The MS Express That Turned Into The Star Crafts 7

I first saw the MS Express live inside the Varadero de Recodo (“varadero” is Spanish for shipyard and Chavacano of Zamboanga is a Spanish creole language), a shipyard in Zamboanga City some five years ago now. The High Speed Craft (HSC) was laid up there together with the AS Express and RS Express and they were all Malaysia-built fastcrafts of the Zamboanga-based shipping company A. Sakaluran (for Hadji Ahmad Sakaluran, the founder). The said shipping company has already stopped sailing then and that included even their cruiser ferries like the Rizma. When I approached the fastcrafts, I found out that they still have a caretaker crew and they were friendly if a little bit depressed, shall I say (who won’t be in such a situation anyway and there was further reason for that, I later found out).

It was a great opportunity for me because I really wanted to shipspot the A. Sakaluran fastcrafts which was the Zamboanga pioneer in fastcrafts if the Bullet Express fastcrafts of Lepeng Wee (Speaker Ramon Mitra was not the true owner of those unlike what was said by urban legend) are excluded because those did not base in Zamboanga and plied other routes starting in Batangas. Actually, they even antedated the more-known Weesam Express (or more formally SRN Fastcrafts) which later moved to the Visayas. In real life, the two shipping companies are related by blood but A. Sakaluran was into shipping much earlier starting with with what I call the “Moro boats” which is the Mindanao equivalent of the batel in Luzon or lancha in other places and which is based on the Arab dhow.

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So, actually I was very saddened by the collapse of A. Sakaluran evidenced by their stopping of sailing. I am always saddened with the departure of the old shipping companies because we again will lose a part of our shipping heritage and history. The reason is unlike abroad we are not good in collecting and preserving records and mementos. In other countries, books about old shipping companies can be written decades after they were gone because there are complete written records plus valuable photos. That is not the situation in our country which is not too keen in history (courtesy of the destruction of the Spaniards of our old history). Actually, I try to write because I want to commit on record what I know and what I remember about our shipping history.

The collapse of A. Sakaluran might follow the analysis of my friend, the Zamboanga-based Administrator of Philippine Ship Spotters Society (PSSS), Britz Salih. He said the small Basilan Lines might have survived if they bought ROROs instead of the Australian catamaran Malamawi. That can also be true for A. Sakaluran. They might have had a longer life if instead of the three fastcrafts they acquired ROROs or maybe additional steel-hulled cruiser ferries. Fastcrafts were not cheap then but maybe the sales pitch of the Sibu fastcraft companies proved to be too tempting. It was also a success already then in Malaysia and in Singapore and so the implication is they will also be successful here.

In such a short time, Zamboanga had such a high concentration of High Speed Crafts (HSC) and mainly fastcrafts of Malaysian origin. Coupled with the sudden rise too in the number of ROROs because of the incentives of the Ramos administration there soon was overcompetition in Zamboanga (but the erroneous paper done by Myrna S. Austria didn’t see that because she believed the incomplete reports of the government agencies). Add to that the wont of passengers in Zamboanga not to pay fares if they are related to the owners or they are the followers of some VIPs, soon the High Speed Crafts of Zamboanga were threatened with bankruptcy (HSCs will go down first before the ROROs because they can’t carry a meaningful load of cargo and these have oversized engines guzzling large amounts of fuel and not the cheaper MDO by the way). In such a situation, Weesam Express brought most of their fastcrafts to the Visayas. Meanwhile, A. Sakaluran transferred two of their three fastcrafts to Batangas and one to Iloilo.

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The A. Sakaluran fastcrafts anchored in Batangas Bay (Photo by Nowell Alcancia)

The diversion did not prove to be successful because when A. Sakaluran transferred to Batangas there was also overcompetition there (when clueless-about-shipping Myrna S. Austria contended in her Philippine Institute for Development Studies paper that there was lack of competition there because she did not see that the government reports she was basing on was highly incomplete). Batangas was not only the base then of ever-increasing number of ROROs but also of High Speed Crafts especially the tough-to-beat, state-of-the-art SuperCats. Losing money, in a few short years the fastcrafts of A. Sakaluran were found just anchored in Batangas Bay and not sailing. And then these were no longer seen there again. However, they were spotted anchored in Bacolod a short while later before they disappeared once more.

