The Smallest and Last Japan “Cruiseferry” To Come To The Philippines

In the late 1960’s, the “Bypasses of the Sea” came into existence in Japan. These were long-distance ROROs (actually ROPAXes) meant to bypass the crowded roads of Japan which was experiencing a sustained economic boom then in what was called the “Japan Miracle” which brought the former war-defeated and occupied country into the forefront of the ranks of nations (Number 2 in fact later). These “Bypasses of the Sea” were workmanlike and were primarily geared to the trucks and its crews and also to passengers in average comfort. Some of these ROROs actually came to the Philippines when they were retired in Japan like the Filipina Princess, the Princess of Paradise, the Princess of the World, the Manila Bay 1, the Subic Bay 1 and the Mary Queen of Peace.


Photo by Wakanatsu

In the next decade, aside from the “Bypasses of the Sea”, a new class of ROROs came into existence in Japan. These were bigger and much more comfortable with hotel-like facilities. These were later dubbed as “cruiseferries”, a portmanteau. These were like cruise ships in comfort and service but as the same time these were still “Bypasses of the Sea”. As “cruiseferries”, these were more geared to attract passengers but these still had the car decks for the trucks and sedans. The “cruiseferries” being faster that most ROROs can travel more distances and longer routes and can cover most of their routes in a night or so, in great comfort. “Sanfurawaa” or the series of Sunflower ships were the leader in this new class and three of their ships eventually went to the Philippines after their retirement. They were known as Princess of the Orient, Mabuhay 1 and Princess of Unity in our waters.

The “cruiseferry” class did not last long, however. In the 1980’s, Japan were no longer building them as passengers were already preferring other modes of transport like the budget planes and the now-ubiquitous “Bullet” trains. The Japan shipping companies scaled back in comfort and began dedicating two decks of the ship to rolling cargo. However, there was still enough comfort for those who seek them although it was no longer as opulent as the “cruiseferries”. Dormitories and second-class cabins were the dominant passenger classes now. These class of ships were called the “carferries” and some of these also reached the Philippines when they were retired in Japan. They were known here as the SuperFerry 12, SuperFerry 15, SuperFerry 16, SuperFerry 17, SuperFerry 18, SuperFerry 20, SuperFerry 21, Princess of the Universe, St. Michael The Archangel and St. Francis Xavier.

There are also other Japan companies which ventured into “cruiseferries”. One of these is the Sanpo Kaiun K.K. which is just a small company. It acquired the White Sanpo 2 in 1981 and she was relatively big compared to their previous ships. This ship was well-appointed it qualified into a “cruiseferry” class albeit a little smaller than the other Japan “cruiseferries”. Her route was Kobe-Imabari-Matsuyama. The year she was acquired, Japan shipping companies were still acquiring “cruiseferries”. It will be just be a little later that the “cruiseferries” will be supplanted by the “carferries”.


Photo by Britz Salih

In 2000, White Sanpo 2 came to the Philippines after 19 years of service in Japan and she became the SuperFerry 14 of William, Gothong and Aboitiz or WG&A. This was the first ferry not originally ordered by the partners which means it was already the merged company which acquired her. She was also the last Japan “cruiseferry” that came here. Passengers were asking why the later big ferries from Japan were no longer as luxurious. The reason was it was already “carferries” that were coming and no longer “cruiseferries”. Actually, the presence of two car decks is the giveaway the ship that came is a “carferry”.

The SuperFerry 14 was not really as small ship since her length was 155 meters which is nearly 5 meters longer than the sister ships SuperFerry 20, SuperFerry 21, St. Michael The Archangel and St. Francis Xavier and the sister ships St. Peter The Apostle and St. Joseph The Worker and she was just two meter shorter than SuperFerry 8. However if compared to the SuperFerry 6, SuperFerry 10, SuperFerry 12, the Princess of the Universe, the Princess of Paradise, the Princess of the World, the Princess of New Unity, the Mary Queen of Peace, the Manila Bay 1 and the Subic Bay 1 (and of course the earlier Filipina Princess) she would look “small”. It was simply the time that our shipping companies were acquiring bigger and bigger liners and with large passenger capacities too. During that period, liners of 3,000-passenger capacity were already becoming the norm.

The White Sanpo 2 or SuperFerry 14 was actually 155.6 meters by 23.6 meters in dimension with a depth of 13.0 meters. Her gross tonnage (GT) was 10,181 meters in Japan and 10,192 meters in the Philippines. The reason for the almost identical GT was her superstructure here was no longer modified and no decks were added. She was one of the early big liners here where the superstructure was left untouched and the passenger capacity was not maximized. Others like her in this treatment were the Mabuhay 1 or SuperFerry 10 and the Princess of New Unity. For her bigness, SuperFerry 14 only had a passenger capacity of 1,757. Other liners of her length and in her time had passenger capacities of well over 2,000 persons. Her net tonnage (NT) was 4,957.


The ship with the green sundeck is SuperFerry 14 (copyrights are in the photo)

The White Sanpo 2, the future SuperFerry 14 was built by Hayashikane Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Ltd. in their Shimonoseki yard in Japan in 1981. She has three passenger decks and a single car deck which was accessible by ramps at the bow and the stern. Her design and lines were pretty much traditional of her period. The ship has a semi-bulbous stem and a transom stern and powered by two main engines, all of which were standard in the design of her era. Her permanent ID was IMO 8004210.

Her speed was also par for the course for the big liners then of 150 meters length in the Philippines except for those that didn’t look sleek enough (like the Manila Bay 1 and SuperFerry 6 which looked fat and were not capable of 20 knots here). Since her design speed in Japan was 21 knots, she was still capable of 20 knots here especially since not much metal was added because no decks were added to her. That speed came from a pair of SEMT-Pielstick engines that developed 23,400 horsepower.

As a former “cruiseferry”, SuperFerry 14 had luxurious interiors and accommodations many of which were simply carried over from her Japan features. Since WG&A had many good ships already in the Cebu and Iloilo routes, she was then used by the company to compete with the Negros Navigation ships in the Manila-Bacolod-Cagayan de Oro route. Bacolod was once closed to other shipping companies except for Negros Navigation since they operate privately the only suitable port for big liners then, the Banago port. With the opening of the BREDCO port, WG&A challenged in the Manila-Bacolod-Cagayan de Oro route and SuperFerry 14 was more than a match to the Mary The Queen and the St. Joseph The Worker of NENACO in the Cagayan de Oro route.

First Try

A drawing by Ken Ledesma

The SuperFerry 14 did not sail long, however. On the night of February 27, 2004, a bomb exploded in a Tourist section on a lower deck of the ship an hour and a half after leaving Manila North Harbor when the ship was at the mouth of Manila Bay. The explosion triggered a fire which soon engulfed the whole ship. The firefighting crew of the ship was overwhelmed and the rescue was chaotic. Some passengers simply jumped into the dark sea and some were feared drowned in the aftermath. To think, it was even fortunate that the incident happened in waters near where rescue ships can reach the ship fast.

Rescuers including tugs and a helicopter tried to douse the fire consuming the ship and eventually the fire was controlled. The ship was towed to Bataan even while burning as capsizing will mean a greater loss. On shore, the vessel capsized but she was righted and search and rescue operations continued. With the vessel afloat, rescuers were able to comb the ship and probers investigated the cause of the fire. There was really a blast site that looked like it came from a bomb. The claims of the crew of a bomb exploding was validated.


Photo from

Although the Abu Sayyaf Group immediately claimed responsibility for the firebombing, the government of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo initially dismissed a terrorist attack and instead blamed it on some sort of an accident (the government of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo had the habit of denying terrorist attacks until conclusively proven). But later when suspects from the Rajah Solaiman Movement affiliated with the Abu Sayyaf were captured and admitted what happened to SuperFerry 14, the government changed tune and admitted that what brought the ferry down was really a bomb placed inside a TV set.

Whatever and later, the estimate was some 63 people died and about 53 were missing in the incident for a total body count of about 116. That figure does not include the wounded. Some of the casualties were bright students from an elite school, the MSU-IIT-IDS of Iligan City in Lanao and that included the second-ranking student of the graduating class (she was later given a posthumous joint Salutatorian award by the school).


Photo from The 4Freedoms Library

SuperFerry 14 never sailed again as her condition is BER (Beyond Economic Repair). In databases, she is marked as CTL (Complete Total Loss). There were pictures of her where the fire was even consuming the bridge of the ship. Besides, passengers don’t want to ride a ship where there was a lot of dead in a previous accident.

A very fine ship but SuperFerry 14 was really unfortunate.


