of Southern Lines Incorporated. The latter was built in the same yard and almost simultaneously with General Roxas.

The General Roxas’ hull steel, engine and navigational equipment all came from Japan. The ship had air-conditioning and in those days it was practically what defined what is a luxury liner. Her First Class accommodations, lounges and dining rooms were all air-conditioned. This ship had three passenger decks and for handling cargo she had booms in the front section or bow of the ship. Cargo was stowed below the passenger decks and above and on the engine deck. The ship is a cruiser ship (it was not yet the time of the ROROs which can load vehicles through ramps) with a high prow. The ship later was assigned the IMO Number 5128015.

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A miniature to show underwater portion of General Roxas (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

In General Shipping Company, she was the second General Roxas as the company had an earlier ship named General Roxas too and that was a former “FS” ship (and that is the beauty of IMO Numbers as it can differentiate ships with the same names). In General Shipping Corporation the first route of General Roxas was Manila-Iloilo-Pulupandan-Iligan. Iligan then was beginning to boom because of the Maria Cristina power plant which provided cheap hydroelectric power and Iloilo and Pulupandan ports served two big and progressive islands.

But despite two new passenger-cargo ships and a healthy fleet, in 1965, after a boardroom dispute General Shipping Company abandoned inter-island shipping and moved into international shipping. Their local fleet and routes were then divided between Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and the former regional shipping company Sweet Lines Incorporated which then became a national liner company (however, the new ship General del Pilar became the Mactan of Compania Maritima). Among the ships acquired by Sweet Lines was the General Roxas which became the Sweet Rose in the new company.

In the new liner fleet of Sweet Lines (to distinguish it from the regional fleet of Sweet Lines which mainly had the small ex-”F” ships), the Sweet Rose was the biggest and best ship. However, the tactic then of Sweet Lines was to field their ships not on the primary routes and so Sweet Rose was assigned the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route. Right after fielding Sweet Rose was the newest, the best and fastest ship in the route that only had ex-”FS” ships before and this helped stabilize the company in the national routes for she then dominated that route.

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Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen

The ship’s next route was Manila-Cebu-Iligan-Ozamis route when the Sweet Grace, a brand-new ship from West Germany arrived. That only confirmed that the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route was the primary route of Sweet Lines before the arrival of the fast cruiser liner Sweet Faith in 1970 and Sweet Rose was the flagship of the company before 1968 when Sweet Grace came.

In the early 1970’s, the Sweet Rose was returned to the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route in a pairing with the Sweet Grace. That indicated the level of importance Sweet Lines assigned to the route which was not high in the priority of other shipping companies (well, before William Lines entered the route with their fast cruiser liner Tacloban City in 1975) and that jeopardized a bread and butter route for Sweet Lines as the Tacloban City was a faster and superior ship.

The Sweet Rose stayed on the route though but she now called in Masbate instead of Catbalogan leaving Sweet Grace to serve that port. However, she was assigned again the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban route after Sweet Lines invaded Mindanao routes outside Northern Mindanao and Sweet Grace did the Manila-Cebu-Zamboanga route.

Sweet Rose never left the Catbalogan/Tacloban route again but in the 1980’s she began having unreliability in her engine and this trouble even reached the authorities. Engines of her period were not really that tough and she had the bad luck of having been equipped with an Uraga engine which was not a top of the line Japanese engine. She too had difficulty coping with Tacloban City and the Dona Angelina, the ship used by Sulpicio Lines when it entered the Catbalogan/Tacloban route just before Tacloban City came. The Dona Angelina which came from Europe also had air-conditioning like the Tacloban City. As a footnote, Sweet Rose also went up against her sister ship in the route when the Mactan was fielded there by Compania Maritima. That was before Mactan sank in 1973.

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Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

In the great political and economic crisis that started with the Aquino assassination in 1983, Sweet Lines culled old liners and the Sweet Rose was among them. Others were the former European ships Sweet Bliss, Sweet Life and Sweet Love, ships they used in the Davao route via the eastern seaboard of Mindanao. That also included Sweet Sound which was a former “FS” ship. It was no dishonor to Sweet Lines because a lot a ships were cut up in this period when the industrial economy shrank and many shipping companies collapsed or shut down like the former No. 1 Compania Maritima.

Sweet Lines was broken up just locally in Acuario Marketing, a local ship-breaking specialist in Navotas in 1984. She was just 24 years old then but actually she was able to outlast her two sister ships. Maybe she was not just good enough for a 30-year service like the former ships from Europe and Japan (the Tacloban City which was built in 1962 lasted until the late 1990’s but then she has the better Mitsubishi engine). The Dona Angelina also lasted over 30 years of sailing.

Sweet Rose is a distant memory now but she holds a record that won’t ever be broken and that is being the first liner ever built in the country after World War II. She was also one of the ships that brought Sweet Lines to her peak in the late 1970’s.

The China-built LCTs

It seems that just like in buses, in due time China-made LCTs might rule our waves just like China-made buses are now beginning to rule the Luzon highways. The process will not be that sudden though because ships last longer than buses and it is much more costlier to acquire ships. We too have that attachment to our old ships and we don’t suddenly just let them go. But then who knows if some crazy people try to cull our old ferries? I am sure many of the replacements of them will be Cargo RORO LCTs and ROPAX LCTs from China. They are simply that cheap and the terms are good. One thing sure though is the replacements will not be local-built ships. Local-builds generally cost much more than China-builds and the price of the ship is a key decision point.

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A Meiling LCT a.k.a. deck loading ship

A decade ago, China-built LCTs were practically unknown in the country as we were building our own LCTs in many shipyards around the country. Then the first palpable show of LCTs happened early this decade was when a lot of brand-new LCTs suddenly appeared and anchored for long in North Mactan Channel waiting for business. Some of these were rumored to be destined for the mines of Surigao which was then booming. That area already had China-owned and -built LCTs to carry ores to China just like some other provinces which allowed black sand mining had China-owned LCTs docking. But then here, I am talking of China-built LCTs that are locally-operated or owned. However, the Surigao mining boom when world metal prices spiked a decade ago because of China demand was one of our key introduction to China-built LCTs.

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Row of LCTs in North Mactan Channel

Then the demand for ore of China suddenly weakened and so those brand-new China-built LCTs that showed in Mactan Channel owned by Cebu Sea Charterers (of the renowned Premship group), Broadway One Shipping and Concrete Solutions Incorporated went into regular cargo moving. Later, the two companies plus others like Primary Trident Solutions (owner of the Poseidon series of LCTs), and Adnama Mining Resources which also acquired China-made LCTs went into Cargo RORO LCT operations like the Cebu Sea Charterers which meant conveying rolling cargo or vehicles between islands. The Cebu to Leyte routes was the first staple of the Cargo RORO LCTs. Cargo RORO LCTs were also fielded in the key Matnog-Allen and Liloan-Lipata routes to ease backlogs of trucks waiting to be loaded. They became the augmentations to short-distance ferry-ROROs in heavily crowded routes during peak season or when there are disruptions after typhoons.

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Cargo RORO LCTs in Carmen port

The old overnight passenger-shipping companies of Cebu more than noticed the emergence of the Cargo RORO LCTs and felt its threat to their trade and so they also joined the bandwagon in acquiring China-built LCTs. Roble Shipping first chartered LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation before buying their own and those were China-made LCTs. However, it was Lite Ferries that made a bet in acquiring new China LCTs to be converted into passenger-cargo LCTs after some modifications. Outside of Cebu the shipping company 2GO, under the name NN+ATS and brand “Sulit Ferries” chartered China-built LCTs from Concrete Solutions Incorporated, which are the Poseidon LCTs for use in their Matnog-Allen route.

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A ROPAX LCT operated by Sulit Ferries (LCT Poseidon 26)

Meanwhile, LCTs were also tried by Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping as container ships. When they started they also chartered LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation like Roble Shipping. They were successful in using LCTs as container ships and they were always full (and maybe to the chagrin of the CHA-RO messiah Enrico Basilio). This mode might be a no-frills way of moving goods through container vans but it is actually the cheaper way as LCTs are cheap to operate. Later, Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping also acquired their own LCTs with the blessings of Asian Shipping Corporation. Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping might have been successful in showing a new mode of transport but the self-proclaimed “shipping experts” never took notice of them nor studied their craft and mode.