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The MS Express spotted anchored in Bacolod (Photo by “boybacolod2”)

And so in one of my visits to Varadero de Recodo, I was really thrilled to see the three A. Sakaluran fastcrafts after they disappeared from view in Batangas. That was the confirmation that they were still alive and not sold anywhere else like in Indonesia which uses a lot of Malaysian-built fastcrafts. That was really a thrilling find since those fastcrafts were still in good condition and not just some kind of old and balky ferries.

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Just what is their origins? The MS Express is a fastcraft built in 1999 by Yong Choo Kui (YCK) in Sibu on the western shore of Sabah, Malaysia, the birthplace of the Malaysian type of fastcrafts. She was like almost all the other Malaysian fastcrafts which were developed by the Malaysian government from a riverboat design. That means a long sleek hull with a narrow beam and sitting low on the water but with oversized engines. The hull is made of strong steel unlike many High Speed Crafts with aluminum alloy hulls. I was told the hull was designed even for beaching if needed.

Now, I do not know if the tale that they can survive a 360-degree cartwheel but of course any passenger or crew not in harness will suffer injury from that. They are known for good seakeeping and stability but many fear wave splashes on the windows thinking it is already a sign of danger when definitely it is not. Well, I guarantee the waves of Celebes Sea can be higher than that and I have personally experienced it there in a fastcraft when we took the direct route from Baganian Peninsula to Zamboanga City and it was habagat (southwest monsoon) time. But the passengers there are used to rougher seas and bigger waves and we all agreed it was simply time to sleep already when it was actually daytime. Well, rather than worry we were not seeing any land anymore.

The MS Express has a registered length (LR) of 40.7 meters, a beam of 4.7 meters and a depth of 2.3 meters and so her height to depth ratio is actually very low which is a big factor in stability. Her gross tonnage is 143 and her net tonnage is only 25 (which I have doubt if that is correct). Like the RS Express and the Sea Jet of Aleson Shipping Lines she was powered by twin Mitsubishi high-speed engines with a total of 3,100 horsepower. Her design speed was 30 knots which is high-speed craft range even in the high European standard. The only problem with big engines in a small craft like a fastcraft is they generate a lot of heat and at full trot dissipating them becomes a problem. However, with no cabin above the engine this is less of a problem in MS Express unlike in Weesam Express fastcrafts.

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The stem of MS Express is raked as can be expected of fastcrafts and the stern is transom. There is a main passenger cabin which is airconditioned and on a stair leading to the upper deck is the bridge and behind that was still a half-deck of passenger accommodation. There is the usual-for-HSCs single mast with flashing light which distinguishes High Speed Crafts from other vessels especially in the night. A distinguishing mark for MS Express is the presence of two tall, slanted funnels with the air intakes for the engines just ahead of the funnels.

The pilot houses of the Malaysian fastcrafts are not as great as the High Speed Crafts from Japan and might even look primitive to some. There is that big stainless steel steering wheel (why is it not powered?) and the throttles are just at the right of the helmsman who sits on the port side of the pilot house. At the middle of the dashboard are the gauges and monitors of the ship. The side windows of the pilot houses can swing out.

In Varadero de Recodo, me and Britz heard the three A. Sakaluran fastcrafts have a buyer already and the amount we heard seems to be ridiculously low for us knowing what their original prices were (well, laid-up vessels usually don’t command good prices unless it is in Korea). But on my visit back to Varadero de Recodo, I heard Ernesto Ouano of Mandaue offered a much higher price for the three. Me and my companion Britz looked at each other. We know there are implications for that but we cannot be sure if that was related to an unfortunate incident that occurred in Mandaue later (as we say your guess is as good as mine).

And so one by one the three A. Sakaluran fastcrafts disappeared from Varadero de Recodo starting in late 2012 with the AS Express going first and the RS Express the last remaining. They were to be brought back under their own power to Sibu for refurbishing and that was a puzzle for us. They don’t look in need of massive refitting and so what was the need then to bring them back to Sibu? Why not Cebu directly? That great shipping place has a lot of shipyards and Varadero de Recodo is also a shipyard. Later it turned out that they will be re-engined also and there will be some other modifications. And so maybe re-engining was the major reason for bringing them back to Sibu. We knew they will already be Star Crafts upon their return.