Container Ships Also Sink Our Liners

In the past, before 1980, there was no conflict between the our liners and the container ships. First, container ships did not exist before the late 1970’s. Second, before that time, general cargo ships were not many as it is our liners that were mainly carrying the inter-island cargo that should be transported fast and were not in bulk. That was the reason why even though our production and the number of people were not yet as high like today, there were so many liners existing with as high as 90 liners at its very peak.


Gorio Belen research in the National Library

In the early 1970’s, the Sea Transport Company came into existence. What was notable for this new company is they offered regular express cargo service to Mindanao which means a direct service and aside from loose cargo, their ships were able to carry small container vans which were non-standard as in they were offering 8-foot containers which they themselves designed (it was rectangular in shape). In due time, they also shifted to standard container vans and they fielded pure container carriers.

In 1976, Aboitiz Shipping Corporation converted one of their general cargo ships, the P. Aboitiz into a container carrier. Conversion like this was not difficult because only some internal structures need to be modified so a container van can be slot in and that also means modifying the holds and the hatches. The grabs of the booms also have to be modified by a bit so it can handle a container van.


Gorio Belen research in the National Library

In 1978, containerization was already in full swing when Aboitiz Shipping Corporation added more container ships and William Lines Incorporated followed suit. The next year, in 1979, Sulpicio Lines Incorporated also joined the bandwagon to be followed in the next year by Lorenzo Shipping Corporation which had already split from its merger with Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc (CAGLI). Negros Navigation Company also joined this new paradigm in 1980. In 1981, Sweet Lines Incorporated also followed suit but they used their old company name Central Shipping Corporation. Among the major liner companies then, it was only Compania Maritima which did not join this new paradigm.


Gorio Belen research in the National Library

These new container services offered direct sailings as in there were no intermediate ports. With direct service, the container ships might be a little slower than the liners (except for the fast cruisers) but their transit times were not worse than the liners (except to Cebu) because they don’t lose time in an intermediate port or ports. With the speed, convenience, security (no pilferage), lack of damage and contamination, soon the shippers were already shifting en masse to the new container services.

In the liner crisis of 1980 when many liners were deactivated and laid up, it seems the main cause of that was the emergence and immediate success of the container ships and container shipping. Maybe the liners suddenly found they don’t have enough cargo and hence they can’t maintain the old sailing schedule and from the outside it looked like that suddenly there was a “surplus” of bottoms (actually the liners complained of that).


Gorio Belen research in the National Library

In December 1979, the first RORO liner, the Dona Virginia of William Lines came. This RORO and those that came after her were capable of carrying container vans especially the XEU or 10-foot container vans that can be loaded aboard by the big forklifts. Soon even the fast cruiser liners were also carrying container vans atop their cargo holds especially at the bow of the ship. Some can also carry container vans on a platform in the stern.

Locally, I did not see a new paradigm take hold as fast as container shipping. The ROROs even took longer to be the new paradigm. In containerization, there was even a rush to convert general cargo ships into container ships. All the “new” container ship of Lorenzo Shipping Corporation were converts at the start. The other container shipping companies bought general cargo ships from Japan and converted them into container carriers. Our first container ships looked like general cargo ship unlike the modern container ship which does not look like general cargo ships (and nor can they handle loose cargo).


In just a little over a year William Lines had 5 container ships (Gorio Belen research in the National Library)

The emergence of the RORO liners even pushed containerization faster as that new kind of ferry is ready-made not only for vehicles or rolling cargo but also for container vans, wheeled in atop chassis (which means atop trailers) or not (if not wheeled then big forklifts “wheeled” them in). There were not yet reach stackers in the early years of our containerization to handle the container vans.

In the 1980’s and the 1990’s, the liners can still hold off the container ships. The reason was there were no budget airlines yet (Philippine Airlines fares then were really stiff) and there were no intermodal buses yet in the bulk of the islands (it was only strong in Eastern Visayas, their pioneer area). And liners can still pack in the passengers (even up to “overloading” or overbooking point) because people has already learned how to travel and there was a great push for migration to Metro Manila (which later led to the overcrowding of this metropolis).

However, when budget airlines and the intermodal buses came in droves, the passengers of the liners dropped. The 2,000 to 3,000 passenger capacity slowly became “too big” and hence the national shipping companies no longer fielded liners with capacities such as this in the new millennium. Aboitiz Transport System (ATS) also tried to reduce passenger capacity and increase cargo capacity by converting some of their liners to have two decks for rolling cargo like what they did in SuperFerry 12, SuperFerry 9 and SuperFerry 2.

Superferry 12

Photo by Edison Sy

Can the liners compete with container ships when the passenger demand dipped? The answer is a plain “No way”. Liners usually have more than three times the horsepower of a local container ship (and it is single-engined which means less spare parts are needed) and yet the local container ship usually have three times the container capacity of a RORO liner. This even became more pronounced when the regime of high oil prices came in the first decade of this millennium. Per fuel prices alone, the container ships can carry each container van much cheaper than what a liner can.

Container vans also do not need the amenities needed by the passengers. Moreover, it does not need the service expected of the passengers which need to be fed and be given more than decent accommodations plus some entertainment. Because of that, the crewing needs of a liner is far higher than that of a container ship. All of those means more expense of the part of the liner company. Besides, a RORO liner is more expensive than a container ship for the same size and its insurance is higher.

Ever since the 1980’s, even when the passenger demand was still great, the national shipping companies were earning more from cargo than their passengers. That is true even today when 2GO admits that almost 70% of their revenues are from cargo (and to think under their roof is SuperCat which widens the passenger revenues). Definitely their investment for liners is greater than their cargo ships. Maybe it was only loyalty to their passengers and passenger shipping why they were not quitting this segment. Maybe it is also because of inertia which means just keeping doing the old things.

Lorcon Dumaguete assisted by tugs

If we look at the recent years we can see that for every liner acquired at least 7 container ships were acquired and this is even a conservative estimate. If we look at the last 10 years starting from 2006, only 11 liners came to our shores and that includes the 3 Cebu Ferries, two of which are still used as overnight ships although already converted into small liners. Meanwhile, MARINA registered 80 or more newly-arrived container ships in the same period. These are the container ships of Oceanic Container Lines, Sulpicio Lines/Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation, Lorenzo Shipping Corporation, NMC Container Lines, Solid Shipping Lines, Negros Navigation/Caprotec Corporation/2GO, MCC Transport Philippines (MCCTP), Moreta Shipping Lines, Meridian Cargo Forwarders, Seaview Cargo Shipping Corporation, Escano Lines/Loadstar Shipping Company and West Ocean Lines and Transport acquired in the last ten years. Now how many container lines is that compared to a sole passenger liner company?

There are few liners sailing now and all are under just one company which is 2GO (since Romblon Shipping Lines has already quit). Meanwhile, container ships are still mushrooming and more container shipping companies are joining the field. Even 20 years ago there were already more container ships than liners. Now the container ships are already outstripping the liners in number. And the trend holds true year after year.

The question is why? Well, the simple answer is the shipping companies won’t invest in liners as it does not make sense. More revenues can be earned from container shipping at less investment with less hassles from regulations and supply needs (like the food needed by the passengers). So why would they enter passenger liner shipping? Better “pets” like containers vans rather than people like the passengers who can raise a ruckus and if the ship sinks then goodbye to all the advertising and service spent for the goodwill. If a cargo ship sinks, the uneducated public and the media almost won’t mind at all.

LCT Raenell

A Cargo RORO LCT by Asian Shipping Corporation

If cargo is the bread and butter of shipping it will now go to the container lines because they can actually offer the lower shipping rates. If not it will go to the intermodal trucks which has even lower rates. And arriving now recently are the Cargo RORO LCTs which carry container vans (even from Manila) like those of Roble Shipping Incorporated, Ocean Transport and Asian Shipping Corporation. This new paradigm can offer even lower rates than the container ships.

Sometimes it looks like liners are already passe. But I don’t want them to go because I prefer them over planes and the intermodal buses are sometimes too tiring especially those who are no longer young.

Will the liners survive? Now, that is one question I would not like to answer.

The Liner That Sank A Liner Company (The Saga of the Princess of the Stars)

The Princess of the Stars of Sulpicio Lines Incorporated was the biggest-ever liner to grace the Philippine seas. She was not the longest, however, because such honor belonged to the Princess of the Orient, also of Sulpicio Lines but compared to that liner the Princess of the Stars was wider and taller and for confirmation, her Gross Tonnage (GT), the measure of the total volume of the ship, was higher. In the comparison, the M/S Philippines of Emilio Yap was excluded because that ship was not a sailing liner but a floating hotel when it came here.