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Brizu, a container carrier LCT by Ocean Transport

Asian Shipping Corporation (ASC) which really has a lot of LCTs for charter and probably with the most number in the country started by building their own LCTs right in their yards in Navotas just like some other smaller shipping had their LCTs built in Metro Manila wharves. Asian Shipping Corporation have not completely turned their back of own-built LCTs but more and more they are acquiring China-built LCTs which come out cheaper than local-builds. Shipbuilding on the lower technology level like LCT-building is at times can also be viewed too as selling of steel and China is the cheapest seller of steel in the whole world. Their engines and marine equipment are also on cheap end.

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ASC Ashley of Asian Shipping Corporation

Another big operator of China-built LCTs that must be noted is the Royal Dragon Ocean Transport which owns the Meiling series of LCTs. Many of their LCTs can be found in Surigao serving the mines there. Right now, China-built LCTs are already mushrooming in Central and Eastern Visayas but in other parts of the country they are still practically unknown except in Manila or when passing by or calling. Ironically, it might actually be a typhoon, the super-typhoon “Yolanda” which devastated Leyte that might have given the China LCTs a big break because they were used in Leyte and in the eastern seaboard routes (in San Bernardino Strait and Surigao Strait) when there a big need for sea transport after the typhoon and their potential was exposed. The super-typhoon also showed the need for Cargo RORO LCTs separate from short-distance ferry-ROROs.

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Owned LCTs by Roble Shipping

Ocean Transport of Cebu, as stated earlier, now also have their own China LCTs to haul container vans from Manila after initially chartering from Asian Shipping Corporation. The same is true for Roble Shipping which initially chartered Cargo RORO LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation for Cebu-Leyte use. Now other Cebu passenger shipping companies are also beginning to acquire their China LCTs. And that even includes Medallion Transport. Actually there are so many LCTs now from China that don’t have a name but just sports a number (i.e. LCT 308, etc.). But among Cebu overnight ferry companies, it is actually Lite Ferries who is betting the biggest on China LCTs that carries passengers too after some modifications.

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PMI-3, a Cargo RORO LCT of Premium Megastructures Inc.

In the following years I still see a lot of China-built LCTs coming and that will include LCTs that have provisions for passenger accommodations. If the government cull the old (but still good) ferries, I bet that type will suddenly mushroom especially in the short-distance routes. But of course it will not have the speed nor the comfort of the basic, short-distance ferry-ROROS. But who knows if that is actually the wish of some decision-making foggy old bureaucrats who don’t ride ships anyway? They will just be giving China yards and engine makers a big break. And a final note – LCTs from China are also called as “deck loading ships”. So don’t get confused.

Now let us just see how these China imports grow in size and importance.

Camotes Sea and Bohol Strait Are Graveyards of Failed Shipping Companies (Part 1)

The Camotes Sea and Bohol Strait are two of the busiest shipping lanes in the country. These are the seas connecting Leyte and Bohol to the trade and commercial center of the central part of the country which is Cebu. Ships from Cebu going to Samar, Masbate, Mindanao and even Luzon have to pass through these seas also along with the foreign ships calling in Cebu. Over-all, the related Camotes Sea and Bohol Strait as sea connections are only rivaled by Manila Bay and the Verde Island Passage in the density of ships sailing and the three are the busiest shipping corridors in the country. There are many shipping companies operating here, both ferry and cargo. However, in terms of absolute numbers, this is also the area with the most number of failed shipping companies in the last 15 or 20 years when a Ph.D. from Philippine Institute of Development Studies (PIDS) said there is no competition or there is no effective competition or there is just mild competition in most routes here. Of course, she was definitely wrong if we sift through the evidence and among the most persuasive of evidences will be the number of shipping companies that failed. Why would they fail if there is no or only mild or no significant competition? Did they commit suicide? Of course not!

The greatest failure in this area is, of course, the big Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC), the subsidiary of the giant merged shipping company WG&A Philippines which was probably the biggest regional shipping company ever. Their old ships were gone and dead before their time is up because those were sent to the hangmen of ships, the shipbreakers. Their newer ferries, the MV Cebu Ferry 1, the MV Cebu Ferry 2 and the MV Cebu Ferry 3 (the Cebu Ferry series) were transferred to the successor company 2GO Travel and those ferries were sent to Batangas and they are jokingly called the “Batangas Ferries” because they were no longer in Cebu.

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Cebu Ferry 1 leaving Cebu for Batangas

Once upon a time, this company ruled the roost here when they had so many ferries, many of which were hand-me-down liners or equal to liners in caliber. These hand-me-downs were actually much better and bigger than the overnight ferries of their competition. Their only drawback were their big and generally thirsty engines which was needed for speed requirement of the liner routes. Before the Cebu Ferries series came, some ten ships that passed to the Cebu Ferries Corporation fleet were sent to the breakers and most of them were still sailing good when they were sent to the cutters.

For more on this shipping company, I have a separate article:

https://psssonline.wordpress.com/2016/05/15/the-grand-start-of-cebu-ferries-corporation-cfc/

Probably the next biggest casualty in this area is the Palacio Lines (a.k.a. FJP Lines) which had its origins in Western Samar. In their heyday they had routes from Cebu to Bantayan island, Masbate, Northern Samar, Western Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Siquijor, Negros Oriental and Misamis Occidental. They lost some routes because of paradigm changes like in Bantayan island when they were torpedoed by the short-distance ferry-ROROs from Hagnaya (which is a much shorter route than their route from Cebu City). Palacio Lines was slow in betting on ROROs and they did not immediately see that the paradigm will shift to the intermodal system (as they still acquired cruisers even in the early 1990s).

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Don Martin Sr. 8 not sailing before she was sold to breakers

Later, there were complaints about their ships which progressively got older and less reliable and soon competition was outstripping them. And finally the pressure from these (like Cokaliong Shipping Lines and Lite Ferries) ultimately did them in. They stopped sailing and soon they sold their remaining ferries one by one. This included their MV Bantayan (sold to Orlines Sea-Land Transport), MV Calbayog (sold to Starlite Ferries) and MV Don Martin Sr. 6 (supposedly sold to a Lucena concern). Meanwhile, their biggest ship, the MV Don Martin Sr. 8 was sent to the breakers. And the cruiser ships of the company were even laid up earlier. Their cargo ship, the MV Don Martin which was the first vessel of the company was also sold and this ended up with Quincela Shipping in Manila.

Former fleet: Calbayog, Bantayan, Don Martin Sr. Don Martin Sr. 3, Don Martin Sr. 6, Don Martin Sr. 7, Don Martin Sr. 8, Don Martin

The Rose Shipping Company which is also known as Vicente Atilano (after the owner) is probably the next most prominent loser in the shipping wars in this place. Originally they were a Zamboanga del Sur shipping company from the old town of Margosatubig. Leaving that area, they tried their luck here and they fully engaged in the wars in the Leyte routes especially against Aboitiz Shipping Corporation. One of their weakness, however, is their total reliance on cruiser ferries. Being obsolete, this type of ship progressively cannot compete with the ROROs in revenues (but not in comfort and service). Rolling cargo revenue is actually bigger and more significant than passenger revenues. They then stopped sailing and most of their ships had no takers even if for sale because almost nobody looks around for cruisers anymore. Their only notable ship sales were the MV April Rose which went to Atienza Shipping Lines in Manila and the MV Yellow Rose which went to Medallion Transport. Their MV Cherry Rose and MV Pink Rose were broken up while their MV White Rose and MV Tiffany Rose are missing and are presumed to be broken up. Their MV Pink Rose and MV Red Rose can’t also be found now and in all likelihood have been scrapped too by now.

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The Pink Rose in her last days

Maypalad Shipping which was earlier known as K&T Shipping is one of the older shipping companies in the area. They have disparate routes from as far as Lanao del Norte, Leyte, Southern Leyte and Samar. They seemed to have never really recovered from the sinking of their MV Kalibo Star which was their newest ship then and progressively their ships got older. They were also victims of routes that bit by bit weakened because of competition from other routes (like the Liloan route losing to the Bato and Hilongos routes and the Tacloban route losing to the Ormoc and Baybay routes). In due time, they had no good routes left and their ships were also unable to compete in the bigger routes.

