Now They Are Selling The Shipping Company With The Ships They Say Are The Most Modern

What is happening?

Shipping news recently said that the Cusi family is selling Starlite Ferries to Chelsea Shipping which has recently gained control of 2GO, the only national liner shipping company left and Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI), once the biggest regional shipping company in the Visayas before the advent of Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC). When to think Alfonso Cusi is politically powerful and influential in his own right being in and out of government at usually Cabinet level.

Until just recently Starlite Ferries was very proud of their brand-new series of ships from Japan which is supposedly the best in the short-distance routes. These ships are a series of ten ships financed through a leasing window of the government-owned Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), the DBP Leasing Corporation. This window is the arm of the government in modernizing our shipping industry and for Starlite Ferries to corner ten ships speaks of their clout.

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Starlite Archer, the latest ship of Starlite Ferries (Photo by Jon Erodias)

Just a while ago Starlite Ferries announced they are extending the run of these modern ships from ten to twenty because they said they were expanding operations to the ASEAN Region which if it materialized will be our first foray ever in international passenger shipping operations. The news was believable because in the ASEAN Free Trade Zone any company should in theory would be allowed free entry in any country within the FTZ.

Now this news of the sell-out looks like a hot potato being dropped and of course questions will be raised.

Starlite Ferries already had nine ROPAXes (RORO-Passenger ships) and two fastcrafts when they started to acquire a series of ten brand-new ferries from Japan which to me, with its size looks better if it had been used in overnight routes rather than the short-distance routes. I was puzzled when they first announced it because they have only four routes – Batangas-Abra de Ilog, Batangas-Puerto Galera, Batangas-Calapan and Roxas-Caticlan which are all Mindoro routes. Mindoro is the origin of Alfonso Cusi, the founder and owner of Starlite Ferries.

I thought if they will acquire ten new ships then all old ships have to be disposed unless they create new routes. But then Alfonso Cusi was jeering our old ferries and so I thought he will really dispose his old ships. That is if he is true to his word.

But then I never saw a shipping company dominate a route simply because their ferries were all-new. One simply has to look at the experience of Maharlika I and Maharlika II then in the eastern seaboard routes of Matnog-San Isidro and Liloan-Lipata. They did not dominate. Schedules, discounts and rates are decision points too for shippers and passengers and it is not only the newness of the ship that matters. If it is 12 noon and the new ship will still be available at 3 or 4pm the shippers and the passengers will not wait for that. That is particularly true in the short-distance routes which are the routes of Starlite Ferries.

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A view of the stern of one of the new ships of Starlite Ferries (Photo by Carl Jakosalem)

There was news then that Starlite Ferries will enter the overcrowded Cebu-Western Leyte routes through the Cebu-Ormoc route. But though Starlite Ferries already had its new ferries nothing came out of that rumor. They were still on their home base and they still have no new routes while their fleet expanded by about 50% already and they were already shelling out amortization and carrying costs for the new ferries. And with probably no additional income to boot. Somehow something have give as additional ferries are being built for them in Japan. Was the ASEAN routes just a trial balloon?

If Starlite Ferries was doing well as what can be concluded from their press releases and as indicated by their new ships then why the sell-out?

I do not know if theirs is a case of biting what they cannot chew. A PhP 2.4 billion loan without new successful routes and with no sign competition is backing down is not easy to digest. Their new ships have no technical edge over competition unlike the new FastCats of Archipelago Philippine Ferries. It is simply new, nothing more. Maybe that was the reason there was rumor they will be given exclusive routes. But to where? Franchises or Certificates of Public Conveyance (CPC) of the competition can’t simply be cancelled. And maybe that was the reason for the underhanded push to get rid of 35-year old ferries through a questionable administrative fiat which has actually no empirical basis.

Is Alfonso Cusi bailing out before he chokes? The shipping company that acquired Starlite Ferries which is Chelsea Shipping has owners and patrons with very deep pockets. And they have cheap fuel and lubricants to boot which could be decisive in making sense for the new ferries of Starlite.

I am just reminded of a critical juncture in our shipping history in the 1960’s when we already needed to enlarge our inter-island passenger-cargo fleet. Some national liner companies like Escano Lines, General Shipping Corporation, Compania Maritima and Southern Lines Inc. took the route of acquiring loans to order brand-new ships from the National Shipyards and Steel Corporation (NASSCO) and West Germany shipyards. They regretted their decisions eventually.

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Port view of one of the new ships. Starlite Pioneer is the lead ship of the series (Photo by Carl Jakosalem)

Meanwhile at the same time Carlos A. Gothong & Company, William Lines Inc. and Sweet Lines Inc. decided to purchase second-hand vessels from Europe to be converted into passenger-cargo liners here and they came out ahead. For the same amount as a brand-new liner they were able to acquire two to three surplus ships of the same size, reliability and speed. Guess who was able to offer more routes and frequencies and which had more passengers and cargo. That decision vaulted Carlos A. Gothong & Company , William Lines and Sweet Lines to the Top 5 when they were not in that position the decade before.

Is history repeating itself here and Alfonso Cusi has seen the handwriting in the wall and wants to bail out early?

In The 1970’s and the 1980’s (And Also The 1960’s) We Had A Lot Of Ocean-Going Ships

In the 1970’s and 1980’s (and also the 1960’s) with the support of the National Development Corporation (NDC) and maybe with some “marginal notes” from President Ferdinand Marcos we had a sizable ocean-going fleet (relative to the size of our economy and exports). In the main these were the successors of the ocean-going ships of the 1950s and 1960s that carried extracted natural resources (like logs, lumber, ores) and semi-processed products (like plywood, sugar, copra, coconut oil) outwards and finished products (like machinery, vehicle, spare parts) inwards and some of these were American-owned like Everett Steamship and American President Lines (APL) because US nationals can engage then in local business as if the were Philippine nationals because of the so-called “Parity Rights” inserted by the Liberal Party in our Constitution in 1947. When this special right expired in 1974, we tried to supplant the American ships acting as if locals in the foreign routes and so we increased our investments in ships but then what resulted was probably more ships than we needed.

There were three giants in the realm of our ocean-going ships in the 1970s and 1980s and they were obviously the first tier. These were the Philippine President Lines (PPL), Maritime Company of the Philippines and its twin Maritime Overseas Company whose local operations was the well-known Compania Maritima and Galleon Shipping Corporation. The first one also operated the United President Lines (UPL) which had ships chartered from the National Development Corporation (NDC), a government-owned company. Philippine President Lines came earlier in the 1960s and it seems it had special connection too the way they amassed their fleet. Maritime Company of the Philippines came in the 1950’s but really grew when there were already ships available for charter from the Philippine Government and they also availed of that. Meanwhile, Galleon Shipping Corporation only came in the Martial Law years. Of the three, the PPL/UPL had the most biggest fleet.

The Philippine President Lines also had local operations like the Maritime Company of the Philippines but they gave it up after a few years. On the other hand, Galleon Shipping Corporation did not sail the inter-island routes. The long-time visible heads of the Philippine President Lines and Galleon Shipping were closely associated with President Ferdinand Marcos then and many thought they were simply dummies and/or cronies. It was not banks that supported their expansion but the National Development Corporation which is owned by the National Government and that is controlled by the occupant of Malacanang Palace. Maritime Company of the Philippines, meanwhile, had Spanish connections and were politically powerful in their own right as one of the owners was a Senator of the Republic. They have also been around since the Spanish times.

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Eastern Shipping Lines schedule of 1979 (Credits to Grek Peromingan and Mike Baylon)

Second tier of our shipping companies that had international routes in the 1970s and 1980s was probably sole occupied by the Eastern Shipping Lines which is related to William Lines whose owner is politically well-connected also. Their backing were not patsies as they were related to powerful politician clans and they were already long in shipping. But in terms of fleet size and ship size they were far behind Philippine President Lines, Maritime Company of the Philippines and Galleon Shipping Corporation.

There were other shipping companies with international routes in the 1970s and 1980s. But relative to the first two tiers they were even smaller and with just a few ships to their fleets. They might be called the third tier but over-all they were no longer that significant in the over-all picture of our international shipping with the probable exception of Universal Shipping which did not last the 1970’s much but they were very significant in the 1960’s. This shipping company was the international operations of the great Carlos A. Go Thong & Company.