Photo from homepagenifty2

The Princess of the Stars was the second Ferry Lilac of Shin Nihonkai Ferry Company which is known in Japan for building big liners that sail the open waters of Japan. Shin Nihonkai was among the companies that offered the “Bypasses of the Sea” service in the earlier decades in Japan which meant big, fast ROROs that took in vehicles along sea lanes instead of it battling the clogged highways of Japan then. From utilitarian ROROs, that concept evolved into the “cruiseferries” in the 1970’s which offered hotel-like accommodations aside from being able to carry vehicles. When patronage weakened in the 1980’s due to the rise of other modes of transports that evolved into the “carferries” which is again utilitarian but more comfortable than the first generation of long-distance RORO’s that appeared in the 1960’s.

The Ferry Lilac already belonged to the “carferries” class when built and much like the New Miyako which became the SuperFerry 12 in the Philippines for they were built in the same year but Ferry Lilac was much bigger than the New Miyako. When completed in July of 1984, Ferry Lilac was the largest RORO-passenger ship existing in Japan. She was assigned the Maizuru-Otaru route that passes through the Sea of Japan in the western seaboard of that country. As a “carferry”, although she still had suite rooms and other high class rooms, the emphasis was already on food and restaurants, live entertainment and shows and on game halls. Her capacity was 554 passengers but after remodeling that increased to 788 passengers. Her design and equipment were supposedly of the latest of the period being the “ultimate carferry” then.

The Ferry Lilac‘s design philosophy followed what was the naval design thinking then. Japan researchers determined that the swells of the open seas of Japan has an average of 140 to 145 meters between crests and so they suggested that the length of the liners be greater than that. The belief was that the ship would be able to ride between two crests and such will not pitch too much. However, it seems that was a naive assumption because after the ship’s bow rose with the coming swell the bow will then sink after the swell passed the center of the ship. In Youtube, there are videos of ship bow that appears to be submarining into the sea (of course, it will rise again). This phenomenon also happens to all kinds of ships including container ships, bulkers, military ships and other kind of ships in the heavy swells of the open seas.


Photo by Joel Bado

The second Ferry Lilac was tall and she had high sides and the superstructure encompasses the whole ship. The philosophy behind the high sides is it serves as a protection against big waves including rogue waves and in case the ship listed she will not take in water easily hence forestalling capsizing. That was proven in later cases like the Ariake (which was hit by a rogue wave) and the Cougar Ace which did not immediately sink even though their sides were already lying in the water. I do not know if the design philosophies mentioned in this paragraph and the previous one weighed on the decision to risk her in a typhoon later. I heard her company was very confident in her ability to survive heavy seas as supposedly these big “carferries” were designed to survive seas generated by tropical cyclones of 120-130kph center wind strength.

The second Ferry Lilac was built by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) in Aioi shipyard in Japan in 1984 and had the permanent ID IMO 8323161. Her dimensions were 192.9 meters by 29.4 meters with a gross register tonnage (GRT) of 18,268 tons. This later rose to 23,824 in gross tonnage (GT) with a net tonnage (NT) of 16,040. Its DWT (deadweight tonnage) was 7,670. The ferry was big but was not really built for speed unlike the big ferries of Japan in the previous decade as her design speed was only 21.5 knots. The power comes from SEMT-Pielstick engines that develops only 26,400 horsepower.

The ferry was released from Japan in 2004 after twenty years of service and went to Sulpicio Lines Inc. There was minimal refitting and there was no change in the superstructure and most works were done just in Cebu port. The refitting were mainly on how the facilities of the ship will conform to local conditions like the provision of an Economy Class and its corresponding Economy restaurant. Otherwise, the facilities and comforts of the ship were already more than enough as with the space for passengers. In the period of her arrival, passenger load of the liners was already declining and so there was no longer any pull to greatly increase the passenger capacity which was just limited to 1,992, a far cry from the 3,912 of the Princess of the Orient which was similar to her in size.


Photo from Wakanatsu

When Princess of the Stars was fielded she became the flagship of Sulpicio Lines vice the Princess of the Universe. As flagship, she did the Manila-Cebu route twice a week. Sailing, she usually catches the attention of observers for her sheer size. Docked in Manila or Cebu, she simply dwarfed the other ferries and with her height she simply towered above the other ferries. But unlike what others may expect, she was not led by the most senior captain of Sulpicio Lines. Others declined because they know handling a ship that big is more demanding. Looked from an angle, ships of these size were not really designed for Philippine waters. That size might have been demanded when passenger demand was still strong but not in the new millennium and Princess of the Stars might just be part a showcase. More kindly, she can also be looked as the replacement of the big and luxurious Princess of New Unity which was sold to breakers that same year.

The Princess of the Stars did not sail long, however. Sailing on the night of June 20, 2008 for Cebu, she failed to stop and seek shelter unlike two ships of Aboitiz Transport System which dropped anchor and sought shelter in Puerto Galera because of a coming typhoon. The Princess of the Stars simply sailed on when the evening news already warned of Typhoon “Frank” that will pass the northern coast of Leyte on a collision course with the Princess of the Stars (she left Manila at 8pm and the evening news was 6:30pm). The expected strength then of the typhoon was some 120-130kph which was theoretically within the capacity of the ship to handle. Was the voyage a test case of her strength in Philippine typhoons?

I always wondered about the bravado of the Princess of the Stars. Normally before when there was a storm in Eastern Visayas and the ship wanted to still sail to Cebu or northern Mindanao they take the southern route which means from Verde Island Passage the ship turns to Tablas Strait instead of pursuing the route passing through the Sibuyan Sea. The ship will then sail through the seas off the western side of Panay island and then turn to Panay Gulf and round Negros island on its southern part and then head northward to Cebu port. The wind and swells will be strong in Sulu Sea but the ship will be farther from the eye of the typhoon and after rounding the southwest tip of Panay island the wind and swells will already be at the stern of the ship and the rocking will be less. I have been aboard such detours in the past and I know this custom.


Photo by Rodney Orca

Tucked in and sheltered by an island, the wind and swells will be moderated and not that much felt in a ship. It is after venturing in the open when the roughness of the sea begins. In the past, our ships has learned to use the cover of the islands if they are not seeking shelter. Even small islands like the Romblon islands provide a measure of cover.

By next morning, Typhoon “Frank” was stronger (it was already developing more strength that night) and its strength was already 165kph, a strength that is not to be messed with. Well, ships going from Australia and the Philippines that pass through our eastern seaboard don’t drop anchor and seek shelter. But they know how to distance themselves from the typhoon. This can be verified through AIS. Where a typhoon is passing the area is clear of ships. Some stop, some take a detour and some seek shelter and drop anchor. Princess of the Stars was in the vicinity of a typhoon and in fact was in a collision course but did neither of the three evasive actions mentioned previously. She simply sailed on until she was already in the eye of the typhoon. Actually, that was a feat of seamanship – to sail into the eye of a strong typhoon. Few can do that (restated, only fools do that).


Taken from

But the ship did not survive and capsized off the southeast coast of Sibuyan island in an inverted position and stuck in a reef which saved the ship from sinking completely. However, that was no use to most of the passengers and crew of the ship as only 54 survived while 814 were dead or missing and some were washed far away.

Like the Dona Paz tragedy, the Princess of the Stars sinking caused national and international outcry and shamed Sulpicio Lines to heights greater than the Dona Paz tragedy where there was still dispute then who was really at fault in the collision that torched and sank Dona Paz. In the Princess of the Stars case there was no one to blame except for Sulpicio Lines. The company tried to blame the government forecasting agency PAGASA but that did not gain traction. One thing was sure in the accident, the ship was not using state-of-the-art forecasting services like INMARSAT which was the first one to declare that the missing Malaysian Airlines jet MH370 veered south and was lost in the Indian Ocean (when that was not their function or service).


Credits: NAMRIA and PDI

The backlash of this tragedy was so great it also sank the passenger service of Sulpicio Lines. Now they are forever barred from engaging in passenger liner shipping. And until now they are still haunted by suits. They were even forced to rename their company into the Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation (PSACC).

With the sinking, the Philippine government also tightened regulations on sailings during storms. Now, no Philippine ship can sail when the winds reach 60kph or even less at times. Above that only foreign ships are still sailing our waters.

And that is the ironic thing I find now. Imagine only foreign ships can sail our waters when the wind blows. All because of the Princess of the Stars.


Photo by Britz Salih

Note: I don’t know who wrote the Wikipedia article of Princess of the Stars. It has errors in the specifications of the ship.


The MV St. Pope John Paul II

The MV St. Pope John Paul II which was fielded locally in May of 1996 is now the longest sailing liner in the Philippines. There are many ferries locally which have sailed longer than her but they are not liners. That is not the only claim to fame of the MV St. Pope John Paul II as she is also the biggest and longest among our remaining liners. In all of her 20 years of sailing the local waters and inter-island routes she has been very, very reliable and she has lost nary of her speed. From 20 knots when newly fielded, she can still do 19 knots today. I noticed that when I rode her that her vibration is still okay and she is still not very smoky.