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Part of the Maypalad Shipping fleet after it ceased operations

Among these bigger failures, it is Maypalad Shipping which has a fleet of cargo ships but upon being defunct all of these got anchored too in Mactan Channel. Their MV Cebu Star and MV Guiuan were broken up now while their MV Cabalian Star, MV Leyte Star and MV Tacloban Star could all also be gone now. Their MV Samar Star is the only sure extant ship now along with one freighter which may be too far gone now. Three other cargo ships of their wer also broken or sold to breakers and their LCT is also missing.

Roly Shipping and Godspeed Shipping and Ernesto Alvarado are actually legal-fiction entities of the other. They had routes before to Leyte and Bohol. But being a cruiser ferry company, they slow lost to the ROROs since this type of ship earns more revenues because the rolling cargo revenue is such that they can actually afford not to carry passengers as shown by the Cargo RORO LCTs. Some of their earlier ships were gone a long time ago (the MV Flo Succour, the MV Reyjumar-A, the MV Isabel 2 and the MV Tubigon Ferry). The tried to fight back with fast cruisers, the MV Roly 2, the MV Mega Asiana and the MV Tagbilaran Ferry but ultimately they lost too and quit a few years ago when the banks seized their ships and were laid up. The pressure of tightening competition was simply too great and the revenues were not enough to sustain operations. There were also allegations of internal rot.

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Mega Asiana and Tagbilaran Ferry cannibalized

Jadestar Shipping is another cruiser ferry company which just had a single route, the Cebu-Tubigon route. Then the ROROs of Lite Shipping came to Tubigon, four schedules in all daily. With a full load of rolling cargo these ships will not need any passengers to earn. And then a new paradigm came, the cheap but not-so-speedy but fastcrafts of the legal-fiction entities Sea Highway Carrier and SITI Inter-island and Cargo Services which were more popularly known as Star Crafts. Squeezed by two better competitors, Jadestar Shipping found they could not sustain operations and quit a few years ago (in connection with this, Island Shipping which also operated cruiser ships in the Cebu-Tubigon route also quit showing cruisers cannot beat ROROs).

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Jadestar Seis now in Ibnerizam Shipping fleet in Zamboanga

Some of the ships Jadestar Shipping were sold to other shipping companies like the MV Jadestar Tres which went to Wellington Lim and became a cargo ship and the MV Jadestar Seis which went to the Ibnerizam Shipping of Zamboanga). Two of their ships was broken up earlier and this were the MV Jadestar Nueve and MV Jadestar Doce. Head-on, the cruisers can only compete now in Zamboanga (but then that is another situation).

Former fleet: Jadestar, Jadestar Dos (cargo), Jadestar Tres, Jadestar Seis, Jadestar Nueve, Jadestar Doce.

Kinswell Shipping made a big splash when they started in 2002 because what they introduced were China-built vessels that were not of the usual design or hull material. Some of these are actually very small and not bigger than boats and were a little queer. But their Medium Speed Crafts (MSCs) could have been winners had they been handled well. One sold one, the MV Gloria G-1 is sailing well for Gabisan Shipping and the comparable Star Crafts were also successful.

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The derelict Kinswell boats

They tried many routes and the name of the ships reflected where they were sailing. The smallest ones were the first to quit sailing as it found no great patronage because they simply bobbed too much in unsettled seas. Now they are jut anchored near the Tayud shipyards. Being fiberglass they will not sink or rust and so up to this day those remain as floating markers outside Cansaga Bay. All their three bigger ships, the MSCs were sold, the MV Kinswell, MV Kinswell II and lastly, the MV Kinswell Cebu. They have no more sailing ships left.

Former fleet: Kinswell, Kinswell II, Kinswell Cebu (2), Kins Bantayan, Kins Ormoc, Kins Danao, Cadiznon 3, Kins Camotes.

San Juan Shipping of Leyte is another hard-luck company. They were doing relatively well with their first two ferries, the MV Sr. San Jose, a beautiful cruiser and the MV John Carrier-1, a small ferry even though competition to the Leyte route was already stiffening. Now, I wonder how they were sweet-talked into purchasing the MV Dona Cristina of the Cebu Ferries Corporation. This overnight ferry was a former regional ship of the Carlos A. Gothong Lines, Inc. (CAGLI) whose old ships invariably has a history of engine troubles (except for MV Our Lady of Mt. Carmel). However, it was already WG&A, the merged shipping company which sold the ship to them. Maybe they thought that since the name WG&A was glistening then, then the ship must be good.

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The remains of San Juan Ferry (Photo by Kontiki Diving Club-Cebu)

This ship which became the MV San Juan Ferry in their fleet and became the flagship and biggest ship. San Juan Shipping spent money to refurbish this ship. However, the ship brought misery to them when a explosion hit the ship and caught fire while on trials off Liloan, Cebu. The ship then sank. San Juan Shipping never recovered from that debacle especially since competition then to Leyte was very fierce. They then sold out to Lite Ferries lock, stock and barrel and it was there that Lite Ferries gained a foothold to Leyte.

M.Y. Lines is unique in a sense that when wooden motor boats were already on their way out they sort of made a revival out of it. They had two big, wooden motor boats in a fleet of three but one, the beautiful MV M.Y. Katrina was wrecked in a typhoon and scrapped. They bounced from one route to another and was never able to fully settle especially since they were using non-ROROs when ROROs had already come into full force and was proving its superiority. They tried to find niche routes in northwestern Leyte but was never able to really discover one. One thing that torpedoed them there was the opening of the Bogo-Palompon route and the rolling of Ceres buses from Cebu to that corner of Leyte. Later, their ferries were seized by the banks and laid up.

Former fleet: M.Y. Katrina, Michael-3, Sunriser

(To be continued)

The Other Passenger Ships Built in 1967 That Came to the Philippines

There were other ships built in 1967 that also came to the Philippines. Their number is about the same as those still existing until now. If they are gone now it is not because they sank or was lost (except for a few). Most of the reasons why they are gone circles around the situation that they were no longer wanted and there were no other takers. Sometimes that is just the simple reason why ships including ferries are retired, disposed off and broken up.

All of these ferries were built abroad and there were no local-builds (it looks like shipping companies hold on longer to the ships that they built). Some of these were gone even before the turn of the millennium but then they still they lasted more than 30 years of service. So, here then are the passenger ships built in 1967 that came to our country but are no longer around.

Maybe we should start with the grandest of them all, the cruise ship Dona Montserrat of Negros Navigation Company which came in late 1974 but unfortunately she did not last long. She was a fine ship, no doubt, but it seems she was way ahead of her time as most Filipinos don’t have enough money yet for cruises and if they have they would rather go on trips abroad ait is more sosyal. But then Dona Montserrat had voyages even to Hongkong too. Negros Navigation Company bought this cruise ship for $3.4M, a big sum in those days.

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Dona Montserrat by Dimas Almada

The Dona Montserrat was originally the Cabo Izarra and built by SECN (Navantia Carenas) in Matagorda, Spain for Ybarra Line. She was a cruiser ship with three passenger decks and with all the amenities of a cruise ship of her size during her period. These included 110 staterooms for 273 passengers, dining salon with international and Filipino cuisine, main lounge, penthouse, library, game room, swimming pool and bars. The ship was fully air-conditioned, fully carpeted and she had a well-equipped galley. Music (as in a band) and entertainment nightly was available in Dona Montserrat. The primary route of this cruise ship was Manila-Corregidor-Iloilo-Zamboanga-Davao aside from cruises to special destinations like Sicogon island and Hongkong.

This cruise ship measured 104.9 meters Length by 15.8 meters Breadth by 10.3 meters Depth, a Depth which means she is a stable ship. Her Gross Register Tonnage was 4,339 tons and her Net Register Tonnage was 1,675 tons. She was powered by two B&W engines developing 7,800 horsepower giving her a top sustained speed of 19.5 knots. So during her time she was the passenger ship with the highest power sailing in the country and in terms of size she was about equal to the bigger fast cruiser liners that arrived in the country in the latter half of the 1970’s.

In less than 5 years, however, Dona Montserrat quit sailing and she was sold to China where she was used a cruise ship.

The next ship in this list was also a cruise ship but she came later, in 1999, but was more successful and was also built in Spain. She was the Coco Explorer No.1 of Coco Explorer Inc. She was more successful maybe because she was able to attract foreign tourists who wanted to explore our hidden coves and islands, do diving tours and being smaller and of shallower draft she was more fit in this role.