Among those that belonged to the third tier were Molave Bulk Carriers, Philippine Ace Shipping Lines, Northern Lines, United Philippine Carriers, Philippine Transmarine Carriers, Philippine & Japan Lines, Trans-Ocean Transport, Botelho Shipping Corporation, General Shipping Company, Philippine Maritime Shipping Lines, Seven Brothers Shipping, ASEAN Liberty Shipping, etc. Their routes generally were only in the Far East except for those operating tankers which generally had a westward direction up to the Middle East.

If in the 1960s we had routes not only in the Far East but also to the West Coast and East Coast of the USA plus (Western) Europe. In the 1970s and 1980s our international routes were shortened. One reason was the plunge of one our best export then which came from coconut – copra, coconut oil and copra cake. This was due to the rise of substitute edible oils which happened when when a local, government-supported cartel, the UNICOM, tried to drive up the price of coconut oil in the world market, a move that backfired (and to think West Germany warned us that will happen). And by that time our forests were already exhausted by logging, too. The 1970s was also the time that the metallic ores demand nosedived due to the rise of plastics. We were left with not much to export except our laborers (and so we discovered the Middle East market for that).

One that cannot be ignored here is when the government took over the tanker business of LUSTEVECO, a locally-based American shipping concern that was affected by the ending of Parity Rights in 1974. From that move and also the taking over of the tankers of the US oil companies operating here like ESSO (a company which was known in the future as Philippine National Oil Company or PNOC) a local tanker fleet plying the international waters was born under the flag of the PNOC Oil Carriers Inc. The government did that to secure our oil position because then the demand in oil exceeded supply and securing of supplies was essential to prevent supply disruptions and the shooting up of local oil prices. In size, this tanker business of the government in the 1970s and 1980s was big enough to land it in the second tier.

The government also created the National Maritime Corporation (NMC) which was in general cargo. Again the rationale is to secure our supplies and exports. In size NMC was even better then than many of the third tier shipping companies. Again the National Development Company (NDC) financed the development of its fleet. It could have been a good move also because previous experience showed chartering of NDC of its vessels to private shipping firms in many ways resulted in them holding the empty bag when these companies folded. That means freighters that are not sailing and there were no interested takers and in many cases that resulted in ships being sold to the breakers at a loss since NDC is not into shipping. Actually it was the first tier overseas shipping companies which wer the biggest contributor to the “empty bag” when their operations collapsed at the height of the Philippine economic crisis of the 1980’s. Later, when the NMC was also losing and it was sold by the government under the privatization scheme and it landed under the control of the Magsaysay Shipping Group.

To illustrate the size of our ocean-going fleet then I will the list the fleets of the first tier.

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The Philippine President Lines and United President Lines fleets and the years when the ship was in service in the company. Take note that although it was still a PPL ship there have been changes in names especially the use of “Lucky” and “Liberty” names:

Mabini/President Quezon/Seven Kings (IMO 5216240) 103.2m x 15.2m, 3805 grt, 1962-1980

Bonifacio/President Laurel/Jose Laurel/Laurel/Liberty One (IMO 5408001) 134.6m x 17.4m, 7156 grt, 1962-69

President Osmena/Seven Generals (IMO 5428726) 127.3m x 18.3m, 6778 grt, 1963-73

President Roxas/Lucky Seven (IMO 5425190) 125.7m x 18.3m, 5238 grt, 1963-73

President Aguinaldo (IMO 5407992) 125.7m x 18.3m, 5163 grt. 1963-1977

President Quirino/Elpidio Quirino/Quirino/Liberty Two (IMO 5264728) 134.6m x 17.4m, 7134 grt, 1963-1969

President Quezon/Lucky Five (IMO 5283774) 138.3m x 17.4m, 4958 grt, 1964-72

President Magsaysay/Magsaysay (IMO 1181786) 136.5m x 17.2m, 7300 grt, 1964-68

President Macapagal/Lucky Two (IMO 151.1m x 21.1m, 10200 grt, 1965-72

President Osmena/Lucky Three (IMO 5203047) 151.1m x 21.1m, 10,200 grt,1965-72

President Garcia (IMO 5025809) 151.1m x 21.1m, 10,200 grt, 1965-67

President Marcos/Lucky One (IMO 5298547) 151.1m x 21.1m, 10,200 grt, 1966-72

Emilio Aguinaldo/President Laurel/Lucky Nine (IMO 5365479) 125.7m x 18.3m, 5156 grt, 1967-75

Aguinaldo/Liberty Three/President Magsaysay (IMO 5103900) 136.1m x 17.2m, 7073 grt, 1967-72

Manuel Quezon/President Quirino/Lucky Eight (IMO 5351753) 125.7m x 18.3m, 5156 grt, 1967-75

President Magsaysay/Lucky Four (IMO 5305144) 133.1m x 17.3m, 5408 grt, 1967-71

President Garcia/Lucky Ten (IMO 5345388) 134.9m x 17.3m, 5413 grt, 1967-75

President (IMO 5127906) 162.0 m x 19.7m, 12457 grt, 1969-72

President Quezon (IMO 5190783) 151.2m x 19.5m, 9197 grt, 1972-29

President Osmena (IMO 5194818) 151.2m x 19.5m, 9205 grt, 1972-29

President Magsaysay/Lucky Eleven (IMO 5194301) 151.3m x 19.5m, 9202 grt, 1972-83

President Aguinaldo/Lucky Fifteen (IMO 5356698) 160.0m x 22.4m, 12194 grt, 1978-83

President Garcia/Lucky Nineteen (IMO 5219383) 159.7m x 20.6m, 9556 grt, 1979-85

President Laurel/Lucky Twelve (IMO 5191270) 151.3m x 19.5m, 9208 grt, 1980-83

President Quirino/Lucky Ten (IMO 5190680) 151.3m x 19.5m, 9202 grt, 1980-83

President Roxas/Lucky Nine (IMO 5194985) 151.3m x 19.4m, 9096 grt, 1980-82

President Osmena/Lucky 14 (IMO 5116646) 154.0m x 19.4m, 6784 grt, 1981-83

President Roxas (IMO 5415432) 186.2m x 24.7m, 17836 grt, 1982-85

President Aguinaldo/Lucky Twenty Four (IMO 6612594) 224.0m x 31.9m, 33171 grt, 1982-86

President Macapagal (IMO 5150783) 171.0m x 22.0m, 14842 grt, 1982-85

Philippine Laurel/Lucky Twenty One (IMO 6605668) 223.0m x 31.9m, 34160 grt, 1983-86

Philippine Quirino/Lucky Twenty Two (IMO 6711297) 138.5m x 20.3m, 7791 grt, 1983-86

President Quirino/Lucky Twenty (IMO 5085287) 156.0m x 19.7m, 9353grt, 1983-85

President Magsaysay/Lucky Twenty-Three (IMO 5414658) 186.5m x 23.0m, 18226grt, 1983-86

President Aguinaldo/Lucky Twenty Six (IMO 6509424) 194.7 x 24.5m, 18463grt, 1984-86

Philippine Laurel/Lucky Sixteen (IMO 6718702) 142.9m x 18.8m, 7680grt, 1984-84

President Roxas/Lucky Twenty Five (IMO 6522402) 188.1 x 25.1m, 17238 grt, 1985-86

Philippine Roxas (IMO 6804968) 245.4m x 32.3m, 42202grt, 1985-88

Philippine Garcia (IMO 6927028) 230.0m x 36.4m, 38985grt, 1985-87

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Credits to Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen

United President Lines (UPL):

General Lim (from NDC) (IMO 5127865) 144.0m x 19.0m, 8975grt,  1960-76

Philippine President Magsaysay (from NDC) (IMO 5277189) 155.5m x 19.6m, 9949grt, 1960-78

Philippine President Quezon [from NDC] (IMO 5277206) 155.5m x 19.6m, 9963grt, 1960-78

Philippine President Quirino [from NDC] (IMO 5277218) 155.5m x 19.6m, 9759grt, 1960-78

Philippine President Roxas [from NDC] (IMO 5277220) 155.5m x 19.6m, 9938 grt, 1961-78

Philippine President Osmena [from NDC] (IMO 5277191] 155.5m x 19.6m, 9941grt, 1961-78

The Philippine President Lines acquired the Philippine President ships earlier between 1960 and 1961.