MV St. Pope John Paul II was known in Japan as the New Miyako and she had a sister ship named New Yamato. They were the top ships then of Hankyu Ferry, one of the Japanese long-haul ferries. As a note, “Miyako” and “Yamato” are legendary names in Japan and that is actually a sign of their status. The New Yamato was built in 1983 and the New Miyako in 1984 and both came to the Philippines but though sister ships their superstructures were not really very identical when they were fielded here. Hankyu Ferry disposed of the sister ships at the same time and the New Yamato went to Sulpicio Lines as the Princess of the Universe and the New Miyako went to William, Gothong & Aboitiz (WG&A) as the SuperFerry 12.

In Japan, the sister ship were known as “car ferries”. This was the successor class to the “cruiseferries” built in the 1970’s which were luxurious as they were meant to attract passengers. When ridership weakened because the Japanese were already taking other forms of transportation, the new design of long-haul ferries stressed on taking trucks. This can be seen in the original design of New Yamato and New Miyako which featured two car decks at the lower decks of the ship. The upper two decks for passengers were not shabby by Japan standards but they were not as hotel-like as the “cruiseferries” of the 1970’s, some of which came to the Philippines like the Princess of the Orient and the Mabuhay 1.

The New Miyako was built by Kanda Shipbuilding Company in their Fujiwara yard in Japan. She was actually launched in December of 1983 but her completion took until January of 1984. Her permanent ID is IMO 8217051. She measures 173.0 meters in length over-all, 165.3 meters in length between perpendiculars, 28.8 meters in width and 14.3 meters in depth (that’s deep!). Her original Gross Register Tonnage was 11,914 tons and her DWT was 5,009 tons. She then had two car decks but only one passenger deck with some passenger facilities in the top deck including in the false center funnel. That was the meaning of a Japan “carferry” in the 1980’s.

This ship has a bulbous stem and a transom stern and the usual two masts. Being twin-engined, she has two side funnels. She is powered by a pair of Mitsubishi-MAN diesel engines totalling 24,000 horsepower and her design speed was 21 knots (that means her current speed of 19-19.5 is remarkable because that is not far off from her design speed years ago!). Originally, she was provided with car ramps at the bow and at the stern. However, on refitting, a pair of quarter-ramps were fitted, on the bow and at the stern at the starboard side. An inside ramp connects the two car decks (not elevators unlike in others which is more cumbersome). The ship has a capacity of over 200 TEU but in Japan she mainly carried trucks. In lane-meters, her capacity is about 2,000. The ship’s route is from Shikoku to the Kansai region of Japan.


In refitting to a passenger-ferry for Philippine use, one level of her car deck was converted into two levels of passenger accommodation. Hence, the ship became a a three passenger-deck ship when she was fielded here. Her local passenger capacity then rose to some 2,800 passengers. This was the time when local passenger liners can still pack it in and had to turn away passengers during peak seasons.

The passengers had access through wing-type passenger ramps on the starboard side. The ship being tall and the highest classes on the top level, boarding would have been an exercise for many passengers except that the ship has an escalator. Like other local liner designs, that led to the front desk/information counter and a lobby. The ship had many levels of accommodation with Suite being the highest followed by Stateroom, First Class Cabin, Tourist, Economy Deluxe and Economy in descending order. Being big, the ship had many walkways, lounges and promenade areas including the sundeck. There were many shops and it even had a wading pool. Restaurants were also segregated into classes as in three, the usual, but the kiosks, stores and bars were for all.

After fielding in May of 1996, SuperFerry 12 displaced the SuperFerry 6 (the former Our Lady of Akita) in pairing with SuperFerry 10 (the former Mabuhay 1) on an exclusive Manila-Cebu route. She was doing it with three round trips a week indicating she was considered a flagship. Later, even SuperFerry 10 was displaced from exclusively holding that route and SuperFerry 12 then alone held that route exclusively for WG&A (of course other W&GA ships also call on Cebu headed south or headed north but not Manila-Cebu exclusively). And so she became the sole flagship of the combined fleet, my assumption. In Manila and Cebu she would often see her sister ship Princess of the Universe and sometimes they are docked adjacent to each other in Cebu International Port (but not in Manila as they have different ports there).

In 2000, SuperFerry 1 and SuperFerry 8 were pairing with each other and SuperFerry 6 and SuperFerry 10 were pairing each other in doing many routes including those that pass in Cebu. But maybe that was the last stable year of her company WG&A and upheavals soon followed and this can be seen even in their top ships. In that same year SuperFerry 6 burned near Verde Island Passage off Batangas. SuperFerry 14 came that year and in effect was the replacement of SuperFerry 6 but she was blown up by terrorists in 2004 (the government denied that but nobody believed them including the maritime databases and international shipping sites). SuperFerry 10, meanwhile, was sold to China breakers in 2003.


The years starting from 2002 were critical for the company WG&A as partners William and Gothong divested. As a result of that, ferries and cargo/container ships have to be disposed to pay off the former partners. Even the subsidiaries Cebu Ferries Corporation and Philippine Fast Ferry Corporation (the company holding the SuperCats) were affected by that. With a smaller fleet, WG&A then had to reduce routes and frequencies and drop ports of call. That also happened in their subsidiary ferry companies especially Cebu Ferries Corporation. Those were the years the company was looking for its future direction.

Aboitiz Transport System (ATS), the successor to WG&A, when its partners divested had a new series of ships, the SuperFerry 15, 16, 17 and 18 that started started arriving from 2002 to 2004 that tried to replace many of the ships sold or lost. ATS then had a new philosophy that their ROPAXes would have to carry a significant volume of their container vans and that is their reason why they didn’t invest in container ships anymore. The new series of SuperFerries, being “carferries” also in Japan did not have their car decks reduced anymore (it just retained the double car decks). This time the weakening of ship passenger demand was already being felt by the whole shipping industry and hence there was no more desire to remodel liners with passenger capacities of well over 2,000 persons.

With the move to acquire those 4 liners with dual car decks, Aboitiz Transport System was initially able to cover their lack of container ships (well, not really as that provided a window of opportunity to competitors). But with the sharp rise and the doubling of world metal prices in 2006, Aboitiz Transport System was attracted to sell SuperFerry 15, 16, 17, 18 for a tidy profit and only the return of SuperFerry 19 (the former SuperFerry 8 that was re-engined) from Papua New Guinea mitigated that loss. But with the selling of the four, suddenly Aboitiz Transport System was lacking container ships and so they resorted to chartering.

During this period, the passenger volume of Aboitiz Transport System was continuously dropping because of the rise of the budget planes and the intermodal buses. With the coming of the budget airlines, there was already a parity in fares and so passenger felt there was no longer need to “lose” two days in a ship even though they are fed in the voyage. What Aboitiz Transport System did as response was a two-birds-in-one-stone solution – create an additional wagon deck from the two lower passenger decks of SuperFerry 2, SuperFerry 9 and SuperFerry 12 and so the three were converted again. The new look of the three was not beautiful to many including me.


Along this way when they already lacked ships and passenger patronage was also dropping, SuperFerry 12 became a Manila-Cebu-Cagayan de Oro ship doing a twice a week voyage. And she has been on that route until now. There is now no more dedicated Manila-Cebu ship for a decade now, the first time it happened since 1970 when the Sweet Faith of Sweet Lines arrived.

The SuperFerry 12 did not really become a one-passenger-deck ship again. Part of the uppermost deck for the crew quarters was converted to accommodate passengers and part of the forward section of the upper wagon deck has to be converted too so passenger capacity will not drop too much (the SuperValue or open-air Economy of the ship is located there). It was a good move. There is not much of a perception of lack of passenger space like what one will feel in SuperFerry 2, SuperFerry 20 and SuperFerry 21 especially since she is a long ship. But some of the amenities and space were obviously gone.

This ship still has many cabins and it has a hard time filling those in many voyages. There is a lower MegaValue section (airconditioned accommodations but with economy meals) but the bigger MegaValue section is seldom used. There is really not much passengers anymore these days and if needed instead of opening that section and cleaning it afterwards it would be easier to upgrade some passengers to Tourist. However, the Stateroom and Suite of the ship are still treats especially if one gets tickets ahead of time when it is cheap (it has to be purchased on room and not individual basis). Staterooms and Suites are superior to First Class Cabins in that it only accommodates two passengers in true beds like in a hotel (not bunks) and there is a sala and cabinets. Of course the space is much wider. Get it if you can especially the honeymooners. It is the nearest to a hotel and the meals are free and you get to get to places.