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Coco Explorer No.1 by Dimas Almada

The Coco Explorer No.1 was the former Sta. Maria de la Caridad and she was built by Union Levante in Valencia, Spain. This cruise ship measures only 66.9 meters by 11.0 meters by 5.1 meters and her Gross Tonnage is only 1,199 and her Net Tonnage is only 562. In size she is just like many of the Cebu to Leyte overnight ferries but she is not as tall. This ship was powered by MWM engines of 2,000 horsepower total and her design speed was 15 knots. The Coco Explorer No.1 was a cruiser ship.

In 2005, the Coco Explorer No.1 was sold to China for breaking up. Maybe age caught up with her and there was already competition by smaller tour-dive ships in the waters she used to go which was mainly in the direction of Palawan. Moreover, the places which were her haunts were already accessible by other means and there were already facilities like resorts and hotels.

The next ship on this list was a beautiful ship and once was a flagship of Negros Navigation Company which was the Don Julio. This ferry was built brand-new for Nenaco by Maizuru Heavy Industries in Maizuru Japan. She measured 95.7 meters by 13.9 meters by 7.5 meters with a Gross Tonnage of 2,381 and a Net Tonnage of 1,111. Her later passenger capacity was 994 with accommodations from Suite to Economy classes. The Don Julio was a cruiser ship where cargo was handled by a boom in the bow which meant slow cargo handling. Cruiser ships also have less cargo capacity compared to RORO ferries. And maybe these were the reasons why she fell into disfavor later in the company.

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Don Julio by John Ward

The ship has a single Hitachi engine of 4,400 horsepower and her sustained top speed was 17.5 knots qualifying her as a fast cruiser liner of her era. Her main routes were to Iloilo and Bacolod but when she got old and bigger ships came along she was shunted to minor routes like Roxas City. Later, when she can no longer be accommodated in the fleet of Negros Navigation she was transferred to Jensen Shipping and among the routes of the company was Cebu to Iloilo. Later, this ship disappeared without trace and not because she sank. It was simply that databases lost track of her. It was sad because the person after she was named, Congressman Julio Ledesma IV was interested in buying her for posterity.

The Don Julio was a sister ship of the Dona Florentina and the Don Juan, both of Negros Navigation Company and the Cebu City of William Lines, all of which became flagships of their fleets one time or another. Now, that is a distinguised company.

The next ship on this list should be the Iligan City of William Lines which later became the Sampaguita Ferry 3 of Sampaguita Shipping Corporation of Zamboanga City. Originally, this ship was Amami Maru of Amami Kaiun of Japan. She was built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Shimoneseki, Japan and her external measurements were 83.1 meters by 12.0 meters by 4.5 meters. Her Gross Tonnage was 1,512 and her Net Tonnage was 562 and her passenger capacity was 635 persons. She was equipped with a single Mitsubishi engine of 3,800 horsepower which gave her a sustained top speed of 17 knots.

This ship was a cruiser ship and thus she had the same disadvantages of the Don Julio when the RORO ferries came. She was mainly fielded by William Lines in the Cebu-Iligan route and she stayed there until the merger which created WG&A in 1996. She was then transferred to the WG&A subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation where she was tried in the Cebu-Roxas City route and other routes. She was not successful and she was one of the ships offered for sale by Cebu Ferries Corporation immediately. By then she was no longer a satisfactory ship as her passenger accommodations were already tiny compared to the current standards of the times then.

In 1997, Iligan City was purchased by Sampaguita Shipping Corporation of Zamboanga City where unmodified she became the Sampaguita Ferry 3. During that time Sampaguita Shipping was building up its fleet to have modern and comfortable overnight ferries for its long routes using bank loans. They also used the abbreviation “SF”, a takeoff from the SF SuperFerry as in they are the SuperFerry of Zamboanga. Well, they even built a modern terminal a la SuperFerry near the entrance of Zamboanga port.

However, Sampaguita Shipping was hit by bad timing because soon the highways out of Zamboanga City became paved and they eventually lost to the buses. Competition also became very tight in Zamboanga which was a product of the deregulation policies and incentives laid out by the Ramos Administration. Modern and new High Speed Crafts (HSCs) even came to Zamboanga City like Weesam Express and the fastcrafts of A. Sakaluran. Under the crushing load of its debts, Sampaguita Shipping defaulted, collapsed and ceased operations. The last heard of Sampaguita Ferry 3 was she was sold to the breakers.

We will then come to three overnight ferries that first came to Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (CAGLI) locally. The first was the Dona Lili which was very well-known in the Cebu-Nasipit route battling the big Nasipit Princess of Sulpicio Lines. This ship was built in Japan as the Seiran Maru by Taguma Shipbuilding & Engineering Corporation in their Innoshima yard. And in 1980 this ferry came to CAGLI as one of the earliest RORO ships of the company and in the archipelago.

The Dona Lili had the external measurements 69.0 meters by 12.0 meters by 4.5 meters. Her Gross Register Tonnage in Japan was 856 tons and in conversion here to Gross Tonnage the figure was left unchanged. The ship’s Net Tonnage was 448 and her passenger capacity was 732 persons. The Dona Lili was powered by two Daihatsu marine engines with a total of 2,600 horsepower and her sustained top speed when still new was 15.5 knots. In size, she is just like the Cebu to Leyte overnight ferries of today.

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Credits to PDI and Gorio Belen

When the merger that resulted in WG&A came she was transferred to its subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation and in this company she was assigned the Cebu-Tacloban route with also a route to Camiguin. But when Cebu Ferries Corporation dropped its Tacloban route because it was losing to the shorter Ormoc route, it seems Dona Lili did not sail again. By that time Cebu Ferries had an excess of ships because they already dropped a third or more of its former routes and so the older and smaller ferries especially the cruisers had nowhere to go especially since WG&A can drop former liners to Cebu Ferries. With that situation, Dona Lili dropped from sight never to be seen again and not because she sank.

The next ferry that came to Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. was their second Don Benjamin (they had an earlier Don Benjamin which was a former “FS” ship) which arrived in 1982. This is a ship that served their Iligan and Ozamis overnight routes for them from Cebu but this ship only lasted until just before the mid-1990’s because of engine issues.

The second Don Benjamin was the former Shin Kanaya Maru in Japan and she was built by the Shimoda Dockyard in Shimoda, Japan. This ship measured 61.0 meters by 13.7 meters by 2.9 meters and in Japan her Gross Register Tonnage was 877 tons. Locally her Gross Tonnage was just 685 and her Net Tonnage was just 268 both of which looks suspiciously low. The second Don Benjamin was a smaller ship than Dona Lili.

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Don Benjamin partially scrapped by Edison Sy

The Don Benjamin was powered by a single Nippon Hatsudoki engine, a generic Japan engine of 2,550 horsepower. That was good for a sustained top speed of 15 knots. However, her engine seems to be the reason for her undoing as Hatsudoki engines are not long lasting and even early in the 1990’s she was already plagued by unreliability. When the new ship Our Lady of Naju came for Carlos A. Gothong Lines in 1994, she was sent to a Navotas breaker. During those times, re-engining then was not yet common. She was a rare ferry that did not last 30 years in service.

The third ferry from Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. was the Dona Casandra, a ship that came also in 1982. She was built as the Mishima in Japan by Hashihama Zosen in Hashihama yard. This ship had the measurements 53.8 meters by 11.0 meters by 3.7 meters, dimensions which were less than the war-surplus “FS” ships. Her Japan Gross Register Tonnage was 487 tons. What I find suspicious in her specifications was her Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) which was only 180 tons in Japan. Was she meant to just carry a few sedans and light trucks?

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Dona Casandra (Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen)

Here, after addition of more metal and passenger accommodations her Gross Tonnage rose to 682 but I was not able to obtain her Net Tonnage. The declared passenger capacity of the ferry was 650 persons. The Dona Casandra was powered by two Daihatsu marine engines with a total of 2,000 horsepower and her design speed was 14 knots.

The Dona Casandra did not last long in service because once in a voyage from Butuan to Cebu she foundered on November 21, 1983 in a rough Mindanao Sea experiencing the disturbance of a distant typhoon. She was then carrying lumber aside from passengers. The sinking caused the loss of lives of the bulk of the passengers and crew but the exact number was never established as the ship sank without trace. Was her load to much for her load capacity in DWT and in a rough sea and considering she has added metal to her structure?