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MCP schedule of 1979 (Credits to Grek Peromingan and Mike Baylon)

Ships of Maritime Corporation of the Philippines and Maritime Overseas Corporation Chartered from the National Development Corporation:

Philippine Antonio Luna (IMO 5277103) 156.4m x 19.6m, 9904grt, 1967-82

Philippine Bataan (IMO 5277115) 156.2m x 19.4m, 9894grt, 1967-82

Philippine Corregidor (IMO 5277139) 156.5m x 19.7m, 10035grt, 1967-80

Philippine Jose Abad Santos (IMO 5227714) 157.0m x 19.7m, 10015grt, 1967-68

Philippine Rizal (IMO 5277232) 156.2m x 19.5m, 9912grt, 1967-82

Philippines (IMO 5277268) 155.5m x 19.6m, 9982grt, 1967-80

Other MCP and MOC Ships (basically their owned ships):

Sarangani Bay (IMO 5092187) 153.7m x 19.7m, 7355grt, 1967-72

Lingayen Gulf (IMO 5092175) 153.7m x 19.7m, 7355grt, 1968-73

Puerto Princesa [1] (IMO 5282495) 142.9m x 19.6m, 7179grt, 1972-78

Cabo Bolinao (IMO 5066542) 135.4m x 17.3m, 6192grt, 1971-84

Cabo Bojeador (IMO 5009582) 126.2m x 15.2m, 2792grt, 1971-83

Cabo San Agustin (IMO 5025835) 126.2m x 15.2m, 2788grt, 1972-83

Puerto Princesa (IMO 5282495) 142.9m x 19.6m, 7179grt, 1972-78

Lingayen (IMO 5051353) 134.5m x 16.5m, 3111grt, 1973-79

Sarangani (IMO 5255052) 134.5m x 16.5m, 3111grt, 1973-83

*Isla Verde (IMO 6413819) 148.8m x 18.8m, 7891grt, 1975-84

Palawan (IMO 6906036) 150.7m x 20.1m, 8838grt, 1976-84

Antipolo (IMO 6927559) 148.6m x 21.2m, 9403grt, 1977-84

Puerto Princesa [2] (IMO 7026651) 157.2m x 21.9m, 10661grt, 1978-84

Corregidor/Nasipit Bay (IMO 7052985) 150.7m x 20.0m, 9160grt, 1978-84

**Mindanao [2] (IMO 6813497) 141.0m x 18.6m, 5591grt, 1978-84

Balintawak (IMO 6922274) 148.6m x 21.1m, 9043grt, 1980-84

Mayon (IMO 70354687) 157.0m x 21.8m, 10661grt, 1980-84

Manila (IMO 7044093) 153.3m x 22.9m, 10586grt, 1980-84

Zamboanga (IMO 7211397) 153.3m x 22.9m, 10644grt, 1980-84

*was also used in the inter-island route

**different from their ship of that name used in the inter-island route

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Galleon Shipping schedule of 1979 (Credits to Grek Peromingan and Mike Baylon)

National Galleon Shipping Corporation ships:

Philippine Rizal (IMO 5277232) 156.2m x 19.5m, 9912grt, 1978-82

Galleon Coral [1] (IMO 5277177) 155.5m x 19,6m, 9937grt, 1978-80

Galleon Shipping Corporation Vessels Chartered from the Philippine Government:

Galleon Opal [1] (IMO 5277220) [ex-Philippine President Roxas of PPL], 155.5m x 19.6m, 9936grt, 1978-80

Galleon Jade (IMO 5277206) [ex-Philippine President Quezon of PPL] 155.5m x 19.6m, 9963grt, 1978-

Galleon Pearl (IMO 5277218) [ex-Philippine President Quirino of UPL] 155.5m x 19.6m, 9759grt, 1978-

Galleon Ruby (IMO 5277268) [ex-Philippines of xxxx] 155.5m x 19.6m, 9982grt, 1978-80

Galleon Coral (IMO 5277177) [ex-Philippine President Garcia of PPL]

155.5m x 19.6m, 9937grt, 1978-80

Galleon Onyx/Galleon Opal (IMO 7602429) 162.6m x 22.9m, 11507grt, 1980-82

Galleon Sapphire (IMO 7602417) 162.6m x 22.9m, 11507grt, 1980-82

Galleon Topaz (IMO 7602560) 162.6m x 22.9m, 11401grt, 1979-82

Galleon Amethyst (IMO 7602572) 162.6m x 22.9m, 11401grt, 1979-82

Galleon Aquamarine/Galleon Trust (IMO 7912563) 162.0m x 23.1m, 13607grt, 1980-84

Galleon Diamond/Galleon Honor (IMO 7915242) 163.1m x 23.1m, 13885grt, 1980-84

Galleon Tourmaline/Galleon Integrity (IMO 7912551) 163.0m x 23.1m, 13607grt, 1980-84 [became Madrigal Integrity]

Galleon Agate/Galleon Dignity (IMO 7912575) 163.1m x 23.1m, 13886grt, 1981-84

Galleon Emerald/Galleon Pride (IMO 7915254) 163.1m x 23.1m, 13886grt, 1981-84

The National Galleon Shipping Corporation just survived a few years more the crisis years of 1983-86 than Philippine President Lines and Maritime Company of the Philippines. But all went down in those crisis years. Those crisis years at the tailend of the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos was the deadliest for Philippine shipping and even worse than World War II because the lost ships in that war were replaced by the USA after they requisitioned them or had them scuttled.

In the latter years, it is only the WG&A fleet (combined passenger and cargo) that can rival the fleets of any of the first-tier overseas shipping companies in terms of total Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) , the classical method of comparing fleet sizes.

When President Cory Aquino ascended into office there was great lack of foreign currency and capital in general because of the relatively profligate administration of President Ferdinand Marcos and the leaks in the national budget. We were then in tight reins of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and we have to pay 25% of the national budget to our lenders. There was really no more money to support these dinosaurs who wer already behind in the paradigm change to container shipping.

Ironically, when the overseas shipping companies supported by the government all collapsed, it was the local lines that had containers ships remaining from the likes of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation, William Lines Inc., Sulpicio Lines Inc. and Lorenzo Shipping Corporation but their operation was only inter-island. It was only Aboitiz Shipping that had an international route with their Aboitiz Overseas Shipping Corporation (AOSC) and Eastern Shipping Lines vessels also carried a few container vans atop their cargo ships. Ironically again, some of the ships seized by the National Development Corporation in the fleet of Galleon Shipping  were converted into container ships of when it was sold to Uniglory Marine Corporation of Taiwan. These were the Galleon Opal, Galleon Sapphire, Galleon Topaz and Galleon Amethyst.

When our ocean-going fleet was dying the likes of South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore wer testing the business of international container shipping with government support. Now their container shipping lines are all world-ranked while we don’t have a single overseas container line. If there was a reversal of fortune then this is it. And it also showed how from being one of at least an average economy we became “The Sick Man of Asia” whose shipping fleet is laughable now by the standards of its once peers or near-peers. We don’t have international shipping lines anymore and so all we do now is export our mariners and call them “heroes” but treat them shabbily for most times and require a lot from them.

And that is practically the story of our international shipping for the past half century or so.

Nakakaiyak lang.

The Princess of the Orient

When William Lines fielded the Wililines Mabuhay 1 in the premier Manila-Cebu route as their challenger in the flagship wars, her main shipping rival Sulpicio Lines rolled out the bigger Princess of the Orient as their answer. Amazingly, the two ships in came from the same company in Japan and both belonged to the highly-regarded and legendary “Sun Flower series” of the Nihon Kosoku Ferry of the Terukuni group. The Princess of the Orient was the Sun Flower 11 while the Mabuhay 1 was the Sun Flower 5. The Princess of the Orient was a lengthened version of the series of sister sister and she had two center funnels in a line. Her superstructure was different too and that was the reason, along with the length, that it was not obvious that the two belonged to the same series of ships. The forepart below the bridge was convex too so she did not look as angular as Mabuhay 1. She also had long bridge wings.

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Sun Flower 11 (Photo by funekichemurase)

The “Sun Flower” series of luxury ships was the dream of Mr. Kijiro Nakagawa, the shipping king of Kyushu, one of the four main islands of Japan. He was the Chief of the Terukuni Kauin which controlled the Nihon Kosoku Ferry, the operator of the beautiful, luxurious and well-regarded “Sun Flower” series of ships which was the nearest equivalent in Japan of the highly-regarded and famous Stena series of luxury ships of Sweden. In this series of seven, it was Sun Flower 11 which was the biggest and longest.