MV St. Pope John Paul II has a big cafeteria which serves the Economy and Tourist passengers. After meals, this cafeteria also serves as the main lounge of the ship, a corner to while away the time, a place where knick-knacks, merienda and drinks can be bought 20 hours a day and there is even a bar but nowadays few patronize that. At night a band will perform, a way for the ship to increase its revenues (well, so do making it the main lounge of the ship as passengers passing time also buy) and also to serve fun. For those too loath to venture in that area and would rather lay down most of the day then merienda and drinks are vended on trolleys and these will pass by many times in the day and among their offerings is benignit (the Visayan ginataan) which is prepared right in the ship. First Class passengers meanwhile have their own small restaurant in a lower corner of the ship but it is not an eat-all-you-can affair and servings are not big.

The ship has many viewing areas including the sun deck. MV St. Pope John Paul II has the advantage of not having fully enclosed sides. However, the lobby is small but it has a piano that is not being used. There are also other facilities of the ship not being used like the conference room and the spa but the beauty salon is still functional. But sailing with liners now I feel they were not as happy as two decades ago. By the way, the escalator is still there and it leads straight to a statue of the namesake and to the front desk and lobby. And of course, the service crew is on pink, the color of 2GO. Vibrant color but liners were more vibrant way back then. Can’t fault them though for trying.


The wagon deck of the ship is almost invariably not full. That is what I observed on the usage of the dual-cargo deck 2GO liners. Usually the upper wagon deck is practically not used. And so they can even afford to put up a basketball court there for the crew. But why not for the passengers too? And maybe add a badminton court or volleyball court too and perhaps a ping-pong table too? Nah, the ever-straight MARINA won’t let that because that has been declared a cargo area. So maybe they should just attract truckers and trucks with low rates rather than have it empty. Sayang. It will pay more than vending food inside the ship. But then that might jeopardize their high container van rates.

The MV St. Pope John Paul II is still a reliable ship bravely soldiering on in the face of the decline of liner passengers. She still looks beautiful sans the slanted windows of the cargo deck. The ship is still the longest and biggest in the fleet of 2GO. At 20 years she is already a fixture in her route and I hope they will take care of her well so she continues to sail and sail and sail.



M/V St. Thomas Aquinas

The MV St. Thomas Aquinas was a former 2GO liner that was rammed on the side by the container ship Sulpicio Express Siete of Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation (PSACC) just south of Mactan Channel near Lauis Ledge lighthouse on the night of August 16, 2013. She sank in a matter of minutes because the PSACC ship feared being a sinking casualty and she pulled back allowing water to rush inside the hull of St. Thomas Aquinas (this is what usually happens when there is an underwater gash in the hull). A total of 137 persons died in the collision and a large oil spill affecting Mactan island resulted. St. Thomas Aquinas was better known locally as SuperFerry 2 and she is included in the book “The Great Passenger Ships of the World” by Frank Heine and Frank Lose (the original title was in German), a book where the Philippine Ship Spotter Society (PSSS) was a contributor.

M/V Superferry 2 folio ©John Aringay

St. Thomas Aquinas started life as the Ferry Sumiyoshi of Meimon Car Ferry K.K. of Kitakyushu, Japan. She was built in the Onomichi yard of Onomichi Zosen and she was the sister ship of Ferry Hakozaki which was better known locally as SuperFerry 5 and later as the St. Joan of Arc of 2GO (this ship is still sailing). Ferry Sumiyoshi’s keel was laid on August 1, 1972, launched on December 19, 1972 and completed on March 20, 1973. Her Length Over-all (LOA) was 138.6 meters and her Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP) was 128.0 meters with a Breadth of 22.15 meters. Originally, her Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) was 7,270 with a Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) of 2,596.
Ferry Sumiyoshi was powered by two Mitsubishi-MAN diesels (MAN engines built under license by Mitsubishi in Japan) of a combined 15,200 horsepower which gave her a service speed of 19 knots. She carried the international ID IMO 7304663 and she was a RORO-Passenger (ROPAX) Ferry. The ship originally had one and a half passenger decks, two and a half cargo decks, a full bridge deck and vehicle ramps at the bow and at the stern. Her original passenger capacity was 900 and she was first fielded in the Osaka-Shinmoji route in Japan.

Ferry Sumiyoshi ©Fakta om Fartyg

In April of 1992 she came to the Philippines to become the Aboitiz SuperFerry 2 (also SuperFerry II) of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation where she was converted into a 4-deck multi-day passenger liner originally serving the Manila-Cebu-Cagayan de Oro route (displacing the SuperFerry 1 in the latter port of call). She was the first liner fielded again by Aboitiz Shipping Corporation in the Manila-Cebu route after the shipping company gave up on that route for paucity of suitable liners (they were however serving the Cebu-Leyte route).

Superferry 2 ©Britz Salih

As reclassified, she had a Gross Tonnage (GT) of 11,405, a DWT of 2,947 and a passenger capacity of over 2,643 divided into the following classes: Stateroom, Cabin (for 2 and 4), Tourist, Deluxe and Economy. Adding weight her depth rose to 8.2 meters and her service speed dropped to 17.5 knots which meant a transit time of 22 hours in the Manila-Cebu route. Having a folding rear mast she can pass under the Mactan bridge. Her car deck can accommodate 108 trailers (she loads “CHA-RO” or container vans mounted on trailers and parked separate from the tractor heads).

Superferry 2 ©Gorio Belen

Aboitiz Shipping Corporation did not provide free meals to the passengers then but the fares were a little lower compared to competition to compensate for that. A passenger then will have his choice of what to eat. One orders meal a la carte in the cafeteria that was centrally located which was open from early morning to just past midnight. Passengers can also lounge here and while away time and various drinks can be ordered any time. The first class passengers have their separate restaurant. There was also a disco-karaoke and a coffee shop.

The ship featured a lounge for upper class passengers and a lobby and front desk for everyone along with other amenities and offerings like a video game arcade, a kiosk and books/magazines and board games for rent and a beauty salon. The ship sides were open and served as passageway and it also served as a viewing deck and smoking area. The sun deck of the ship also serves as a promenade area.

Superferry 2 interior ©Wakanatsu

On January 1, 1996 she passed on to the merger company William, Gothong & Aboitiz (WG&A) and in the renaming of the ferries of the merged fleet she retained the same name as WG&A decided to use the SuperFerry brand with the lesser ferries branded the “Our Lady”, a brand from Gothong Shipping. Initially she held on to her same route but a little later she did other routes (but not the prime Cebu route). Then she was paired with SuperFerry 5 to do rotational routes and a little later more this pairing included the SuperFerry 9 (in rotational pairings WG&A matches the ferries in speed and size). Doing rotational routes that varied over time along with differing assignments and schedules were a WG&A trademark which was hard to track unless one monitors their advertisement in the dailies.

Superferry 2 in WG&A livery ©Wakanatsu

With the divestment of the Chiongbian and Gothong families in WG&A (with the notable exception of Bob Gothong), the company was renamed the Aboitiz Transport System (ATS) in 2003. With sizable sell-off of ships (liners, overnight ferries and container ships), ATS found themselves lacking container capacity especially when they sold off SuperFerry 15, 16, 17 and 18. Part of their remedy aside from chartering container ships was to convert 4-deck liners into liners with only two passenger decks with two container decks. This halved the passenger capacity of the converted ships but almost doubled the container capacity. ATS thought this was the correct solution to declining passenger patronage and lack of container capacity (but later developments proved them wrong).

As converted, the passenger capacity of SuperFerry 2 dropped to only 904 with only two Staterooms and two Cabins. With some engine efficiency adjustments the service speed went up to 18.5 knots (with a maximum equaling her old 19 knots) and with only a few passengers the ship tended to be very cold at night especially when it is raining. The ship moreover became an all-airconditioned ship. Her Net Tonnage (NT) dropped to 5,869. As a two-passenger deck ferry there was much less space for passengers to roam and amenities and facilities were less. The dining area of the upper and lower classes became shared.

Superferry 2 ©Mike Baylon

Later on with the buy-out of Aboitiz Transport System by Negros Navigation using the China-ASEAN Fund loan in 2012 she passed on to the newly merged company 2GO. She was renamed as the St. Thomas Aquinas and she did the Manila-Cebu-Zamboanga and Manila-Cebu-Nasipit routes among other always-changing routes and schedules. In 2GO she was still speedy but with more emphasis put on the declining cargo and because of that like other ships in the fleet she tended to be late because of delayed departures waiting for cargo.