The Lorenzo Shipping Corporation also had ships in this list which are about the same size as the mentioned ships of Gothong Lines (once from 1972 to 1979 the two had combined operations). Lorenzo Shipping once was also in passenger shipping and it was even in liner operations albeit not in high profile but later they quit passenger shipping to become an all-cargo operation and maybe that is why many people can’t connect their name to passenger shipping.

The first should be the Dona Okai which was the biggest of the three. This ship was also known as Dona Oka 1 and Don Okai in Lorenzo Shipping. What names! The Dona Okai was paired with another ship of the same size in the fleet of Lorenzo Shipping to do their unique Manila-Dipolog-Zamboanga-Pagadian-Dadiangas route which took nearly two weeks to compete and that is why two ships have to be paired in that route so a weekly schedule can be maintained.

The Dona Okai was originally the Ryoho Maru of the Kashima Kisen K.K. shipping company in Japan. She actually had three owners before coming to the Philippines in 1979. When she was sold to Ebisu Kisen K.K. she was converted into a chemical tanker. When she was sold to Daiei Kaiun K.K. In 1973 she was converted back into cargo ship.

The Dona Okai was a cruiser ship built by the Asakawa Shipbuilding Company in Imabari, Japan. She measured 74.2 meters by 10.5 meters by 5.4 meters. In Japan her Gross Register Tonnage was 1,093 but this rose to 1,173 in the country with a Net Register Tonnage of 780. The ship was equipped with a single Makita engine of 1,500 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 12.5 knots.

In 1992, Lorenzo Shipping sold her into another shipping company. She is now deleted from maritime databases which happens when ten years has passed and there is no further news about the ship. She might be a broken-up ship by now.

1980-2-3 Lorenzo Shipping

Lorenzo Shipping schedule, 2/5/80 (Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

The second ship of Lorenzo Shipping was the Dona Lilian which had the external dimensions of 63.7 meters by 9.6 meters by 4.8 meters and in Japan her Gross Register Tonnage was 753 tons. This ferry was a cruiser ship which arrived in the country in 1978.

The Dona Lilian was the former Seiun Maru No.5 of Tsurumi Kisen K.K. of Japan. She was built by Imabari Zosen in Imabari, Japan. In the Philippines her Gross Register Tonnage remained unchanged and her Net Register Tonnage was 487. She was powered by a single Makita engine of 1,300 horsepower and her sustained top speed was just 11 knots, just about the same as freighters of her size as she is a little low on power.

This Lorenzo ferry held for the company the Iloilo and Pulupandan combined route from Manila and one of the last ferries to sail to Pulupandan as this port can only dock shallow draft vessels then (the reason why when ferries grew in size the route was abandoned). When the company eventually withdrew from the Pulupandan route because it can’t compete with the Negros Navigation ships using Banago port in Bacolod, she found herself on the Davao route. However, on a voyage with two distant typhoons affecting local weather conditions, she foundered in heavy seas off Tandag, Surigao del Sur on December 6, 1982.

Lorenzo Shipping had to other ships in this list, the Don Francisco. This ship was actually the second Don Francisco as there had been an earlier ship by that name in the Lorenzo fleet which was a former “FS” ship converted into passenger-cargo use. When the earlier Don Francisco was lost in the earlier part of the year 1978, this ship came to replace the lost ship in the same year 1978.

The second Don Francisco was first known in Japan as the Zensho Maru of the Marujutoko Unyusoko K.K. shipping company. She was built by the Higaki Shipbuilding Company in Imabari, Japan. Her external dimensions were 53.4 meters by 9.3 meters and her Japan Gross Register Tonnage was 496 and she has a speed of 10.5 knots. In terms of external dimensions, cubic volume and speed, this ship is very much alike the once-dominant former “FS” ships converted into ferry use here. This ship is also a cruiser ship.

The ship shouldered on in various capacity under Lorenzo Shipping until when the company was already taking a step back already from passenger ship (the company later on became an all-cargo company utilizing container ships until she was sold to the Magsaysay Group which continued to use the same name). This ship then disappeared from maritime databases but it is assumed that she did not sink and most likely she had just been quietly scrapped.

Another ship built in 1967 that is no longer around was the former Nadayoshi Maru No.2, a fishing vessel in Japan by Kanasashi Shipbuilding Company in Shizuoka, Japan. In 1974 this ship came into the Philippines and in her first rebuild she was converted into the passenger-cargo ship Gingoog City in 1987 and the name is already suggestive of her route.

In 1991, this ship was sold to the new shipping company Cokaliong Shipping Lines Incorporated (CSLI) which was already expanding their fleet and she became the Filipinas Siargao. This ship measures 49.5 meters by 7.8 meters by 3.6 meters with a Gross Tonnage of 327. Her Net Tonnage of 181 and the passenger capacity is 292 person in bunks as this was an overnight ferry-cruiser. The ship is powered by a single Hanshin engine of 900 horsepower.

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Filipinas Siargao (Parsed from a framed photo in Cokaliong Tower)

In 1997 the Filipinas Siargao was sold to Ting Guan in Mandaue as scrap because Cokaliong Shipping Lines is already converting to RORO ships. She lasted exactly 30 years.

Another ferry that was built in 1967 that was sold to local breakers under the same conditions in almost the same period but a little later was the beautiful cruiser Sr. San Jose which was even a little bigger than the Filipinas Siargao. The ship was a Cebu to Leyte ferry of the San Juan Shipping of Leyte.

The ship was originally the Tanshu Maru of Kansai Kisen K.K. of Japan. She was built by Hashihama Zosen in Hashihama, Japan. She had three owners in Japan the last of which was the Fukahi Kaiun. The ship had the measurements 54.0 meters by 8.6 meters by 2.3 meters. Her Gross Tonnage was 498 and her Net Tonnage was 185 with a passenger capacity of 558 persons. The Sr. San Jose was powered by a single Akasaka engine of 1,470 horsepower giving her a sustained top speed of 15 knots when new.

The ship together with her company was sold to Lite Ferries in the aftermath of the explosion, burning and sinking of the company’s flagship San Juan Ferry in 2000. When she was sold, Lite Ferries was already fully into ROROs and no further use was needed of her especially since her engines were no longer that good. She was then sold to the breakers.

The next ship on this list is a lost ship but not violently. She was the Princess Camille of the Shipsafe Shipping. The ship had the overnight route Batangas-Romblon but on a voyage on March 21, 2003 she developed a leak in the hull in Romblon port the next day which resulted in her capsizing in the port but her passengers were safe.

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Princess Camille remains by Arnel Hutalla

The Princess Camille was the former New Olympia of the Nanbi Kaiun K.K. She was built by the renowned Kanda Shipbuilding Company in Kure, Japan. The measurements of the ship was 39.2 meters by 11.2 meters by 3.4 meters which means she was not a big ferry, just the size of a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO (she is a RORO). Her Gross Tonnage was just 350 and her Net Tonnage was 197. The Princess Camille was equipped with a single Daihatsu engine of 900 horsepower and her top speed was 12 knots. The Princess Camille came to the Philippines when she was already 30 years of age. She reached 36 years of sailing.

The ship was no longer salvaged and her company soon collapsed especially since there was very tight competition then in Southern Tagalog shipping.

There are 13 ferries in this list. Three of the 13 were lost at sea .

One thing I can say is if ferries are no longer relevant then they quit sailing and the shipping owners does not need the government to tell them that.

And another thing is if the engine is no longer good and won’t be re-engined anymore then they also send the ships to the breakers and no government order is also needed for that because on their own shipping owners has enough common sense aside from financial sense.

I now leave it to the readers to weigh the careers of these ferries built in 1967 that are no longer around.

Philippine Ferries That Are Celebrating Their Golden Anniversaries In 2017

There are a few ferries in the Philippines which will be having their golden anniversaries this year because they have already reached 50 years of existence and sailing. That means these were built exactly in the year 1967 and all of these ferries are testaments to their design and engineering. It is also a testament to the Philippine side from the owners to the engineers for their loyalty and belief in their ships.

Not all of these ships are in the pink of health now, of course. In humans they might be the equivalent of our centenarians. But unlike our centenarians these are not exactly laid-up vessels and if not sailing they are being held in reserve. Some of these have hiccups at times but those episodes are not something that cannot be repaired. And unlike planes where there is always an emergency when an engine conks out, in ships even though it loses main engine power they simply become the equivalent of unpowered barges and barges sail day in and day out in all waters of the world.