The Sun Flower 11 was built by the Kurushima Dockyard Company in their Onishi shipyard in 1974. At 195.8 meters length over-all (LOA), she was 10 meters longer than her sister ships but she had a similar breadth like the others at 24.0 meters. Consequently, her gross tonnage (GT) was larger at 13,598 and her DWT (deadweight tonnage) was 3,110 tons. This big ship was powered by two Kawasaki-MAN diesel engines of 28,000 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 25 knots when new. Her engine configuration were different from her sister ships and she had only two, not four and her engine arrangement, having no synchronizers, were different, too.

The ship already had the then-very-modern bulbous stem but her stern was cruiser and this contributed to her more rounded look (compared to the angular look of her sister ships). She had three passenger decks and two car decks plus a mezzanine deck for sedans. This ship was actually one of the so-called “highways of the sea” — overnight ROROs on long-distance routes of Japan via overnight voyages mainly and that was why they needed to be fast. Catering not only to truckers but also to commuters and travelers, they were given luxurious accommodations with many amenities including good food and entertainment.

Unlike Sun Flower 5, Sun Flower 11 had no front quarter ramps nor a bow ramp. What she had instead at the front was a side ramp on the starboard side. She was also equipped with two stern quarter ramps of the three-piece kind. For added comfort for passengers in rough seas, the ship was also equipped with fin stabilizers which decreased the roll of the ship (the swaying from side to side). She was also advertised to have a computer-controlled steering system. Maybe that meant it was computer inputs and motors that controlled the action of the rudder (and the stabilizers) and not via the traditional cables. Her original route was Osaka to Kagoshima.

The “Sun Flower” series of luxury ships were not successful financially because the Oil Crisis of 1973 where fuel prices spiked caught them hard. Terukuni Yusen went bankrupt but Nihon Kosoku Ferry continued operations. In 1984, the Sun Flower 11 was sold to her builder Kurushima Dockyard Company along Sun Flower 5 but she was chartered back to Nihon Kosoku Ferry so that their operations can continue. However, in 1990, Nihon Kosoku Ferry finally gave up and Sun Flower 11 (and Sun Flower 5) went to Nihon Enkai Ferry which was later named as the Blue Highway Line. So though future competitors in the Philippines that was how tightly interwoven were the careers of two luxury sister ships. In 1991, she was renamed as the Sun Flower Satsuma and in 1993, she was sold to the Philippines (together with Sun Flower 5).

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Princess of the Orient by Britz Salih

Sun Flower Satsuma went to Sulpicio Lines Inc. (SLI) and her sister ship, the original Sun Flower 5 (renamed as Sun Flower Osaka) went to William Lines Inc., SLI’s chief rival. And so the intertwined sister ships began their battle in the Philippines as flagships of the two leading shipping companies then. In refitting and conversion, the superstructure of Sun Flower Satsuma was largely left unchanged except that additional scantling was added to the whole top deck to accommodate the Economy class. The mezzanine of the car deck was also converted into additional Economy accommodations. However, since this lacked ventilation it was hot and not too liked by the passengers.

In the conversion, the Gross Tonnage (GT) of the ship barely rose from 13,593 in to 13,734 here. She had a net tonnage of 6,445 locally and a deadweight tonnage of 3,172. She was given the local Call Sign of DUAO8. The main difference here compared to Japan was her big drop in speed. Unlike Mabuhay 1 which was still capable of 20 knots, she can only do 18.5 knots, the reason why she takes 21 hours for the 393-nautical mile Manila-Cebu route. With a tall air height and tall masts, she goes around Mactan Island as she cannot go under the two Mactan bridges. She only did the Manila-Cebu route twice a week that is why she has plenty of lay-overs.

The Princess of the Orient had eight accommodation classes. Highest was the Royal and the Imperial Suites which was not really meant for the common passengers even if they can afford it. Those were reserved for the relatives of the owners and the rich of Cebu who still took ships then. The other classes were the Suite, the Cabin for 4 with Toilet and Bath, the Cabin for 2 w/o Toilet and Bath, the Tourist Deluxe, Tourist, Economy Deluxe (air-conditioned Economy) and Economy. If P464 was the fare of the lowest class then P1,650 was the passage of the highest class but it has all the amenities and its occupants need not go to the restaurants for their meals because it will be served right there and they have their own personal sala so they need not mix with the hoi polloi. This was also true for Suite passengers.

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Princess of the Orient by Britz Salih

The Princess of the Orient had the biggest passenger capacity ever by a liner in the Philippines at 3,912 persons which was almost double that of her main rival Mabuhay 1. Being super-big she had plenty of space, accommodations and amenities. It was tiring to make the rounds of the spaces devoted to passengers especially if one includes the converted mezzanine (many thought this had no access to the rest of the ship but if one knows how to read general arrangement plans then one could reach it from the other classs). With its big space and few windows, the Tourist of this ship can be disorienting after one wakes up as from the bunk one can’t tell if it is night or day. In roaming this section too, one has to mind his route as it is not easy to locate back one’s bunk because the passageways are byzantine-like. In the First Class at the forward portion of the ship, it was rows and rows of cabins. In the Economy in the converted top deck it was one long walk from one end to the other.

All the passage classes were entitled to free meals aboard the ship. The highest classes will be assigned to the First Class restaurant and here it was eat-all-you-can as in smorgasbord, a feature of dining always appreciated by top passengers in Sulpicio Lines. The Tourist classes also have their own restaurant and here real china and crystal glasses were used along with linen. The Third Class restaurant, meanwhile, resembles a cafeteria and steel trays were used and glasses were plastic. Nevertheless, since it is rice-all-you-can, the passengers will still have full stomachs especially since it is soup-all-you-can. In Third Class, meals will be by schedule, it was announced in loudspeakers and bellmen will make the rounds to call out as not all Economy passengers can be accommodated in one sitting (well, the bellmen also make a round of the Tourist sections since the favorite activity of the passengers is sleeping). Well, even in the Tourist restaurant, long queues can form and some passengers rather than line up will just come back at a later hour. Anyway, they know that for sure the meals and the unlimited rice will never run out in Sulpicio Lines.

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(c) closedcircuitdivers.com.au. Credits also to Arckz Pananganan

The Princess of the Orient had plenty of amenities and offerings. She was also sold as “hotel on the sea” and as a “floating convention center”. For this purpose, she had a conference room with all the necessary equipment. As “floating hotel”, her suites were luxurious and had amenities that can be found in good hotel rooms. For First Class passengers there was a separate VIP lounge for them not accessible to the passengers of the lower passage classes. For unwinding during the night, there was a theater with live entertainment where drinks and finger food can be ordered. The ship also had a dance floor with dance instructors. For the children, there were kiddie rides, video games and playground equipment. She was also equipped with a gym for those wanting to work out a sweat. Well, visiting all the parts of the ship was already a work-out as one deck from one end to the other was already a third of a kilometer and there were three-and-a-half decks to roam plus there were stairs to navigate.

After sailing serenely for four years, the Princess of the Orient had a bad incident when on December of 1997 she caught fire in the engine room while refueling in North Harbor. With significant damage she was sent to Singapore for repairs. It was noticeable that she had a slight but visible list to port and rumors ascribed it to the fire and some said her fin stabilizers were also damaged and locked into position. It also seemed she lost a little speed to just 18 knots.

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Princess of the Orient (Credits to Nonoy Lacza, Manila Chronicle & Gorio Belen)

On September 18, 1998, on one voyage from Manila, she left port in a typhoon (based on the Philippine definition of typhoon which is just a storm or a gale in other countries). Liners then can routinely leave port at Signal Number 2 (this was defined then as having center winds of 91-120kph). It was a Friday night 10:00 PM when Princess of the Orient left Manila North Harbor about two hours late. Most probably she waited a little for the typhoon to pass. During that time, “Typhoon Gading” (“Typhoon Vicki” internationally) was already in the Quirino-Pangasinan border in northern Luzon.

The 8:00 PM weather bulletin of PAGASA, THE forecast winds was only 100 KPH at the center. A few hours before that PAGASA said the center winds was only 75 KPH. With the typhoon completely passing in a few hours and with such low forecast of winds, maybe it put complacence on the Captain and on the company. However, the 100 KPH center winds was a severe underestimation as later analysis by other weather centers put the true strength of the typhoon at 160 KPH which is already in Signal No. 3 and hence, dangerous to all sea vessels (now 45 KPH can already deemed “dangerous” for all sea vessels except for foreign vessels which have no tolerance for such inanity and just continue sailing in our waters when all our local ships, big or small are suspended from sailing). The Typhoon Vicki case earned PAGASA censure from other weather forecasting agencies.