St Thomas Aquinas in 2GO livery. ©Mike Baylon

To make up for lost time because she was four hours late, she was speeding in the early night of August 13, 2013 in Hilutungan Channel and in rounding the southern coast of Mactan island. The area is notorious for radar scatter because of the ship facing land formation with hills, towers and plenty of buildings and vehicles. Also rounding Mactan island the radar won’t give an image of the ships exiting Cebu port and Mactan Channel. The early night too is the peak departure time of ships leaving Cebu. Nearing Lauis Ledge and the reefs of Cordova, Mactan and the narrows and shoals off Talisay, Cebu, the ship barreled into the narrowing shipping lane at over 16 knots when ships were expected to do 15knots or less in that area where the shipping line is curving like in a continuous arc.

At that time Sulpicio Express Siete with an ice-classed bow (reinforced as she was originally a Baltic Sea ship) was exiting Mactan Channel at slow speed. Meanwhile, Trans Asia 9 which was late in departure was catching up and asked permission to overtake on the right or starboard of Sulpicio Express Siete. The shallows of Talisay were looming ahead (a ship of Cokaliong Shipping Lines made a mistake here and ended up high and dry). So Sulpicio Express Siete gave her a wide berth and moved to the middle of the channel and slowed down a bit as she will be veering right soon as she was headed in the direction of Dumaguete while Trans Asia 9 is headed to Cagayan de Oro.

While the gap between Sulpicio Express Siete and Trans Asia 9 was getting bigger, the late-running Oceanjet 8, a fastcraft of Ocean Fast Ferries speeding from Tagbilaran moved into the gap between the ships and went into the starboard of Sulpicio Express Siete which was not her correct lane and in violation of maritime rules of the seaway. This had the effect of delaying of the veering of Sulpicio Express Siete in her correct lane in a shipping line with divider without marking buoys (AIS showed that at the time of passing of Trans Asia 9 Sulpicio Express Siete was slightly to the left of the median).

After Oceanjet 8 passed and when Sulpicio Express Siete was veering into her lane a reckless maneuver was made – St. Thomas Aquinas sped up and tried to follow Oceanjet 8, a classic case of brinkmanship. Ships don’t slow down and can’t maneuver like cars and the reinforced bow of Sulpicio Siete scraped against the hull and the passenger ramp of St. Thomas Aquinas, cut it up to below the waterline near the stern and the engine room. In moments, St. Thomas Aquinas had a fatal wound and power was knocked out and complete darkness fell in St. Thomas Aquinas with the bow on Sulpicio Express Siete lodged inside the rear hull of the 2GO liner. Some passenger took advantage of this momentary coupling of the two ships and jumped to the bow of the container ship. They were among the luckier ones because in minutes it was obvious their liner was stricken with a mortal blow worse than the Italian liner Andrea Doria.

Timeframe of collision © Casagan

While the Andrea Doria had a good design that limited water intrusion and which kept her afloat for many hours St. Thomas Aquinas was a RORO which lacked watertight doors and compartments. When Sulpicio Express Siete reversed screws and disengaged she immediately developed a dangerous list and she capsized within minutes not affording enough time for proper evacuation which was made more difficult by the darkness. Trans Asia 9 also did not come to the rescue unlike the French liner Ile de France which illuminated Andrea Doria and launched lifeboats to the rescue.

Immediately after the accident charges and counter-charges of fault and recriminations were hurled and mainly by 2GO and netizens were quick to blame PSACC, the former Sulpicio Lines. Their former bad reputation hurt PSACC’s case in the bar of public opinion and it was even made worse by the fact that it was their ship which rammed and sank the other and was beyond the median line initially. Almost to a man almost everybody was blaming PSACC except maybe PSSS and a few others including mariners who understand COLREG (Collision Regulations) which governs rules of the road at sea. A Special Board of Marine Inquiry (SBMI) made an investigation that drew mainly on eyewitness account which tend to be biased depending of which ship they were boarded. In PSSS we noted there was almost no use of AIS which is the ship’s transponder and St. Thomas Aquinas was visible because their MMSI module was active and that gave her location, direction, speed and identity along with other data. It was her AIS which said she was overspeeding and she crossed the bow of the PSACC ship, a maneuver not permitted unless the other ship gave permission (this was also established later by the official investigation report).

Damage on Sulpicio Express Siete ©John Cabanillas

After over a year, the Philippine body tasked with determining fault, the Board of Marine Inquiry (BMI) determined liabilities and this was affirmed by their supervisory body, the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC). It sidestepped a purely COLREG-based decision and instead looked at other technicalities. The result said the St. Thomas Aquinas was mainly at fault because it held that ships moving out of port have priority over incoming ships. The report also noted a collision could have been avoided if both ships slowed down especially since they are not in radio contact.

Up to now the remains of St. Thomas Aquinas still lay near the collision site and lays precariously by her side in a sea ledge like the Costa Concordia. The maritime authority has already decided that 2GO should remove her as she poses hazard to navigation. Meanwhile, the municipality of Cordova is pressing payment for damage to their mangroves and fishing ground due to the oil spill in the aftermath of the sinking. Victims are still seeking further compensation while the two captains directly involved in the collision remain suspended. The other ships involved were not called to bar to answer for their actions.

Pumping oil from the remains of M/V St. Thomas Aquinas

Now, the liner St. Thomas Aquinas is just a memory but a bitter one at that especially for the victims who are not holding on to solid hopes as deadly maritime accidents in the Philippines take the courts up to over a generation to make a final decision.



Superferry 1

Aboitiz Shipping Corporation has always been notable for two particular quirks. The first is when they bought a lot of old ex-FS ships in the mid-1960’s from other shipping companies when others were already sourcing ships from Europe and Japan and some are even brand-new. The second is when they did not buy any ferry for 14 straight years from 1974 to 1988 and when they bought one it was another old hand-me-down from Escano Lines, the former “Katipunan”. However, in the same period Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (ASC) bought a lot of cargo ships and they were among the first to containerize. Actually, in the 1980’s ASC was one of the container majors in the local seas through the Aboitiz Concarriers together with the Wilcons of William Lines, the Sulcons of Sulpicio Lines and the Lorcons of Lorenzo Shipping.

With a ferry fleet whose backbone were still the old ex-FS ships Aboitiz Shipping Corporation did not try to compete in the major ferry routes in the 1980’s and instead concentrated on minor routes like routes to northern Panay and Leyte island. However, this laidback attitude on ferry operations all changed when in 1989 when they bought the “Venus” from Japan to become the “SuperFerry 1”. I am not sure if this was part of the Jebsens influence on Aboitiz Shipping but it looks like it. Jebsens of Norway was a partner of Aboitiz in local shipping and they created a company named Aboitiz Jebsens which was in ship maintenance and management.

SuperFerry 1 ©Gorio Belen

“Venus”, a ROPAX (RORO-Passenger ship) with IMO Number 7375856 was built by Shikoku Dockyard in Takamatsu, Japan. She measured 132.4 meters by 20.6 meters and she had an original Gross Tonnage (GT) of 4,006 nominal tons and Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) of 3,194 tons. In Net Tonnage (NT), she measured 1,630 nominal tons with a passenger capacity of 302 and her RORO capacity was 1,030 lane-meters. “Venus” was originally by powered by twin SEMT-Pielsticks which developed a combined 16,700 horsepower giving her a service speed of 20.5 knots. She already had the then-new and modern bulbous stem which gave extra speed. She was completed on December of 1975 and she was then delivered to Arimura Sangyo shipping line of Naha, Okinawa, Japan.

In 1989 Aboitiz Shipping Corporation bought the “Venus” and brought her to the Philippines where she was rebuilt. New decks were added and it now totaled four and additional passenger accommodations were built. Her new Gross Tonnage (GT) was 9,184 nominal tons and her new Net Tonnage (NT) was 2,987 with a passenger capacity of 1,808. Her new Depth was 13.0 meters. Her new name was “Aboitiz SuperFerry 1” and she was the new flagship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation. “Aboitiz SuperFerry 1” was the first RORO-Passenger (ROPAX) ship of the company.

SuperFerry 1 Brochure ©Mike Baylon

She was launched with fanfare and advertisements were rolled out. They touted the new kind of service and accommodations and pointed out the word “Super” pertained to these and not to the size as she cannot beat the “Filipina Princess” of Sulpicio Lines in that aspect. Indeed, it seems that for the first time a liner sailing in local seas had service crew that were graduates of Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) courses and not green mariners trying to serve customers. There was always the smile, the snappiness, the ever-presence and the constant cleaning and mopping. With HRM background they knew how not to say “No” and how not to disappoint passengers. Meals were not free but there is a full-service cafeteria which looked like an office cafeteria that was open till past midnight. The equipment and cleanliness of the toilets and baths were unmatched in the business.

However, in less than a year of sailing, bad luck hit “SuperFerry 1” when she was struck by engine room fire. She was towed to Singapore for repairs where she was fitted with new engines, too. Brand-new Wartsila diesel engines were used which developed a total of 21,200 horsepower. Although heavier now, she was able to regain her old service speed of 20.5 knots with the new more powerful engines. At that speed she was clearly now the second-best to the much more powerful “Filipina Princess”. She was re-launched in 1991 to fanfare and advertisements again.