Here then are our “golden” ferries this year:

Maybe we should start with the Maria Gloria of Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI). This is a notable ship because she was the first steel-hulled ferry of Montenegro Lines. She came to our country in 1994 when she was already 27 years old and she has been a good ship from the time she arrived and is still a very reliable ship until now. It looks like Montenegro Lines is taking care of her very well.

MV Maria Gloria (Ang barko na paborito ko!)

Maria Gloria by Raymond Lapus

The Maria Gloria is a short-distance ferry-RORO and for a long time served the Mindoro routes although at times she can also be found in the route to Siquijor. She was built as the Tenyo Maru for the Shimabara Tetsudo by Kanda Shipbuilding in Kure, Japan. She measures 42.9 meters by 11.0 meters and she has a passenger capacity of 413 persons. She is powered by twin Daihatsu engines with a total of 1,400 horsepower which is still good enough for some 10 knots today.

Another 50-year old ship in the fleet of Montenegro Lines is the ferry Maria Isabel which holds for the company their Iloilo-Cuyo-Puerto Princesa route across the wide Sulu Sea. Now if she is not a reliable ship Montenegro Lines won’t assign her to that route especially since swells can be powerful in her route when the monsoons are acting up.

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Maria Isabel by Carl Jakosalem

The Maria Isabel was originally the Shirakawa Maru in Japan and she was built by Taguma Zosen in Innoshima, Japan. Her external dimensions are 49.0 meters by 13.2 meters and she has a passenger capacity of 427 persons. A two-deck overnight ferry, her Gross Tonnage is rather high for her Length at 836 (this figure has no unit). She is powered by twin Hanshin engines of 1,700 horsepower and her design speed is high at 14.5 knots and maybe this was the reason she was assigned the long Sulu Sea route.

The Maria Isabel arrived in the country in 1997 when she was already 30 years old. Now who said imported surplus ferries should be no more than 20 years old? I say it depends on the condition of the ship. Maria Isabel has two sister ships in the Philippines and both are in the fleet also of Montenegro Lines. These are the Maria Erlinda and Maria Rebecca.

Another “golden” ship in the Philippines is one that has a complicated history and is a survivor. She first arrived in the country in 1982 as the first RORO ferry of Viva Shipping Lines which were formerly operators of motor boats like Montenegro Lines. The ship was 15 years old then, a relatively young age and she was named as the Viva Santo Nino.

The Viva Santo Nino was formerly the Bisan Maru of Sanyo Kisen of Japan. She was built by Kanda Shipbuilding in Kure, Japan and she measures 50.0 meters by 11.8 meters. Originally 665 GRT in Japan but here her GT was deflated. I am not sure of her original engines but later it were two Yanmar engines totaling 1,800 horsepower which was good for 13 knots.

The Viva Santo Nino sailed well for Viva Shipping Lines whose ships were rusty and lacked cleanliness but they don’t sink or conk out because tale says the Captain is under the pain of death if his ship sinks. But when the company stopped operations because of the tightness of competition in the Verde Island Passage and of some family troubles this ship was one of those which was laid up.

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Streamer of Joy-Ruby by Masahiro Homma

In 2003, the ship was sold to Silverio Atienza who was an operator of motor boats called batel in the area. With some modifications and repair, she became the Joy-Ruby, the first steel-hulled ferry of Silverio Atienza which later evolved into the Atienza Shipping Lines. However, once on a voyage to Puerto Princesa she developed a hull in the stern when she was already nearing the port. She continued sailing until she ended up sitting on her stern near the quay with her bow pointing to the sky.

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The Joy-Ruby was subsequently salvaged and sold to Asian Marine Transport Corporation (AMTC) in 2008 where she became the Super Shuttle Ferry 15. For many years she plied the various routes of the company in the Visayas and mainly Ormoc but at times she also experienced some minor problems. This might not really be due to age but to the weakness of her company in maintaining ships. However, her Captain admitted that her engines were not that robust anymore but this is something that could be remedied by re-engining.

Another ship that was also built in 1967 was the Island Express II of Island Shipping Corporation. This ship is a short-distance ferry-cruiser that runs the Bantayan island route although not recently when Island Shipping was already able to build enough passenger-cargo LCTs and the cruisers of the company were already on the way out as cruisers can no longer compete against ROROs except in Zamboanga.

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Island Express II by Masahiro Homma

The Island Express II was built as the Yuzuru by the Sanriku Shipbuilding & Iron Works in Shiogama, Japan. The ship’s external dimensions are 28.5 meters by 7.0 meters and she is equipped by a single Daihatsu engine of 300 horsepower which means she is a slow craft. This ship came to the Philippines in 1994 when she was already 27 years old. The Island Express II has a passenger capacity of 354 persons all in benches.

Another cruiser ship that was built in 1967 but is an overnight ferry is the Gloria Two of Gabisan Shipping which has fishing vessel origin and was just converted in Leyte. This ferry measures 46.3 meters by 7.7 meters and is now equipped by a single Isuzu Marine engine of 960 horsepower which gives her a cruising speed of 11.5 knots.

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The Gloria Two is a very reliable ship although she suffers now in competition versus RORO ships. She has a passenger capacity of 386 and she has no other route except the route to Hilongos, Leyte. This ferry is declared to have a Gross Tonnage of 246 with a passenger capacity of 386 person in bunks.

There is another highly-recognizable ship that is well-known in Cebu which is the Lapu-lapu Ferry 1 of Lapu-lapu Shipping. This ship was built by Okayama Shipyard in Hinase, Japan in 1967 and she came to Sweet Lines of the Philippines in 1978. In Sweet Lines she was known as the second Sweet Time doing the Cebu-Tagbilaran-Cagayan de Oro and Cebu-Tagbilaran-Larena-Plaridel routes. Her IMO Number is 7315753.

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Sweet Time by Edison Sy

When Sweet Lines collapsed in 1994, she was laid up for a while until she became the Carmelita. Then she came to Lapu-lapu Shipping which renovated her extensively in 2002 in Villono shipyard until she no longer looked like the old Sweet Time, the reason why people can’t connect her to her origin. But IMO Numbers don’t lie and she was traced.

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Lapu-lapu Ferry 1 by Mike Baylon

As Lapu-lapu Ferry 1 her dimensions are 52.2 meters by 8.0 meters by 4.1 meters and she is an overnight ferry-cruiser. Her passenger capacity is 509 and her primary route is Cebu to Cataingan, Masbate. She still has her original Hanshin engine with 1,100 horsepower which is now just good for 8 to 9 knots. To keep up with competition, the ship has an air-conditioned Tourist section.

Another ship built in 1967 is an LCT of E.B. Aznar Shipping of
Danao, the LCT Melrivic 1 which at one time was rumored to be gone but actually was  just hiding in Republic Drydock in Danao City and being re-engined prior to re-fielding. A PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) tour group found her being refitted in that shipyard. This passenger-cargo LCT is a local-build in Manila.

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LCT Melrivic 1 by John Carlos Cabanillas

This vessel’s measurements are 37.4 meters by 8.0 meters which means she is a small LCT and her Gross Tonnage is 321. Originally powered by a single Yanmar Marine engine of 430 horsepower, she is now powered by a Weichai engine of 460 horsepower and her speed increased from 9.5 knots to 11 knots while being more fuel-efficient.

The next ship which is 50 years old now is a respected ship in Bicol but she was not originally a Bicol ferry. In Japan she was known as the Nangokutosa Maru of the Utaka Kokudo Ferry and she was built by Hashihama Zosen in Imabari, Japan. The ship measures 64.0 meters by 11.3 meters with an original Gross Register Tonnage of 904 tons and equipped with twin Daihatsu engines with a total of 2,200 horsepower.

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Princess of Mayon (parsed from a PPA photo)

In 1990, this ship came to United Towage & Salvage of the Philippines when she was already 23 years old. In this company she was known as Horizon but United Towage & Salvage was actually not into passenger shipping. The ship underwent modifications and she was sold to Bicolandia Shipping Lines where she became known as the Princess of Mayon. For a very long time as in two decades, she was the biggest ferry in Bicol and she was always in the strongest route there, the Matnog to Samar route.

When Bicolandia Shipping Lines was sold lock, stock and barrel to Penafrancia Shipping Lines in 2006, the Princess of Mayon became part of the deal and in the new company she was known as the Don Benito Ambrosio II. She had periods of unreliability soon after. The company’s solution was to build one reliable Daihatsu engine from her two Daihatsu engines and a Yanmar engine was mounted as the second engine.