Coming out of Manila Bay, the Princess of the Orient was subjected to fierce winds, much more than what they expected. Reports and speculation said the container vans on chassis with wheels were not properly secured (maybe that meant only wooden chocks were used) and these moved in a situation where the car deck was not full. A mariner familiar with her theorized she had not fully ballasted by the time she left Manila Bay as it takes several hours for her to be fully ballasted (and hence lowering her center of gravity and adding to her depth, the portion of the ship below water).

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The long reach of Typhoon Vicki (NOAA image)

Soon, the Princess of the Orient developed an uncontrollable list to port around 12 midnight, a dangerous condition in a severe tropical storm or higher (with winds maybe over 120 KPH, locally). A survivor I had talked to who suffered a broken collarbone because he slammed into a bulkhead said the list then was already over 45 degrees. Remember she had a previous list to port and waves were continuously pounding her at the bow and at starboard. The Board of Marine inquiry later blamed the Captain for errors in handling the situation.

Off the shores of Cavite province, the ship floundered about 5 minutes before 1:00 AM. She was able to launch life rafts and in the gathering light of the day these were seen by Cavite fishermen bobbing in the angry swells. In the Philippines, it is the fishermen who are the bravest in strong seas and they are the best hope of passengers struggling to survive in these kinds of seas. Even with such dangerous conditions, the brave Cavite fishermen launched their fishing bancas before light to come to the aid of the passengers of the Princess of the Orient. The Coast Guard rescue boats arrived much later.

Of the 388 passengers and 102 crewmen aboard the ship, 95 lost their lives in the floundering of the Princess of the Orient. Some sources though said the number of deaths reached 150 but there could be speculation in that number. The Captain did not survive the loss of his ship and a witness said the last time he saw him, the Captain was assisting passengers into life rafts. I was taught Captains should behave that way in such critical situations.

Today, Princess of the Orient lies on its port side in the seabed at 150 meters depth a few kilometers off the coast of Cavite. She has now become a dive site although few can reach her because of the depth.

The Princess of the Orient sailed for five years only here. What a waste of a great liner!

A Good Ship Is Gone

The uncle of a PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) member saw the former SuperFerry 5 (last known as St. Joan of Arc in the Philippines) in Singapore a few months ago in what can be surmised as a one-way trip to a ship-breaking yard somewhere in South Asia. That ship has long been reported for sale and its owner 2GO is just as much willing to dispose of her. The ship’s final fate must have been sealed when the former SuperFerry 16 arrived back in the Philippines in 2015 after having been sold abroad for profit in 2007 at the height of the world metal prices then that was driven by the great China demand when its industrial output and drive to sell to the world hit high gear. 2GO wants a more modern fleet and they have no patience for old and graying ships.

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The former SuperFerry 5 which was known as the St. Joan of Arc in the fleet of 2GO was actually the last of our old generation of liners that was built in the 1970’s and which arrived in the country in the 1990’s. She was the lone wolf after the Princess of the South of Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation, the former Sulpicio Lines was disposed off in 2015 and the former SuperFerry 2 which was renamed to St. Thomas Aquinas sank in a collision near Mactan island in 2013 and after the former SuperFerry 1 which was renamed to St. Rita de Cascia was sold to China in and after the St. Joseph The Worker and the St. Peter The Apostle were sold to Bangladeshi breakers.

It was not actually the St. Joan of Arc which 2GO wanted to retain longer. It was actually the refitted St. Thomas Aquinas but as fate would have it she tried to test how the hard was the ice-classed bow of the container ship Sulpicio Express Siete of Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation or PSACC, the successor company of Sulpicio Lines. The former SuperFerry 5 was not a converted ship to two cargo decks like the St. Thomas Aquinas and hence her container capacity is lower while she can no longer fill her passenger accommodations. This was because passengers have already moved to other means of transportation after the liners became a disappointment when they failed to handle the challenge of the budget airlines and the intermodal buses and trucks.

I was puzzled how 2GO handled the St. Joan of Arc. She was already long for sale but there were no takers. That was the time when she still had a route to Tagbilaran and Dumaguete from Manila. She was already smokey then but if the experience of her sister ship the St. Thomas Aquinas which has the same engines is used as a guideline then if there was a decision to refurbish her she will still be a better ship. After refitting, the St. Thomas Aquinas was capable of 18.5 knots when to think she was only running at 17.5 knots when she was newly-fielded in the 1990’s. But of course she already had less metal when two passenger deck were removed. The St. Thomas Aquinas was also less smokey than her sister ship after she was refurbished.

I have long hated that policy of 2GO which they called “finding the right size” which is just a euphemism for culling ships and routes when their bean counters find out that they do not contribute to the profitability of the company. You see they are primarily in business and not in real shipping. It is just cold-bloodied calculation and not passion for sailing and moving goods and people. But then they are oblivious to the fact that with their uncertainty in serving a route makes patrons especially shippers look for other carriers. Like when the Cebu Ferry 2 abandoned Surigao. When they came back there was no cargo anymore and they didn’t even bother to deploy the car ramps anymore when we rode her. And ships cannot maintain a route without meaningful cargo. It is different when patrons know a shipping company will maintain the route no matter what. Otherwise, they will be talking to other carriers.

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In recent history, it was the Aboitiz Transport System (ATS), its subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC) and the latter 2GO which has been the greatest “donors” of passengers and cargo to their competition that the receivers should always give them giant cakes during Christmas as thanks for business they gained without any effort or investment. Actually, the Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI) should have rolled out two bands when Cebu Ferry 1 and Cebu Ferry 3 left Cebu for Batangas to become the “Batangas Ferries”. Well, even Cokaliong Shipping Line iNC. (CSLI) also became a beneficiary with the withdrawal of the Cebu Ferries from Surigao, Nasipit, Ozamis and Iligan. Imagine given four major Northern Mindanao ports free.

I just wonder why 2GO can’t give the St. Joan of Arc a permanent route then before they withdraw from the Zamboanga route. When they withdrew from Zamboanga they cited the Abu Sayyaf threat. But then they still sailed their container ships and other shipping companies still continued sailing to Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao. Then they came back to Zamboanga when Abu Sayyaf attacks were continuing and they did not withdraw again until now. So that means they were simply lying the first time around that they withdrew.

When they came back to Zamboanga, it was a Manila-Cebu-Dumaguete route which was later redacted into a Manila-Dumaguete-Zamboanga route, a route longer than a Manila-Iloilo-Bacolod-Zamboanga route. If a route via Dumaguete can be maintained then for sure a route via Iloilo and/or Bacolod can be maintained profitably since Iloilo and Bacolod are both bigger than Dumaguete and the route is shorter. Besides there is no ferry between Iloilo and Zamboanga and there is no bus too while Dumaguete has a bus to Zamboanga and there was also the once-a-week Zamboanga Ferry of George & Peter Lines. And it is easy to cross to Dapitan and take a bus to Zamboanga from Dipolog, the next locality.

2GO could have refurbished the St. Joan of Arc and made her a permanent Zamboanga ship. Her size and speed would have been enough for the route and maybe they can even make a twice a week voyage there. And passenger load might have been better if their arrival time was proper. A 5pm arrival is bad as the connecting trips to the minor islands like the Pangutaran group and even Basilan are already gone by the time their ship arrives in Zamboanga. Actually buses to the the “3S” (Sibuco, Sirawai, Siocon) direction and the direction of Payao (the Lizamay buses) would have also been gone by that time. I noticed ATS and 2GO are not passenger-friendly with regards to arrivals as many of their arrivals are at night. Right now, three out of their five arrivals in Manila from Cebu are at night and they will force passengers down even when it is already midnight. So they think the streets of Manila are safe at night? Ha ha! That is also the time the taxis make a killing.

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St. Joan of Arc not sailing

2GO does not have the program of the likes of Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc. and Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. to give their old ships a second lease of life. Those two companies still has many ships built in the early 1970’s like the St. Joan of Arc. And those ships are still creditable and reliable. In the international cruise industry, ships can be refurbished even when they were built decades ago and niche routes and cruising can be found for them. Like if the St. Joan of Arc was refurbished and assigned to Zamboanga permanently even before 2GO withdrew from there before. Or maybe toughened it out and served Tagbilaran, Dumaguete and Dapitan continuously with a Manila-Tagbilaran-Dumaguete-Dapitan-Manila route. Well, just wishing but Tagbilaran and Bohol has no more direct connection after the Dipolog Princess of Sulpicio Lines was gone. Those three ports might have enough passengers and cargo to sustain the ship.