SperFerry1 Main Engine ©Ralpha Russel Rosauro

With her, Aboitiz Shipping was able to reclaim their old Davao route which before already lain beyond their old cruisers (“SuperFerry” 1 was the first RORO of the company) because of the long distance and the lack of speed which made them the laughing stock of the fast cruisers of Sulpicio Lines and William Lines like the “Davao Princess” and the “Manila City”. With “SuperFerry 1” Aboitiz Shipping and Aboitiz Jebsens pioneered the system of sailing where in-port hours were low and the ship just sails and sails. This was needed because Aboitiz Shipping lacks liners. Promptness was paramount and to shorten loading and unloading time two ramps were used simultaneously and containers that must be handled were radioed to the tractors which was setting records in speed of hauling. In comparison, the rival flagships “Filipina Princess” and “Sugbu” of William Lines were still using the slow booms together with ramps.

The route of SuperFerry 1 was Manila-Iloilo-General Santos City-Davao and Manila-Iloilo. She was the fastest ferry to General Santos City and Davao, bar none. Her intermediate port stops consisted only of two to three hours and she was known for promptness in departures. Once a passenger ramp was lifted it’s already sorry to any passengers even though they are running with all their might towards the ship. Being the newest, fastest and the best passenger service she displaced patronage from rivals in the route and name “SuperFerry” and its brand of service was already being installed in the minds of the riding public of ships.

SuperFerry 1 ©Britz Salih

In the merger of William Lines, Gothong Shipping Corporation and Aboitiz Shipping Corporation that created the new company WG&A she retained her name and her route. Later, “SuperFerry 8”, the former “Mabuhay 3” and “Sugbu” was paired with her in the route. She held on to this route even when the Chiongbian and Gothong families already withdrew from the merged company and her company was renamed the Aboitiz Transport Shipping (ATS). By this time her service speed was already down to 19 knots.

SuperFerry 1 ©Aris Refugio

With the arrival of “SuperFerry 20” and “SuperFerry 21” she was displaced from the Davao route. She was also starting to fall from disfavor as the new style of ATS called for ROPAXes of twin cargo decks and less passenger capacity and amenities, the reason they converted three ferries into this standard. “SuperFerry 1” also has a big engine relative to her cargo capacity which was their primary measurement. Not long after ATS advertised her for sale but there were no local takers as other liner companies do not buy hand-me-downs from rivals and she was too big and her engine too powerful for the Visayas-Mindanao shipping companies. And so she just toiled in minor routes.

Not long after, the merger of Negros Navigation and Aboitiz Transport System happened and she came under 2GO. Doing the Tagbilaran and Dumaguete route she grounded entering Tagbilaran Bay when the new master from Negros Navigation took a shortcut on the reefs. A SuperCat came to the rescue of her passengers and she was later freed. From this accident she sailed almost no more and soon she was just a “floating monument” in Manila Bay. She was, however, renamed the “Sta. Rita de Cascia”.

SuperCat rescue operations ©Vince Sanchez

More photos of the operation can be found by clicking here.

Last year, in 2014, she disappeared from Manila Bay. Later, she reappeared in Indonesia as the “Mutiara Persada 1”. Ship spotters heaved a sigh of relief because Indonesia, like the Philippines, is known for appreciating and taking care of older ships. So for now, it looks like “SuperFerry 1” has escaped the breaker’s torches.



There are lucky ships that lived two lives. Some met accidents and were properly repaired. Some simply grew old but were modified and modernized. If not for the presence of IMO Numbers which are permanent hull numbers and reflected in maritime databases tracing them would have been difficult but not impossible.
Some ships meet accidents like grounding and capsizing and this can easily happen to LCTs and barges which being flat-bottomed do not have the best stability in a heavy sea. But grounding and capsizing is not a big deal for them as they can be easily refloated, towed and repaired especially since they are equipped with watertight compartments that limit damage when the hull is breached. Having a high density of beams also helps to limit damage due to deformation of structures.
If LCTs and barges are vulnerable then more so are the tugs. They can even capsize while pulling a stuck-up ship. Just the same this type is resilient to damage and can easily be refloated and repaired. Even if they are washed ashore or beached in a typhoon they will sail again like a phoenix. No wonder tugs live very long lives although they are small.
Ferries are a different matter. They are not that resilient. Cargo ships are not much luckier too at times since it can be difficult to refloat them especially when loaded by a heavy cargo. With a cargo of cement that is next to impossible. Tankers are not that lucky too. In a fire or an explosion it is a clear goodbye.
We have a few ships that grew old that were modified after laying up idled for years in some obscure part of a shipyard. One of those is the “Star Ferry-II”of 168 Shipping which was formerly the “Ace-1” of Manila Ace Shipping. Laid up for lack of patronage and suitable route she one year appeared in the Matnog-Allen route. I interviewed a crewman and he told me the captain told them it was rebuilt from various parts thus confirming the suspicion of a PSSS moderator that somehow she has a resemblance especially at the bridge area to the “missing” “Ace-1” which formerly plied the Batangas-Mindoro route.
M/V Ace 1 ©Edison Sy
Star Ferry II ©Joe Cardenas
What is remarkable in her rebirth as “Star-Ferry-II” is she will defeat the claim of “Millennium Uno” of Millennium Shipping as the oldest conventional RORO sailing in the Philippines which means LCTs which are technically ROROs are excluded. “Ace-1” was built in 1961 while “Millennium Uno” was built in 1964, a clear lead of three years. Both are old and weak now but the debate between them will continue.
Nobody that will lay sight at “Lapu-Lapu Ferry 1” of Lapu-Lapu Shipping will ever think she is an old ship. And nobody will ever suspect she is the old second “Sweet Time” of Sweet Lines that seemed to have just disappeared in the Cebu-Bohol route. She was rebuilt in Fortune ShipWorks in Consolacion, Cebu in 2002 but what an incredible rebuild since she no longer has resemblance to her former self. She still retains, however her old Hanshin engine.
Sweet Time ©Edison Sy
Lapu-Lapu Ferry-I ©Mike Baylon

When the overnight ferry-cruiser “Honey” of Lapu-Lapu Shipping disappeared there were questions where she went. After some time a “new” “Lapu-lapu Ferry 8” appeared in the Lapu-Lapu Shipping wharf between Pier 1 and Pier 2. Later, we were able to confirm she was indeed the former “Honey” but what a change. There was also no resemblance to the old ship except for the bridge area as noted by another PSSS moderator. What is amazing is her length increased from 20.1m to 35.8m and her breadth increased too from 6.8m to 7.3m.

Lapu Lapu Ferry 8 ©Mike Baylon

It seems among shipping companies it is Lapu-Lapu Shipping which is the master of ship transformations. Their third ship, the “Rosalia 3” was converted from a former ferry sailing the Bantayan route which stopped operations when ROROs began ruling Bantayan Island. Actually as “Rosalia 3” it is already her third iteration since originally she was a single-screwed fishing vessel. Converted to a passenger ship two more engines and screws were added. At full trot she can actually do 16 knots according to her captain and competitors wonder where such a humble-looking cruiser is drawing her mojo.

Rosalia 3 ©Mike Baylon

In Zamboanga there are ships too that disappeared and then reappeared in a different guise. One of this is the “KC Beatrice” of Sing Shipping which was formerly the “Sampaguita Lei” of the defunct Sampaguita Shipping. Having her prominent features changed she does not look the dowdy old ferry she formerly was. Her engine was also changed. She disappeared for nearly a decade and she re-emerged in 2005.

Sampaguita Lei ©Mike Baylon

Another ship in Zamboanga City that was came back like magic was the long-missing “Rizma” of A. Sakaluran. There were two PSSS founders who were checking her being completed three years ago in Varadero de Recodo in Zamboanga City yet we did not suspect she was the former “Rizma”. We were just wondering then what former ship is “Magnolia Liliflora” as looking at her hull even in the dark we can make out she has an old hull. Now she proudly flies the flag and colors of Magnolia Shipping.

Magnolia Liliflora ©Mike Baylon

There are ships that went through worse fates before being resurrected — they sank, were salvaged and were refitted. One was the “Mindoro Express” which sank in Palawan after being pulled-out from the Matnog-Allen route where she was known as “Christ The King” and “Luzvimin Primo”. She was raised up, repaired and refitted in Keppel Batangas, superstructure was chopped and she re-emerged as the “Maharlika Cinco” of Archipelago Ferries/Philharbor in Liloan-Lipata route. She is now missing again and last report was she was seen laid up in a shipyard in General Santos City.