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Now Don Benito Ambrosio II is running well again and she is still in the same route again. The PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) touring group was able to ride her free last December, “Bridge Class” and know what? Her bridge is air-conditioned! Now, tell me, how many short-distance ferries locally can claim that kind of accoutrement?

The last two vessels that were built in 1967 are both local-builds. Both are small because they were ferries of their companies when they was still young. These two are obsolete now being slow, small cruisers and most of the time they no longer sail. The two are the Ever Transport of Ever Lines and the Magnolia of Magnolia Shipping Corporation, both of Zamboanga City.

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The Ever Transport was built in Cebu and just measures 19.2 meters by 5.1 meters with a Gross Tonnage of just 68 and a passenger capacity of just 87 persons. Her engine is an Isuzu diesel of just 135 horsepower but she can reach 7.5 knots when she was still new. I thought then she was already gone and then I saw her being refitted in Varadero de Cawit in Zamboanga City and they said she will sail again.

Meanwhile, the Magnolia was built by Rato Brothers in Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur. Her external dimensions are 26.6 meters by 5.4 meters with a Gross Tonnage of 81 and a passenger capacity of 122 persons. The upper half of her hull is wood and the lower half is steel. The Magnolia is powered by a single Caterpillar engine of 120 horsepower. The last time I saw her was she was laid up in Varadero de Recodo in Zamboanga City.

Both the Ever Transport and Magnolia are clearly obsolete now. In passenger capacity they are not even higher than the big passenger-cargo motor bancas which have the same horsepower as them or even more. However, the two can carry more cargo especially since they have high prows and freeboards so they can deal with the sometimes big swells of the seas near Zamboanga.

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Magnolia by Mike Baylon

So that’s it, folks. A total of eight ferries that will be celebrating their 50 years now. Some are already obsolete especially the cruisers because as they say times and modalities change but they are still alive. Do I hear the tune of the BeeGees, “Stayin’ Alive”?

Not all the ferries mentioned have IMO Numbers and some were not traced initially but the cooperation with Angelo Blasutta of the former Grosstonnage.com bore fruit and so the Don Benito Ambrosio II and Lapu-lapu Ferry 1’s origins were traced and both were actually clear surprises.

I always joke that ferries 50 years old should give a discount of 50%, a celebration for being still alive. Oh, it can be not the whole year. Maybe on the month that they were built, at least. And the crew might even be surprised because I found out over the years that many crewmen cannot trace the history of their vessels because they were not trained to look for the IMO Number.

On a future article I will deal with our our ferries built in 1967 that are no longer around and what has happened to them so the people including the haters of old ships will be more educated.

The Misfortune of the Surigao Liner Route

Of all the many ports of Northern Mindanao, the geographical area and not the political-administrative region, it is Surigao that I did not see losing its liner connection to Manila given its history and not its demographic and economic profile. In the old days, Surigao had six passenger-cargo ships from Manila calling and dropping anchor every week whereas the likes of more known and bigger Iligan and Zamboanga did not have that frequency. So for me the loss of Manila connection by Surigao is almost unbelievable when the likes of Nasipit, Cagayan de Oro, Iligan and Ozamis still have their liner connection to Manila.

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Surigao Port by Aris Refugio

After the war, in the 1950’s and 1960’s, the likes of Escano Lines, Philippine Steam Navigation Company (PSNC), General Shipping Company (GSC), the great Compania Maritima (CM) provided Surigao with connection to Manila. Before the war, Surigao had ferry connection even in early American times and so the loss of connection was as shocking to me as the loss of Davao of its liner connection to Manila. I mean, the connections are historical and it was an epoch in local shipping.

In 1954, when the country has basically recovered from the war and there were enough ships already, the Romblon and Basilan of Compania Maritima and the Davao and Vizcaya of Philippine Steam Navigation Company (PSNC) sailed to Surigao. These were augmented by the Fernando Escano of Escano Lines and the General Mojica of General Shipping Company. All of these passenger-cargo ships were former war-surplus “FS” ships used by the US Army in their Pacific campaign during the war. Ex-“FS” ships were the backbone of our passenger shipping fleet in the early Republic years.

In 1955 the Occidental of Carlos A. Go Thong & Company and the Don Manuel of Royal Lines appeared in Surigao. Surigao then was usually paired with Butuan port (the true Butuan and not Nasipit) in voyages to increase the passenger and cargo volume. Combining the two ports was not difficult since the distance of the two is not far and just in the same direction and the additional passengers and cargo is much more than the additional fuel that is consumed.

The routes combined with Surigao got more complex over the years. In some routes Surigao is combined with Masbate, the Samar ports and Tacloban. There was even a ship, the Vizcaya of PSNC that had the route Manila-Romblon-Cebu-Maasin-Cabalian-Surigao-Bislig-Mati-Davao (now how’s that for complexity?). If ever there is again a liner with such route again it will be offer good, free tourism. Never mind if the voyage takes one week as long as the accommodations, passenger service and food are good. By the way that was the time when a dozen passenger ships depart North Harbor every day on the way south. Who said smaller ships of the past were not good? With smaller ships comes more voyages and more voyages means more choices. Smaller ships also mean shorter legs and so it has to call on more ports. More ports means more free tourism. Never mind if the voyage takes long. If one wants shorter travel time there is always the airline.

Some other routes to Surigao pass thru Cebu and/or ports on the western and southern side of Leyte island like Ormoc and Maasin. When I see the Palawan Princess or the Surigao Princess of Sulpicio Lines in the 1990’s and 2000’s, I tend to think they were the remnants of this route when they call in Masbate, Calubian, Baybay, Maasin and Surigao from Manila (and it even extended to Butuan earlier). It was just too bad that the suspension of Sulpicio Lines in 2008 put an end to that long route.

Until 1959 there were six ships from Manila sailing to Surigao and these were the FS-167, Fernando Escano, General Segundo, General Roxas, Rizal and Romblon. All were ex-FS ships except for the Rizal which might have been a lengthened “F” ship. In 1964, Escano Lines increased its ship call to Surigao with the Tacloban and Kolambugan. Later when Sweet Lines became a national liner company they also called in Surigao with their Sweet Peace. Then in 1970 when Aboitiz Shipping Corporation fielded a dedicated ship to their origin, the West Leyte, this ship held a Manila-Romblon-Palompon-Ormoc-Baybay-Cabalian-Surigao-Sogod route. What a way to blanket western Leyte and Surigao! Later this route was taken over by their more modern ship Cagayan de Oro.

In the same year, Go Thong had their Dona Gloria and Gothong  (their flagship) do a Manila-Cebu-Surigao-Mati-Davao-Iloilo-Manila route which goes round Mindanao island. The two alternating ships of Go Thong were no longer ex-“FS” ships but were refitted former cargo-passenger ships with refrigeration from Europe which had air-conditioning already. When I think of the ship routes of the past, I see they were much more exciting that the dry, short routes of today where free tourism (touring the city while the ship is docked) is almost minimal.

When Sweet Lines instituted their eastern Mindanao shortcutter route to Davao via Surigao their ships like the alternating Sweet Bliss and Sweet Dream were also former refrigerated cargo ships from Europe. Later, it was the Sweet Love and Sweet Lord which were alternating in this route. These ships were almost like in size as the Type “C1-M-AV1” war-surplus big ships used right after World War II but the difference is they were faster and had refrigeration which afforded air-conditioned first class accommodations and lounges to be built and hence were more comfortable than the big war-surplus ships that were converted to passenger-cargo use.

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Verano Port of Surigao City by Mike Baylon

With ships getting bigger, it is not surprising that routes and frequencies went down. If some thought that getting bigger is all a plus (like maybe in safety) then there is also a downside to that (and there might be a lesson there too). The ships getting bigger were probably the first that affected the frequency to Surigao. The factor came next maybe after that was the appearance of the fast cruiser liners in the second half of the 1970’s. Fast cruiser liners usually have just one intermediate call so that it can maintain a weekly voyage to a route as far as Southern Mindanao like Davao. With their appearance, other companies tried to speed up their voyages by also cutting down on intermediate calls and I think Surigao got affected by that like when Sweet Lines dropped Surigao on their eastern Mindanao seaboard shortcutter route.