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It will be 2014 already when MS Express returned to the country and she turned out to be the Star Crafts 7 of the shipping company known as either SITI Interisland or Sea Highway Carrier. There is really no difference between the two but everybody knows them as Star Crafts. The mutual legal-fiction companies have two routes from Cebu to Bohol which are to Tubigon and Jetafe (or Getafe) which are just a distance of about 20 nautical miles or so each. And maybe this is why the reason they derated the engine to a YC Diesel (or Yuchai) of China of just a total of 1,850 horsepower with a cruising speed of about 20 knots or a little bit above, just good enough for her to quality as a fastcraft by PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) definition as MARINA, the maritime regulatory agency has no definition for that.

The upper deck of the fastcraft was lengthened a little by three windows. It has two direct stairs to the upper deck of the ship and it seems primary loading now is through the upper deck as the fastcraft sits low now compared to the docks. The high funnels are no longer around and those were transferred to the stern (that is good because including the derated engines means less noise for the passenger cabins). There is also now a built-up structure in the stern for the crew (they look more like cadets to me, however, as the real crew seems to be just in T-shirts). Between that and the upper passenger deck is space for some light cargo.

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The big negative thing that happened to the fastcraft as Star Crafts 7 is in the seating arrangement that is now 4+4 with a small seat pitch which is the distance between the seats and so seating is very tight and there is obvious lack of space. Star Crafts 7 is the tightest-sitting High Speed Craft I ever saw and I wonder if Boholanos are not complaining . She is now a slower fastcraft with tight spaces and almost no legroom. And of course the seats are not reclining.

Now I wonder what kind of refurbishing or improvement is that? It looks more like downgrading to me. For the ownership and the revenues that is good and a plus. But for the passengers, what is the benefit of that? The ship has no canteen and so a crewman not in uniform hawks food when the ship is already sailing (that is also what I observed in Starcrafts 1). Well, even if there is a canteen someone not in the aisle will have difficulty in getting out. The tight spaces forbid movement for the entire ride as the passengers in the cheapest class (which is also airconditioned) are packed like sardines. This cheapest class occupies majority of the passenger accommodation in the fastcraft.

There are also higher class passenger accommodations in the upper deck that seats 3+3 and 3+4 which have a different seat motif and these sell higher. I wonder if they call that the Business Class. Those were farther from the engines but of course the upper deck will sway more in rough seas. Maybe with less water splash the view of the outside is better there.

Her route is Cebu-Tubigon when I rode with her and from Tubigon it took us a few minutes over one hour and part of the reason is the slowing down approaching Shell island because of the speed limit imposed in Mactan Channel now. By whatever measure, I cannot say my ride with her was comfortable and actually I was disappointed.

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Star Crafts is dominating the Tubigon and Jetafe routes at the High Speed Crafts  segment (that route has many ROROs) especially since Lite Jet is already gone and it seems the Star Crafts 7 is also successful too. But it is my wish that she would be more comfortable. What is the cost anyway of removing a few seats? A High Speed Craft should offer more room, better leg space and better seats than a tourist bus, I should say, if they will use “Tourist” as designation of the passenger class. Am I wrong? After all, a High Speed Craft is the bigger craft, it costs more and so why not make it more comfortable all the way? That way, they will be deserving of the higher class or segment they are thought of to be occupying.

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The MV Mac Bryan

The latter half of the 1990’s was a decade of ferment in Zamboanga shipping like in Cebu shipping, Manila shipping and Batangas shipping. The liberalization and modernization policy of President Fidel V. Ramos was already in full swing and all were optimistic that the bad decade of the 1980’s was really over. The mood then everywhere and in every sector was to invest and to expand. Shipping was not excluded in that and ships of all kinds were coming fast from freighters to containers ships to conventional ferries up to the High Speed Crafts. But the bears soon follow the bulls and in the early 2000’s shipping actually has an overcapacity then. But this was not captured by the paper of Myrna S. Austria which still held that many routes have no or no significant competition. Wrongly because she only looked at competitions within a route and completely failed to see that parallel routes actually compete.