Mindoro Express ©Edison Sy
Maharlika Cinco ©Joel Bado

It was the same situation for “Joy-Ruby” of Atienza Shipping which was the former “Viva Sto. Nino” of Viva Shipping Lines. She sank stern first nearing the port of Coron and she was stuck up with the bow jutting from sea. She was salvaged and repaired and she reappeared as the “Super Shuttle Ferry 15” of Asian Marine Transport in 2008 and plying the Mandaue-Ormoc route.

Super Shuttle Ferry 15 ©Mike Baylon

More than a decade ago, “Melrivic Three” of Aznar Shipping sank right after leaving the port of Pingag in Isabel, Leyte on the way to Danao. One of the passengers was to later become a PSSS moderator. He says the ferry did not completely sink and was later retrieved from the sea and repaired. This ship is still sailing in the same route.

Melrivic Three ©Jonathan Bordon

If you can’t put a good man down, as they say, that could also be true for ships. “Our Lady of Mediatrix” of Daima Shipping became the unfortunate collateral damage of the bombing of two Super Five buses aboard her while she was about to dock in Ozamis port one day in February 2000. White phosphorus bombs were used and the two buses completely burned along with other vehicles on board. The bridge of the double-ended ferry got toasted along with the car deck but the engine room was intact. Laid up for some time she was towed to the shipyard in Jasaan, Misamis Oriental where she was lovingly restored and she emerged again as the “Swallow-2” of the same company. Her bridge was altered, people know her story but they don’t mind and they still patronize her although about 50 people died in the carnage she went through.

Our Lady of Mediatrix ©BBC News Asia
Swallow-2 ©Mark Ocul
Compared to the tales of “Mindoro Express”, “Joy-Ruby”, “Melrivic Three” and “Our Lady of Mediatrix” ,the story of some LCTs of Asian Marine Transport and Jomalia Shipping that partially capsized near port sounds tame. There is actually not much difficulty in raising them up. Practically, those cases are not really stories of ships living second lives.

There were also other lengthening or renewing of lives of ships. Siquijor-I is supposedly a former fishing vessel and training ship of Siquijor State College that was already laid up. How she ended as a property of the Governor then is another matter. And then there is the SuperFerry 1 which within one year of sailing was hit by engine fire. She was towed to Singapore where she was re-engined and repaired. She came out then much faster.

Siquijor Island 1 ©Jonathan Bordon
SuperFerry 1 ©Aristotle Refugio

A special case was the partially capsized “Ocean King II” which was hit by a rogue wave in Surigao Strait. She was able to make it to Benit port where the Coast Guard made a big but wrong show of rescue (using rapelling ropes instead of just getting bancas nearly and urging all to evacuate at once when the ship would no longer sink as she is touching bottom). She lain there for some time until she was towed to Navotas. We all thought she will be cut up there until one day she emerged as a cargo ship and now named as “Golden Warrior”.

Ocean King II ©rrd5580/flickr
Dragon Warrior ©Aristotle Refugio

There are others that merit attention here. “Gloria Two” and “Gloria Three” of Gabisan Shipping were supposedly rebuilt from fishing vessel hulls and done in Leyte. That is also the case of “April Rose” of Rose Shipping which is now with Atienza Shipping. And the “Bounty Ferry”of Evenesser Shipping is supposedly built from a launch from the US Navy if tales are to be believed.

Bounty Ferry ©Britz Salih

Whatever the case may be, there are many ways of giving ships second lives. There is not much technical difficulties involved unless it is fully submerged and far from land. If near land what it needs is just some concern, a dash of love and of course, cash.


When my Friend’s Motor Banca was Hit by a Summer Squall in the Visayan Sea

by Mike Baylon

A few years back my friend and his wife were invited to a Holy Week vacation in Cebu. Wanting to visit Bicol too, they decided to drop by Naga first, his hometown. Since he has already experienced travelling via Samar and Leyte they decided to take the Masbate route to Cebu upon my advice. So from a bus to Kimantong junction, Daraga in Albay they took a van for Pilar, Sorsogon. From that port they took a four-hour motor banca ride to Masbate City to connect with the Trans-Asia Shipping vessel for Cebu.

But horrors upon horror! The Trans-Asia ship was nowhere to be found as it cancelled its trip to Masbate. Reacting to the changed situation I advised them to move fast, hire a tricycle to the bus terminal and take the fastest commuter van to Cataingan, Masbate to connect with the Lapu-Lapu Shipping ferry there to Cebu.  It was already late afternoon and by that time the Montenegro Lines ferry had already left for Bogo (during that time Montenegro has only one trip to Bogo).

Port of Cataingan ©Mike Baylon

But a double horror! They were a little past the departure time when they arrived in Cataingan but the Lapu-Lapu Ferry was still there. The problem was Rosalia 3 was not sailing and will lay over until Holy Sunday and it was just Maundy Thursday! I soothed them don’t worry as the Montenegro ferry might sail the next day. I adviced them there was a small lodge near the port but the captain of the Rosalia 3 graciously invited them to stay aboard the ship for the night free of charge. So I thought the old ship hospitality system was not yet banished completely by ISPS (International System of Port Security). In the past the ships laying over for the night served as free hostels for the weary and hard-up travelers.

M/V Rosalia 3 ©Mike Baylon

Then a third horror unfolded! The Montenegro ship also cancelled voyage and did not arrive in Cataingan! I thought my friend and his wife’s fate was already done and they will lay over until Holy Sunday in Cataingan thereby missing entirely the Holy Week vacation in Cebu and just go back to Naga. But a friendly commuter van “barker” intervened and declared he knows that there will be a motor banca leaving for sure from Cawayan, Masbate to Maya, Daanbantayan, Cebu. I told them Cawayan is too far from Cataingan and they will not reach that on time. The barker said that motor banca from Cawayan can be hailed from Placer, Masbate and be met at sea and a sea transfer arranged! That looked like a tall tale then for me but Holy Cow! It proved to be true!

Riding a rickety jeep to Placer over bad roads my friend and his wife were able to locate the Placer contact given to them. Yes, he confirmed to them the motor banca will hover into view at about 9 or 10am and he can contact the “jefe de viaje” by cellphone and all they need to do is hire a small motor banca so a sea transfer can be made.

Everything worked well and so I thought their bad luck was finally over. The craft was a Large Motor Banca, the Masbate type, with double decking. The lower deck was reserved for livestock and it was carrying many hogs then and there were about 60 passengers which was about half the maximum passenger capacity. Everything went fine except that they had no lunch with them until….a summer squall hit them in the middle of the Visayan Sea on their supposed six-hour voyage!

A Livestock Motor Banca ©Mike Baylon

Seasoned sea travelers in small sea crafts know a squall can develop anytime, in any weather, in any sea. It is a sudden storm with fierce winds and seas developing suddenly and accompanied by heavy rain. It is visible from afar and smaller crafts avoid them but being a moving system and sometimes wide in diameter some crafts just get sucked into it. And like fate they were sucked into it, their next horror! Amazingly, we still had communication and having talked of the sea for long and with voyages together I told them to stay calm and just follow the instructions of the crew and in the worst scenario they tie themselves to the outrigger if the boat capsizes (and call all the saints that they know).

Soon enough they were struggling and aside from the waves, the heavy rain and the wind, flotsam was being driven into their craft. Flotsam is especially dangerous in this situation because if it hits the propeller or clings into it, it will be a goodbye for the craft as a propeller is a must in maneuvering in such situations.

The first reaction of the in-charge was to move the passengers to the front and the crew and passengers familiar with them mounted the outriggers and the gangplank on the side so the boat will not topple over. Soon a new problem arose – the outriggers were creaking and in danger of breaking. Now, Masbate motor bancas are ready and are equipped with materials for emergency repairs. Together with Sulu and Tawi-tawi motor bancas they have the longest routes of all with some routes taking 6-8 hours of sailing time. Masbate Large Motor Bancas connect to Samar island, Cebu island and Romblon islands (thence up to Lucena). So reinforcements to the outriggers were made and they tacked into the wind. Stability then but the next problem was they were tacking on the way to Bantayan island. They had then no choice if they do not want the banca to capsize.

Then, good luck and a guardian angel appeared in the form of an ATS  liner which greeted them with a horn! That was the magic question asking if they were in trouble. SuperFerry 12 then slowed down and shielded them from the waves and the wind. In due time they were out of the squall zone and they changed course for Daanbantayan after saying cheers and goodbye to the good liner which came to their aid!

Superferry 12, now M/V St. John Paul II ©Vincent Sanchez

Before dark they finally docked in Maya port, exhausted and a little shaken from the experience. They took the first bus to Bogo where our common friend was waiting. It was already Good Friday night but they still arrived safe and sound in Cebu with an experience of a lifetime they said they will never forget.