But this is all water under the bridge now. The St. Joan of Arc is already gone as old ships have no future in 2GO. And maybe it was just proper that the people that initiated this system are already retired now too. They deserve the same fate maybe. It was just like when in ATS the execs approved of the culling and culling of ships until there were more VPs than liners and they did not realize that they will also be culled because that situation cannot continue.

There is a new management in 2GO after new investors came in. I just hope they are forward-looking and love ships instead of being wielders of knives.

The Mabuhay 1/SuperFerry 10

When Sulpicio Lines fielded the great liner Filipina Princess in the premier route to Cebu in 1988, their main competitor William Lines had to suffer silently for several years. That was because sticking to their old Japanese agent that send them ferries from A” Line, they cannot roll out an equivalent and their liner and new flagship Sugbu that was fielded to the Cebu route in 1990 does not begin to match the Sulpicio Lines flagship (although in actual passengers carried, she can according to a research). And to think in their last match-up in this primary route of the country at the start of the 1980’s, their flagship Dona Virginia, which was the biggest and fastest liner in the country then was at least the equal of the Sulpicio Lines flagship Philippine Princess.

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Sun Flower 5 (from Funikichemurase)

In 1992, William Lines was able to field the Maynilad but although she was impressive and modern-looking she was still not the match of the Filipina Princess especially with her great deficit in speed as she was really a slow ship. In 1993, however, William Lines was able to acquire one of the legendary Sun Flower ships from Blue Highway Line, the Sun Flower 5. It had everything a great liner should possess — the size, the beautiful looks, the luxurious interiors and the speed. It was more than a match for the Filipina Princess which suddenly looked dated by comparison. But Sulpicio Lines will not be denied and they also fielded one of the Sun Flower liners from Blue Highway Line, too, the Sun Flower 11. This liner was bigger, just as well-appointed but a little slower. This ship became the Princess of the Orient and so a great battle of flagships began again in the premier route to Cebu.

The Sun Flower 5 was built in 1973 by the Kurushima Dockyard Company in their Onishi shipyard. She was the third in the Sun Flower series of luxury ships which were all sister ships. However, Sun Flower 11, the future Princess of the Orient, was a little different from the rest. She was a stretched version and she had two center funnels in a line. Two later ships, meanwhile, were shortened versions of the series.

Sun Flower 5 was exactly 185.0 meters in length over-all and her beam was 24.0 meters. Her length between perpendiculars was only 170.0 meters. That difference can be gleaned in her long bow that nearly resembles a clipper bow. She was 12,710 in gross tons, her cubic measure, and her deadweight tonnage (DWT), her cargo carrying capacity, was 3,231 tons. The ship had three passenger decks, two car decks and a mezzanine deck for sedans. Her navigation deck also served as the sun deck and accessible to passengers. She had the permanent ship ID IMO 7302108.

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Mabuhay 1 by Britz Salih

The ship’s RORO ramps were already of the modern design. It was no longer located at the bow which was already deemed as more dangerous then as continuous pounding of the waves over the years along with corrosion were already shown to weaken bow ramps. A frontal collision could also prove calamitous for the ship as shown by experiences. What she had were a pair of front quarter ramps on the port and on the starboard sides. She also had a pair of quarter ramps at the stern. That was a very advantageous set-up because docked sideways she can load and unload simultaneously. Docked stern-wise or Mediterranean style, she can also load and unload at the same time. She had three-piece hydraulic ramps which can always be straightened full-out and long, whether it is high tide or low tide, whether she is docked in a high pier or low pier.

Since her front ramps were no longer located at the bow, it no longer needed to be oval. Instead, it was sleek which gave her a more modern look. She had a single center funnel which also served as the stern mast. To complete the modernity, she was a pioneer among liners in using the new and more efficient bulbous stem. This breaks and guides the waters around the ship better so giving the ships’ speed a little boost. Or put it in another way, for the same speed, a little less fuel will be needed. She was equipped with four Hitachi diesel engines with a total output of 26,080 horsepower. This was coupled to two synchronizers in order to turn the two propellers. She had a top speed of 25.5 knots when new which was really fast for that time. To make the voyage more comfortable in rough waters, she was equipped with fin stabilizers.

The original operator of Sun Flower 5 was the Nihon Kosoku Ferry which was under the Terukuni group. She plied the Tokyo-Nachikatsuura-Kochi route. However, the Oil Crisis of 1973 hit the group hard and Terukuni Kaiun went bankrupt but Nihon Shikoku Ferry continued operating. In 1984, the Nihon Kosoku Ferry sold the Sun Flower 5 to her builder, the Kurushima Dock Company and chartered them back in order to continue operating. But Kurushima Dock Company also collapsed and in 1990, the Nihon Enkai Ferry acquired Sun Flower 5 and fielded her in the Osaka-Kagoshima route. In 1991, Sun Flower 5 became the Sun Flower Osaka. Then Nihon Enkai Ferry changed the company’s name into Blue Highway Line.

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SuperFery 10 by Chief Ray Smith

When she came to the Philippines for William Lines in 1993, Sun Flower Osaka was renamed officially as the Wililines Mabuhay 1. But almost nobody called her by her full name and she was simply Mabuhay 1 to most. She started the William Lines series of luxury liners that were beautiful, well-appointed, fast and with good service to match. And with her characteristics, she was really a good and proper progenitor plus a worthy flagship.

In refitting here, her superstructure was largely left untouched and with such, her beautiful lines remained intact. Moreover, William Lines did not try to cram her with passenger accommodations. So for her size and for the standards of the day, her passenger capacity of 2,034 was relatively low. It was just a little over half of the passenger capacity of her main rival Princess of the Orient. Maybe with her intended routes of Manila-Cebu and Manila-Iloilo only with no Mindanao connections, her passenger capacity might have just enough.

The ship had plenty of passenger space as a result and so she had features like conference and function rooms that take up space but which will be unused most of the time. She was intended to be sold as a “floating hotel” where meetings or small conventions can be held and so she has utilities like fax and telephone services and xerox machines. That was not a far-off sell then because liner rates in those days were comparable to hotel rates when the free food was factored in. It was just like staying in a hotel with free conveyance to one’s destination in province. Actually, with this idea, I was able to convince a friend to just take the Princess of the Pacific as their honeymoon suite instead of a hotel in Baguio.

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SuperFerry 10 by Britz Salih

In her sun deck, Mabuhay 1 had a small swimming pool and a wading pool too for children. The sun deck also hosted a playground for children. If that was not one’s taste, there were also video games in the arcade and movies in the theater. For those who liked it “hotter”, one can belt a tune in the videokes or gyrate in the disco. If that was not enough to work a sweat there was also a physical fitness center. However, as a ship feature I noticed that this one was barely patronized. The fitness craze was not yet “on” then for Pinoys. Cruising should be laid back and fun, wasn’t it?

For those who were in a hurry and forgot their grooming for an important meeting or interview, the beauty and grooming salons took care of that. Those in need of relaxation or easing of body pains can go the shipboard massage parlor. The ship had many lounges where passengers can while their time and this included the ship’s many restaurants. This ship with its high net tonnage to passenger ratio had many spaces where one can walk around in the softness of the carpeted floors. The poop decks also served as promenade areas and observation decks. One of the places to visit then for the artistically inclined was the art gallery, a supportive gesture of William Lines to the budding artists of Cebu.

In refitting here, the ship’s gross tonnage (GT) increased to 13,288. She had a local net tonnage (NT) of 5,480 but her deadweight tonnage (DWT) increased a lot to 7,827 tons. She carried the Philippine Call Sign DUHN3.

For William Lines, she sailed to Cebu twice a week and once a week for Iloilo. She took 20 hours for the 393-nautical mile cruise to Cebu and 18 hours for the 343-nautical mile cruise to Iloilo. Locally, her speed was down to 20 knots but that was still fast by local standards. She had an overnight lay-over in Manila every Saturday. Lay-overs like that were very welcome rest to the crew and an opportunity to them to make visits.

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SuperFerry 10 by Chief Ray Smith

Mabuhay 1 did not have that many accommodation classes unlike one will expect for a ship this size. The reason, I surmise, is they respected and used many of the cabin lay-out in Japan. There were four classes in cabin setting, the Special Suite, the Suite, the First Class Cabin for 4 and the De Luxe Cabin for 2 (First Class Cabins have their own Toilet and Baths while De Luxe Cabins only have a wash). There was also the De Luxe (these has better, semi-private bunks), Tourist and Economy. The fare of the highest class was three-and-a-half times the fare of the lowest class.