In the hoopla decade for shipping that was the 1990’s the Ever Lines Inc. of Zamboanga had a rather calculated response only. They only brought in two ferry-ROROs that was the next bigger size to the small, basic, short-distance ferry. This kind of ferry usually have a passenger deck and a bridge deck (which can be converted to an additional passenger deck), two ramps front and rear and two engines (and of course, two funnels and two propellers). The two ships that they brought in were the former MV Amagi and the former MV Shiraito of the Surugawan Car Ferry of Japan. The former became the MV Ever Queen of the Pacific in the fleet of Ever Lines while the latter became the MV Ever Queen of Asia. The two were true sister ships and they arrived in Zamboanga in 1998. In 2007, after nine years of sailing, Ever Lines decided to sell the MV Ever Queen of the Pacific when they were able to buy a fishing vessel, the former MV Coral White which was then converted into a passenger-cargo ship in Zamboanga. This ship is not a RORO (Roll On, Roll Off) and is a bit smaller but Ever Lines deemed her fit for their Tawi-tawi routes and so the MV Ever Queen of the Pacific was sold to the Sta. Clara Shipping Company of Bicol where she became the short-distance RORO named the MV Mac Bryan.

The MV Amagi which became the MV Ever Queen of the Pacific and later the MV Mac Bryan was built by the Shimoda Dockyard Co., Limited in Shimoda yard in Japan in 1970. The ship measured 54.0 meters in length over-all, 50.9 meters in length between perpendiculars with and an extreme breadth of 12.0 meters (which means she is a “thin” ship) and a depth of 3.8 meters. Her Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) was 491 and her Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) was 102. She was powered by two Niigata marine diesel engines with a total output of 1,800 horsepower which propelled the ship to a sustained top speed of 14 knots when still new. She plied a route in Suruga Bay much like other ferries that later came to the Philippines. Her passenger capacity in Japan was 203 in seats in a cabin with a few more seats in the open deck. Her permanent ID is IMO 7034452.

A steel-hulled RORO she has a bow ramp and a stern ramp with a car deck of four lanes with a total of approximately 50 meters length. Her approximate rolling cargo capacity is about 550 lane-meters. She has a rectangular box at the bow where the ramp fits and this serves as rain deterrent so that the car deck won’t be as wet and slippery in rainy weather. The bow of the ship has a raked look and with the rectangular box she looks muscular. She only has one passenger deck and the bridge deck was reserved for the crew. The ship has two masts with the aft mast looking tall. The stem of the ship is raked and the stern is transom.

After being sold to Ever Lines and arriving in Zamboanga in 1998 she underwent refitting to become an overnight ferry fitted with bunks. Together with the sister ship the MV Ever Queen of Asia, they were used in the Zamboanga-Jolo-Siasi-Bongao-Sitangkai route of the company. This is actually not an overnight route but a multiday route with the ships sailing between route legs are mainly at night and it takes five days for the ship to come back. However, though the routes and schedules are fixed the MV Ever Queen of the Pacific was not a true liner as the amenities do not fulfill that of a modern liner although she was a two-class ship with an open-air Economy class and an airconditioned Tourist class. Her sailing was more of a multi-overnight ferry with few basic amenities. She can also be called a passenger-cargo ship as the stress in that route is cargo and they take in lots of it but it is not rolling cargo although she is a RORO. The ramps actually just makes the loading and unloading of the porters easier. Most of the cargo in their route is loose cargo.

In 2007 when she was sold to Sta. Clara Shipping Corporation to do short-distance Bicol routes she was reconverted to a short-distance ferry not with bunks but with seats and this time she is already known as the MV Mac Bryan. At the front an airconditioned section with bus seats (yes, bus seats!) were fitted. This was the old passenger section in Japan. Since the original seats were no longer around this was the most available seats already that were a little comfortable and ordering them was not difficult as in the Bicol routes the ships of Sta. Clara Shipping Corp. and its sister company Penafrancia Shipping Corporation loads a lot of buses. At the rear of the airconditioned Tourist section is the open-air Economy class with fiberglass bucket seats which is not comfortable for long sailings. The ship also has a small kiosk between the two accommodation classes where drinks, snacks and knickknacks are available. There is no restaurant but there is a simple galley for the crew.

This time around as the MV Mac Bryan under Sta. Clara Shipping Corp., she is already used as a true RORO and almost all her loads are vehicles, practically 98% of it, and most of it are trucks and buses. These intermodal trucks and buses are in the main already contracted by the company. So in peak seasons it actually operates not in First Come, First Served basis as most ignorant motorists suppose and which they do not understand. The ship will even wait for a “suki” vehicle if it is a little delayed to the scratching of the heads who do not know or understand the contractual system.