In 1979, when container services was just starting, the frequency to Surigao was down to 3 ships a week with two of that provided by Escano Lines with their Kolambugan and Surigao. The Don Manuel of Sulpicio Lines was the other ship to Surigao. The three were old ships, as in ex-”FS” type and the other probably a lengthened ex-“F” ship. I am not that sure of the reason for the drop except that I know ships on the way to Davao by the eastern seaboard no longer calls in Surigao port. I was thinking of the cargo. Were there a lot of logs, lumber and plywood loaded before? During that time the logging and timber industry was already on the way down. And the Catbalogan and Tacloban ships no longer go to Surigao. Not enough load maybe to extend the route there. Anyway, this time even the Catbalogan and Tacloban routes are already being threatened by the emerging intermodal system when the buses and trucks started rolling up to Leyte from Luzon.

The end due to old age of the ex-”FS “ships definitely affected Surigao. Those type served the smaller ports and weaker routes in the 1970s. With just 1,000-horsepower engines they were certainly thrifty to run and their size fits the weaker and smaller ports especially with their shallow drafts. However, they can’t last forever and entering the 1980’s it was obvious they were already in their last legs as they were already in their fourth decade. By the middle of that decade only a few of those type were still running reliably and they were kept running by just cannibalizing parts from other similar ships, one of the reasons why their number kept steadily falling.

Sulpicio Lines fielded the small but comfortable liner Surigao Princess in the route in 1983 which I said seemed to be a relic of earlier days. The Surigao Princess had air-conditioning and First Class accommodations including Suite. Aboitiz Shipping also resuscitated their complex route with their cruiser liner Legaspi which also had air-conditioning. This ship was acquired from Escano Lines, as the former Katipunan and different from their old Legazpi and sometimes she sports the name Legaspi 1 to differentiate it as the old Legazpi was still sailing. Maybe the ex-”FS” ships were now too old and slow to maintain such route. I am talking here of the late 1980’s. Escano Lines, the old faithful in the route and a “home team” of the area was already fading and what they had left were cargo ships and the Virgen de la Paz maintained their Surigao route for them. However, before Escano Lines was completely gone, Madrigal Shipping entered the Surigao route with their Madrigal Surigao, a comfortable and modern cruiser liner in an era when RORO liners were already beginning to dominate but then Madrigal Shipping lasted only a few years before quitting and selling their ships.

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Port of Surigao (from a framed PPA photo)

I do not know if the regional ships also contributed to the decline of the Surigao liner route. They got better so much so that connecting to Cebu where great RORO liners were beginning to mushroom is already easy. One only has to check their schedules in Cebu and it is really nice to ride them and with their size they won’t be coming to Surigao and so connecting to Cebu might have become attractive so one can ride those great RORO liners. I am talking from experience but from a different city which is Iligan when it became an option to me to connect to Cebu to be able to ride a great liner. I also did that on the way home because I know that if I arrive before dark in Cebu there will be seamless connecting rides to Iligan and/or Cagayan de Oro.

There was a big change in 1993 when the great Filipina Princess of Sulpicio Lines upon being shunted to Davao called in Surigao. Aboitiz Shipping also for a time tried the Surigao route with their SuperFerry 2. In 1994, William Lines entered Surigao for the very first time with their luxury liner Mabuhay 2. So for the first time the competitors in Surigao were all new and good liners, a development I have not ever seen before. Maybe the deregulation and support extended by the Ramos government was the reason when there was optimism and dynamism in shipping again. But let it be noted that the Surigao Princess which is beginning to be unreliable and the Palawan Princess were still alternating in their complex route to Surigao and so there were 4 voyages a week to Surigao then from Manila.

In 1996, the SuperFerry 6 of WG&A, the former Our Lady of Akita tried to challenge the Filipina Princess in the Manila-Cebu-Surigao-Davao route. SuperFerry 2 also did a Manila-Surigao-Nasipit-Tagbilaran route after the merger. When WG&A started pairing ships in a route one pair that did the Manila-Surigao-Nasipit-Surigao-Manila route was the SuperFerry 3 and Our Lady of Medjugorje pair. When SuperFerry 6 was withdrawn from the eastern seaboard route and WG&A stopped that route and SF6 was paired with SuperFerry 10, the SuperFerry 1 and SuperFerry 8 was paired to do a Manila-Cebu-Surigao-Nasipit route and that was really a fast combination as both ships can do 20 knots. Later, when three-ship pairing was used by WG&A, the SuperFerry 2, SuperFerry 5 and SuperFerry 9 sailed the Manila-Surigao-Nasipit, v.v. route.

I always thought WG&A will maintain a twice a week schedule to Surigao and pair it with Nasipit and Sulpicio Lines will always have two schedules a week with its unchanging routes and schedules. But of course with the sales of ships that transformed WG&A into Aboitiz Transport System (ATS) there will be uncertainties and the greatest change was when ats sold four of their newest liners to take advantage of good prices and earn a handsome profit. Coming at the heels of sales of older liners and container ships to pay off their former partners which withdrew from the merger, ATS suddenly lacked ships and the Surigao schedules became infirm.

But the greatest blow was when Sulpicio Lines was suspended after the capsizing of their Princess of the Stars in 2008. Suddenly, their two schedules to Surigao were cut and those never came back. I thought ATS would be reliable but actually except for the return of SuperFerry 19 from Papua New Guinea, ATS found themselves lacking ships especially since their SuperFerry 14 was lost to firebombing off Bataan in 2004. When they acquired their SuperFerry 20 and SuperFerry 21, I thought that somehow their routes might stabilize. But like their withdrawal from Davao and General Santos City, I did not see that they will be doing just a Manila-Tagbilaran-Nasipit route and leave Surigao. This was the period when they had the system to use the buses i.e. give the passengers bus tickets to connect to their ships like what they did in southern Mindanao (so passengers can ride their liners in Cagayan de Oro). For Surigao, howeverm it seems they were offering their other makeshift system, the use of connecting ships to Cebu by using their Cebu Ferries. Neat but for whom?

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SuperFerry 19 arriving in Surigao Port by Michael Denne

But then their subsidiary Cebu Ferries suddenly left to become the “Batangas Ferries”. What I saw was the ATS world collapsing and not out of financial trouble. They were just no longer that interested in shipping and they admitted as much. The passion was gone and they were already more interested in power generation. Well, their bet and support of Gloria Arroyo paid off handsomely and they were able to earn in Tiwi Geothermal and Mak-Ban in Laguna what they cannot possibly ever earn in shipping.

They sold their shipping to an entity that was less capable than them and which had to get a big loan for the acquisition and was a big burden, so heavy that initially the new company was on the red for the next three years until fuel prices eased and they were back in the black. But that was not any benefit to Surigao as they never came back there for long except for a short period like when St. Joseph The Worker was refurbished and was assigned there and which I was lucky to ride. But after her sale and her sister it was downhill all the way for Surigao. With bean counters ruling, smaller ports had no chance in 2GO, the entity after ATS. And to think there were no longer any other liner company competing. 2GO was just content on routes that will easily make them money. Did they call that “serving the public”? I am not sure.

Now Surigao no longer has a liner, not even one that is paired with Nasipit. But 2GO still call in Nasipit from Cebu and so the extra distance pays. But maybe not when paired with Surigao? Maybe if the hours and the fuel of the ship are measured the metric of Surigao is too low and the 2GO ship is better used elsewhere. That is the quintessential bean counter method. They are not into traditional shipping. They are into business.

I was also wondering about the off and on service of the company to Dapitan until its total withdrawal. Dapitan and nearby Dipolog a combined population of over 200,000. But its commercial level is low and so maybe a population of 200,000 is not enough to sustain a liner per 2GO standard. And so maybe Surigao City with just 150,000 people has no chance even if some incrementals from Siargao tourism is added. In Ormoc with over a population over 150,000, 2GO was not able to maintain a route. Somehow these metrics points to the standards and parameters of 2GO.

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Surigao Port by Lota Hilton

If that is correct then maybe Surigao has no chance really unless a new liner company with true shipping emerges. But then with the situation of the liner industry that is like asking for the moon. I don’t know if the change at the helm of 2GO with the entry of Chelsea Shipping and the SM Group if the metrics and priorities will change. If ATS and 2GO said they were “passionate” in shipping (of course their dictionary is not Webster), I don’t know what will be the adjective of the 2GO/NN-Chelsea-SM combine that will make it better.

I don’t want to be too hopeful and so I will just await developments.

Note: Thanks a lot to the research of Gorio Belen in the National Library.