All the passage classes were entitled to free meals like in the rest of the liner shipping companies before except for Aboitiz Shipping Corporation where meals were not free (but their fares are correspondingly a little less). There were three restaurants according to class group –– the First Class restaurant, the Tourist restaurant and the Economy restaurant. Suite passengers have the option of being served in their cabins. The fare or meal in each class varies a lot along with the plates and table linen as in from none to true restaurant type. It was not eat-all-you-can for rice in the Economy restaurant.

She did not sail long for William Lines because the merger of William Lines, Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) and Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (ASC) happened which produced the super-big (for that time) shipping company William, Gothong & Aboitiz or WG&A Philippines in the first day of1996 (but the agreement was sealed in late 1995). In the combined fleet, she was renamed as the SuperFerry 10. “10” maybe because that signifies perfect or highest. They cannot give the “1” to her because the numbers of the original SuperFerries were not changed and there was already a SuperFerry 1.

There was a question which was the flagship of the WG&A fleet. The big, new ship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation which arrived in 1996 (and which was originally meant to be the new flagship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had there been no merger) was given the number “12”. Initially, both the SuperFerry 10 and SuperFerry 12 held the premier Manila-Cebu, v.v. route which was the indication of which is the flagship. SuperFerry 10, however, is bigger than SuperFerry 12, she was no less luxurious or stunning and their speeds were about equal. They might have been actually co-flagships.

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SuperFerry 10 model (Credits to WG&A and Triztan Mallada)

In WG&A, her accommodation class designations were changed. It was now Economy, Tourist, Business Class, Stateroom and Suite. The last two had to be purchased now on a per-room basis and no longer by person basis. There were also changes in the passage rates. The Economy class became more expensive but the highest classes got cheaper.

In later years, SuperFerry 10 was removed from the Manila-Cebu route and she was paired in rotation with SuperFerry 1 and SuperFerry 8 in the express Manila-Iloilo-General Santos City-Davao route. Later, she was paired with SuperFerry 6 in that route and in other routes like the Manila-Cebu-Cagayan de Oro route. All three had about the same passenger capacity and size and about the same speed too, the bases then for the pairing practice of WG&A. The pairing was a way to maintain the same Manila departures for long routes without resorting to the use of the ship on a short voyage (like a Manila-Iloilo or a Manila-Bacolod route) for the duration of the week. This was most acute in the Davao route where one complete voyage takes five days.

After six years, the merger of the William, Gothong and Aboitiz shipping companies broke apart. The Gothong and Chiongbian (of William Lines) families pulled out from WG&A one after the other. To pay off the divestments, ships (both passenger and cargo) had to be liquidated and sold. This started the one-way trip of WG&A and Cebu Ferries Corporation or CFC (their regional subsidiary) ships to the ship breakers and mainly in China. And, sadly, these were ships that were still in good condition and perfectly sailing as WG&A was really good in ship maintenance through WG&A Jebsens which was the former (and later after the break-up) Aboitiz Jebsens.

Among the casualties of these liquidations, very sadly, was Mabuhay 1 or SuperFerry 10. Together with the Our Lady of Akita 2 (the former Maynilad) and the Our Lady of Naju, they were sent as a batch to a China ship breaker. She was broken up on September of 2002 when she was still a good and reliable ship and just sailing for 9 years here. I just wonder why the divesting partners were not just paid in ships. That move would have been able to preserve our good and great liners instead of them becoming ugly scrap metal.

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From http://www.greenshipspotting.com

And that was the inglorious end of the beautiful and great liner Mabuhay 1, a casualty of a wrong turn in Philippine shipping which was the “Great Merger” that in the end only resulted in the liquidation of two great shipping companies. If that did not happen, I am pretty sure the Mabuhay 1 and the William Lines fleet would have been living until the new millennium and who knows, maybe until now.

A Good Class of Ferry is Going Away Soon

I love speed in ships but maybe not that much and so maybe that is the reason I am not too attached to High Speed Crafts or HSCs. That is also the reason why I tend to look at the size and the engine capacity ratio of a ship and see which is more efficient.

A certain class of ferry which belongs to the great ferries (ferries with at least 10,000 gross tons) caught my attention and respect. While we had many ferries that are in the 150-meter class, that class basically used engines of 20,000 horsepower and more. They were capable of 20 knots locally and even more when they were still new abroad.

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Subic Bay 1

But then there was a class of ferries that arrived here that were in the 160-meter class whose engines were below 20,000 horsepower. They were a little less speedy but they proved to be capable of 18.5 knots locally and in a Manila-Cebu run that meant an additional sailing time of just one more hour. And, of course, in capacity they were a little more than the capacity of the 150-meter ferries.

There were only four examples of this class locally. The fast Princess of Paradise of Sulpicio Lines is not included there and so are the St. Pope John Paul II of 2GO which is the former SuperFerry 12 of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and its sister ship, the Princess of the Universe of Sulpicio Lines and the Mary Queen of Peace of Negros Navigation (which is a shade under 160 meters at 159.5 meters length) for they all packed engines of over 20,000 horsepower.

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Princess of the World by Britz Salih

I am referring here to Manila Bay 1 of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. and its sister ship, the late SuperFerry 6 nee Our Lady of Akita and also the Subic Bay 1 and its sister ship the late Princess of the World. Manila Bay 1 had a length of 162.1 meters and 18,000 horsepower from two NKK-Pielstick engines and here she was capable of 18.5 knots early on. The SuperFerry 6/Our Lady of Akita had exactly the same length, engines and speed here.

Subic Bay 1 of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. has a length of 166.5 meters and 19,700 from two Mitsubishi-MAN engines. Her sister ship the late Princess of the World of Sulpicio Lines had the same length and engines but the rated power is only 18,800 horsepower. They are “thinner” at 24.0 meters breadth compared to the 26.4 meters of SuperFerry 6 and Manila Bay 1 and so they were capable of over 19 knots when they were first fielded here.

How insignificant was their speed disadvantage? Well, WG&A paired the SuperFerry 6 and the SuperFerry 10, the former Mabuhay 1 of William Lines in the Manila-Iloilo-General Santos-Davao, Manila-Cebu-Cagayan de Oro and Manila-Zamboanga-Davao routes. And many know that the SuperFerry 10 ran at up to 20 knots.

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SuperFerry 6 (Credits to PAF and jethro Cagasan)

The SuperFerry 6 did not last sailing as she was hit by engine fire off Batangas in 2000 while sailing from Davao and General Santos City and the Princess of the World was also hit by fire in 2005 off Zamboanga del Norte while en route to Zamboanga from Manila and Iloilo. Both did not sink, however and there were almost no casualties.

What lasted long were the two ships of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI), the Manila Bay 1 and the Subic Bay 1. Well, it seems ships not painted well last longer? However, the Manila Bay 1 was also hit by fire in the bridge but the fire was controlled early. The two ships of CAGLI did not sail as ROPAXes (RORO-Passenger ships) for long as they were suspended by MARINA from carrying passengers because of numerous complaints about long delays in departures and very late arrivals (I was actually a victim of that too when I arrived in Pier 6 at 8pm for a 10pm departure and the ship left at 4:30am and we arrived in Nasipit at night instead of afternoon). From that suspension, CAGLI turned the two into RORO Cargo ships just carrying cars and container vans.

Now those who know shipping knows the replacements of the two ships are already around, the RORO Cargo ships Panglao Bay 1 and Dapitan Bay 1 (which is still being refitted as of the writing of this article in June of 2017). In fact, last April, a member of PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) saw the Subic Bay 1 being towed by a tug headed south and probably destined to a South Asian breaker. Manila Bay 1 might be following her soon when Dapitan Bay 1 enters service and if it does, it will be the end of an era of the 160-meter liners with just 18,000 horsepower engines and 18.5 knots of speed locally.

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Manila Bay 1 and her future replacement Dapitan Bay 1

In terms of cargo capacity they are superior to the 150-meter, 20,000 horsepower ROPAXes especially since they are “fatter” which means their breadths were greater. The four might have not looked sleek or modern as they still have the lines of the Japan big ROPAXes built in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s (well, they were actually built in that period!). But their interiors, if their brochures are studied, says they were not inferior to the sleeker 150-meter ROPAXes.

It is just too bad that two of the four did not last long (but both were highly praised when they were still in service) and the other two were converted into RORO Cargo ships and that is the reason why the lingering appreciation for them is not high and they are even identified by most as a separate separate class. And I just rue they did not really stand out when to think they could have been great.