Equipped with seats the passenger capacity of MV Mac Bryan is about 500. As fitted now her Net Tonnage (NT) is 239 and her Gross Tonnage (GT) marginally rose to 499. Her local Call Sign is DUJ 2136 but she has no MMSI Number.

I have visited the bridge of MV Mac Bryan like I have visited the bridge of her sister ship MV Ever Queen of Asia. The bridge equipment of MV Mac Bryan is more complete and it is much cleaner and tidy. It even has a mini-library for the necessary files and references.

In Sta Clara Shipping Corporation she plies all routes of the company in rotation. The three routes of her company are Matnog-Allen, Tabaco-Virac and Masbate-Pio Duran. In her last assignment after her drydock in Nagasaka Shipyard in Tayud, she was brought to the last-named route because they want their second ship there to have a smaller engine since their second schedule for the route is not that full. She did not stay full-time there because Sta. Clara Shipping Corporation and Penafrancia Shipping Corporation always rotate their ship and route assignments.

I have heard the Niigata engines of MV Mac Bryan are no longer that strong. But over-all, she is still a reliable ship. Maybe she just need to have her engine revolutions lessened a bit. Well, her company and its sister company Penafrancia Shipping Corp. are actually good in extending the life of old ships and with its special relationship with Nagasaka Shipyard it is sure that their ships will be maintained well. And if need be she can just specialize in the short Matnog-Allen route which can be kinder to the engines although her rolling capacity might be a little small for the route when peak seasons come.

I expect a long more time of her sailing the Bicol routes successfully, knock on wood.

All The Ports of Bohol With Connection to Cebu Are Actually Competing Against Each Other

There are many Bohol ports with connections to Cebu and one way or another, all of them are competing against each other. This is a basic point or truth known by the people of Bohol and Cebu but missed by Myrna S. Austria in her paper on shipping competition. In that paper, she compared the competition of the shipping companies within a route but she completely failed to take account that different routes actually compete and shipping companies on those different shipping routes also compete against each other.

http://dirp3.pids.gov.ph/ris/rps/pidsrp0302.pdf

There are many Bohol ports that have connection to Cebu because simply put Bohol is tethered too to Cebu like Leyte (which I have discussed in another article). Cebu sends its many manufactured goods to Bohol and in return Bohol sends many agricultural produce and products of the sea to Cebu. There are also many Bol-anons that work or study in Cebu. On the other end, there are many Sugbuhanons who visit the many tourist sites of Bohol. In the less developed towns of Bohol where there are no big stores, the people go to Cebu for their needs since the goods are more complete there and cheaper and the fare and cargo rate are reasonable.

The following ports of Bohol have connections to Cebu by steel-hulled ferries at present: Ubay, Tagbilaran, Catagbacan (Loon), Tubigon, Jetafe and Talibon. Aside from steel-hulled ferries, the towns of Jetafe, Talibon and islets off Bohol also have connections to Cebu by big motor bancas. Most of the steel-hulled ferries that connect Cebu and Bohol are RORO (Roll-On, Roll-Off) ships. Hence, they can also carry vehicles aside from passengers. There are also High Speed Crafts (HSCs) that connect Tagbilaran, Tubigon and Jetafe to Cebu. In all these connections there are ferries running day and night.

In decades past, it was Tagbilaran that was the main gateway to Bohol from Cebu. However, in the recent years, it seems Tubigon port has already exceeded Tagbilaran port especially in rolling cargo. Using Tubigon as the port of entry is cheaper and the travel time to there is just half as it is nearer in distance from Cebu. There are also the alternative Lite Ferries LCTs from Ouano in Mandaue to Talibon that caters mainly to rolling cargo. To match that, RORO Cargo LCTs have also been deployed in the Cebu-Tagbilaran route.

Since the main tourist attractions of Bohol are the world-famous RORO Cargo LCT and the Loboc River Cruise (plus SuperCat offers online booking, a feature foreign tourists are accustomed to), the tourists still use Tagbilaran port as entry. But lately Tubigon is also putting a fight for Chocolate Hills because the roads have already gotten better. If before it was only Tagbilaran that have HSCs from SuperCat and Oceanjet now Tubigon already have fastcrafts from Starcrafts and Oceanjet (via the franchise from Lite Ferries). The main competition in Bohol is actually between Tagbilaran and Tubigon ports.

In the northern part of Bohol, Tubigon has competition too from Jetafe and Talibon which are incidentally ports of adjacent towns. The Clemer and other boats are active in the two ports and they have a loyal clientele. A ship from Island Shipping and a RORO from VG Shipping also serve the two ports. The motor bancas and these ROROs serve as alternative if a passenger or shipper is going direct to Jetafe or Talibon or to towns east of the two.

Further east another option is the J&N ROROs to Ubay. But even though these are ROROs, they mainly take break-bulk cargo and passengers. Even then Ubay is competing against the other ports. Actually, Ubay port and Tagbilaran port sank the Cebu connection to Ubay especially when the roads got better and the buses multiplied. The weakness of Jagna as a connection to Cebu is that it is more distant because of the roundabout route.

There is also a RORO connection between Taloot port in Argao, Cebu to Catagbacan port in Loon, Bohol. This serves as alternative for vehicles coming from or going to the southern part of Cebu. With this route they need not go to Cebu City. If the ferry there is unavailable or when like the port was damaged by the big quake in Bohol then Tagbilaran or Tubigon ports become the alternative to this connection.

If the two ports of Tubigon and Tagbilaran are the main competing Bohol ports then all the other ports are alternatives to either of the two. That is simply the situation of the ports in Bohol especially now when the roads of Bohol are more developed and there are plenty of buses running and even into the night. People of Bohol know the permutations of the ship rides and they take what is most convenient or cheapest to them.

For example, if one misses the ferry in Ubay or if it is not running, then one just have to motor to either Talibon or Jetafe and take the ferries there. Similarly, if one misses the Tagbilaran ferry he can also take the bus or van to Tubigon and get a suitable ferry there. These two examples are also applicable to vehicles. Now, if one is short on budget then one can take the cheap ferry to Tubigon and just take the bus to Tagbilaran. If one can’t wait wait for the ferries to Jetafe, Talibon or Ubay, one can just take the Tubigon routes which has more ferries. If one’s town lies between two ports then he can take either route depending on his whims and needs. There are really many possibilities and there are many feasible ports of entries to or ports of departure from Bohol.

But, apparently, if one reads her paper, it seems Myrna S. Austria has no idea or knowledge of that.

The Leyte Ports to Cebu

Talking of Leyte, I am referring to the old Leyte province which included Biliran, Southern Leyte and Panaon island. The reason is port and route competition does not actually respect current political boundaries. Biliran and Panaon islands are connected by bridges to Leyte hence there is no practical physical division separating them from the main island of Leyte.

In the recent past and including ports used by RORO Cargo LCTs, there were many Leyte ports with scheduled connections to Cebu. Starting from Cabalian (San Juan), that includes, counter-clockwise, the ports of Liloan, Sogod, Maasin, Bato, Hilongos, Hindang, Baybay, IDHI Port (Albuera), Ormoc, GGC (Ormoc), Pingag (Isabel), Isabel, Palompon, Villaba, San Isidro, Naval and Tacloban. This list does not include ports that lost connection to Cebu much earlier like San Francisco, Malitbog and Calubian. There are so many Leyte ports with Cebu connection because Leyte is economically tethered to Cebu. And Cebu is the true regional center of the middle of the Visayas.

However, in recent years, some of these ports waned with the development of the roads and land transport including the ubiquitous commuter van. Cabalian, Liloan and Sogod, all in Southern Leyte, lost its regular connections to Cebu. Even the supposed main port of entry to the province, the Maasin port was much weakened. The reason for this was the rise of commuter vans and buses connecting to the arriving and departing ships. Bato and Hilongos became the main ports of entry for Southern Leyte even though they are located in another province. From these two ports, connecting vans and buses rolled to Maasin and to towns beyond. The vans and buses also passed through the shortcut mountain road to go as far as Sogod, Cabalian, Silago and Panaon island. These land transports have dedicated connections with the ferries and tickets can be bought even in Cebu or aboard the ferry.

These connecting rides are actually faster compared to the old ferries going to Sogod, Liloan and Cabalian. With dawn arrivals of the ships in the entry ports, most of the passengers will be at their homes by breakfast. Even in the farthest destinations it will be well before lunch when the passengers will arrive. Compare this to the near or lunch arrivals of the ships to Sogod, Liloan and Cabalian before. And besides these new ferry plus van modes are cheaper than the old ships to Southern Leyte. In the process, Bato and Hilongos ports became more important.

Going to Cebu, these same vans and buses also brought the passengers to the ships. Besides, it is also easy for people of Southern Leyte to take the local bus and local van to Maasin. If there is a ship there then they can take that. If there is none, it is so easy for to take another ride to Bato port. Others can also take the national highway to Mahaplag junction. From there it is just a short distance away to Baybay port where there are also daily and multiple departures like in Hilongos and Bato.

This syndrome is a fine example that shows it is not only shipping companies within a route that compete. Actually, several parallel routes and the shipping companies plying those are all competing and superior routes can sometimes sink inferior routes like the Cebu routes to Sogod, Liloan and Cabalian. Well, such parallel competition can even sink ship companies as shown in recent Leyte history when the shipping companies serving Cabalian, Liloan and Sogod went under. This syndrome is clearly not known or understood by the research paper on shipping competition done by Myrna S. Austria.

http://pascn.pids.gov.ph/files/Discussions%20Papers/2002/2002-04.pdf

Another far port of Leyte that lost its connection to Cebu is Tacloban port. Passengers learned to use Palompon, Ormoc and Baybay ports as ports of entry and then just transfer to a van or a bus. The land transport terminals of the three localities just lie outside the port gates so transferring is no problem. With this mode, passengers will arrive in Tacloban earlier and at less cost. Going to Cebu from Tacloban, the riding process is just reversed and it is that easy too. Besides, in Ormoc and Baybay there are many ships departing and in Ormoc there is even a day departure. Also, there are High Speed Crafts in Ormoc for those who are in a hurry or who just wants more comfort. So, slowly the Tacloban ships lost patronage until they finally stopped sailing. Again, such syndrome was not known or understood by the research paper on shipping competition by Myrna S. Austria which compartmentalized routes and assumed that other routes have no effect or influence on one particular route.

If that were so, then the likes of Maypalad Shipping Corporation that held Liloan, Sogod and Tacloban routes might have survived. This was the fate too of other shipping companies that held routes to Villaba, Tabango and San Isidro like M.Y. Shipping and Rose Shipping. Daily there are many ships to Ormoc while the service to those three towns were not daily. There is even a day ship and High Speed Crafts from three companies. In Ormoc the land transport terminal is just outside the port gates and there are a lot of buses and vans to Villaba, Tabango and San Isidro on the northwest corner of Leyte. With the competition from the Ormoc ships, the shipping companies serving Villaba, Tabango and San Isidro quit and now there are no more ships to those ports from Cebu. They were simply torpedoed by a parallel route which is Cebu-Ormoc. Again, the paper on shipping by Myrna S. Austria did not see or understand that.

Naval in Biliran, as a port, was also weakened by parallel routes like the port of Maasin and to think both are ports of provincial capitals and supposedly the main ports of entry to their provinces. Naval is also impacted by the parallel route to Ormoc because from Ormoc there are plenty of vans and buses to Biliran. And Ormoc has daily departures from Cebu while Ormoc does not have such. For those who failed to catch the night ship there are also the High Speed Crafts and day ferries to Ormoc. Naval simply does not have such option. Besides, if there is a ship to Palompon the traveler to Biliran can also take that and again the bus terminal is just outside Palompon port. Clearly, Myrna S. Austria never dreamed provincial ports can be weakened by far and near parallel routes. That was her mistake in treating routes and ports as insulated from one another. This might be unknown to her but people of Leyte know that even from a young age since they come and go to Cebu.

In Myrna S. Austria’s research paper, the routes I enumerated above that lost ships are generally classified as having “no competition”. Ports lost ships, routes were dropped and shipping companies sank because there was “no competition”?? With regards to Leyte, her paper is obviously erroneous (it is erroneous in other parts of the Philippines too and I will show that in future articles).

Even with less players the routes from Cebu to Leyte are all vibrant and shipping companies compete well. Now, it is even more dynamic with the arrival of the RORO Cargo LCTs which compete now with the traditional Cebu-Leyte shipping companies. With them there are new routes and new ports in use. The traditional shipping companies have already reacted to them and one way is by also joining the fray or their mode. They are friendlier now to rolling cargo as the intermodal way is obvious already that that is the way of the future.

There is “lack of competition”? Nah, that is only a figment of imagination in Myrna S. Austria’s paper.