So this piece is just a paean to them, a reminder too and also a farewell.

The First Liner Built in the Philippines After World War II

In 1957, President Carlos P. Garcia ascended to Malacanang after the death of President Ramon Magsaysay and thereafter he won the Philippine presidency in his own right. While President Magsaysay worked very closely with the Americans and relied on them for the economic development of the country, President Garcia rolled out his “Filipino First” policy. Under that policy, he tried to promote Philippine industries and supported Filipino industrialists, to the consternation of some Americans used to having their way in the country, given first preference and who treated Filipinos like their wards.

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Keel-laying of Hull No.1 (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

Among the industries President Garcia tried to push forward was shipbuilding (shipbuilding is selling steel too and on the same track President Garcia encouraged steel-making which resulted in the establishment of IISMI or Iligan Integrated Steel Mills Inc. which later became the National Steel Corporation or NSC). That made sense, at least on paper, as our country is an archipelago and hence we need a lot of ships. From an enterprise concerned with refitting and lengthening of ships (where before this was done in Hongkong), NASSCO (National Shipyards & Steel Corporation) went into shipbuilding and Hull No. 1 was laid in the NASSCO shipyard (the Bataan National Shipyard) in Mariveles, Bataan in 1957.

Lacking the experience and equipment maybe, the ship took too long to complete. Well, we are a country where engineering is still in infancy. We are not a country where work is fast and based on a production line and our craftsmen are not used to mass production. That is what we get by being proud of our jeepneys and our talyers. Yes, it can fabricate anything but the speed and quality is low. Essentially, we are a country of fabricators.

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Hull No. 1 as the General Roxas (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

Maybe there was a problem of timing and priority too. In the time Hull No. 1 was under construction it was also the same time that reparations ships were beginning to come to the Philippines because the final peace treaty between Japan and her victim countries was already signed. Reparations ships came from the reparations payment of Japan as settlement of the damages she inflicted because of the war she launched in the Pacific in 1941 (but it was just basically payment for public works and infrastructure damage and did not include personal damages which were never paid by Japan unlike Germany).

Hull No. 1 was financed by a loan from the government-owned Development Bank of the Philippines to the tune of P2.5 million or a little over $ 1 million dollars then. Hull No. 1 was launched on July 1959 and completed as a passenger-cargo ship in May 1960 and she became the ship General Roxas of the General Shipping Company. This company previously just operated a fleet of former “FS” ships before which were cargo ships converted into passenger-cargo use. The General Roxas was way ahead in size, quality and comfort compared to the ex-”FS” ships and she was probably the flagship of General Shipping Company which operated routes to Palawan, Romblon, Masbate, Bicol, the Visayas and Northern Mindanao.

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General Roxas when newly-fielded (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

The General Roxas’ external measurements were 84.7 meters by 12.3 meters by 6.7 meters in L x B x D with a Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) of 1,757 tons. Her Net Register Tonnage (NRT) was 968 and her load capacity in Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) was 1,544 tons. The ship was equipped by a single Uraga engine of 2,200 horsepower which gave her a top sustained speed of 13.5 knots when still new. The General Roxas has two sister ships built also by NASSCO and these were the General del Pilar (later the Mactan of Compania Maritima) and the Governor B. Lopez of Southern Lines Incorporated. The latter was built in the same yard and almost simultaneously with General Roxas.

The General Roxas’ hull steel, engine and navigational equipment all came from Japan. The ship had air-conditioning and in those days it was practically what defined what is a luxury liner. Her First Class accommodations, lounges and dining rooms were all air-conditioned. This ship had three passenger decks and for handling cargo she had booms in the front section or bow of the ship. Cargo was stowed below the passenger decks and above and on the engine deck. The ship is a cruiser ship (it was not yet the time of the ROROs which can load vehicles through ramps) with a high prow. The ship later was assigned the IMO Number 5128015.

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A miniature to show underwater portion of General Roxas (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

In General Shipping Company, she was the second General Roxas as the company had an earlier ship named General Roxas too and that was a former “FS” ship (and that is the beauty of IMO Numbers as it can differentiate ships with the same names). In General Shipping Corporation the first route of General Roxas was Manila-Iloilo-Pulupandan-Iligan. Iligan then was beginning to boom because of the Maria Cristina power plant which provided cheap hydroelectric power and Iloilo and Pulupandan ports served two big and progressive islands.

But despite two new passenger-cargo ships and a healthy fleet, in 1965, after a boardroom dispute General Shipping Company abandoned inter-island shipping and moved into international shipping. Their local fleet and routes were then divided between Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and the former regional shipping company Sweet Lines Incorporated which then became a national liner company (however, the new ship General del Pilar became the Mactan of Compania Maritima). Among the ships acquired by Sweet Lines was the General Roxas which became the Sweet Rose in the new company.

In the new liner fleet of Sweet Lines (to distinguish it from the regional fleet of Sweet Lines which mainly had the small ex-”F” ships), the Sweet Rose was the biggest and best ship. However, the tactic then of Sweet Lines was to field their ships not on the primary routes and so Sweet Rose was assigned the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route. Right after fielding Sweet Rose was the newest, the best and fastest ship in the route that only had ex-”FS” ships before and this helped stabilize the company in the national routes for she then dominated that route.

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Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen

The ship’s next route was Manila-Cebu-Iligan-Ozamis route when the Sweet Grace, a brand-new ship from West Germany arrived. That only confirmed that the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route was the primary route of Sweet Lines before the arrival of the fast cruiser liner Sweet Faith in 1970 and Sweet Rose was the flagship of the company before 1968 when Sweet Grace came.

In the early 1970’s, the Sweet Rose was returned to the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route in a pairing with the Sweet Grace. That indicated the level of importance Sweet Lines assigned to the route which was not high in the priority of other shipping companies (well, before William Lines entered the route with their fast cruiser liner Tacloban City in 1975) and that jeopardized a bread and butter route for Sweet Lines as the Tacloban City was a faster and superior ship.

The Sweet Rose stayed on the route though but she now called in Masbate instead of Catbalogan leaving Sweet Grace to serve that port. However, she was assigned again the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban route after Sweet Lines invaded Mindanao routes outside Northern Mindanao and Sweet Grace did the Manila-Cebu-Zamboanga route.

Sweet Rose never left the Catbalogan/Tacloban route again but in the 1980’s she began having unreliability in her engine and this trouble even reached the authorities. Engines of her period were not really that tough and she had the bad luck of having been equipped with an Uraga engine which was not a top of the line Japanese engine. She too had difficulty coping with Tacloban City and the Dona Angelina, the ship used by Sulpicio Lines when it entered the Catbalogan/Tacloban route just before Tacloban City came. The Dona Angelina which came from Europe also had air-conditioning like the Tacloban City. As a footnote, Sweet Rose also went up against her sister ship in the route when the Mactan was fielded there by Compania Maritima. That was before Mactan sank in 1973.

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Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

In the great political and economic crisis that started with the Aquino assassination in 1983, Sweet Lines culled old liners and the Sweet Rose was among them. Others were the former European ships Sweet Bliss, Sweet Life and Sweet Love, ships they used in the Davao route via the eastern seaboard of Mindanao. That also included Sweet Sound which was a former “FS” ship. It was no dishonor to Sweet Lines because a lot a ships were cut up in this period when the industrial economy shrank and many shipping companies collapsed or shut down like the former No. 1 Compania Maritima.

Sweet Lines was broken up just locally in Acuario Marketing, a local ship-breaking specialist in Navotas in 1984. She was just 24 years old then but actually she was able to outlast her two sister ships. Maybe she was not just good enough for a 30-year service like the former ships from Europe and Japan (the Tacloban City which was built in 1962 lasted until the late 1990’s but then she has the better Mitsubishi engine). The Dona Angelina also lasted over 30 years of sailing.

Sweet Rose is a distant memory now but she holds a record that won’t ever be broken and that is being the first liner ever built in the country after World War II. She was also one of the ships that brought Sweet Lines to her peak in the late 1970’s.

The China-built LCTs

It seems that just like in buses, in due time China-made LCTs might rule our waves just like China-made buses are now beginning to rule the Luzon highways. The process will not be that sudden though because ships last longer than buses and it is much more costlier to acquire ships. We too have that attachment to our old ships and we don’t suddenly just let them go. But then who knows if some crazy people try to cull our old ferries? I am sure many of the replacements of them will be Cargo RORO LCTs and ROPAX LCTs from China. They are simply that cheap and the terms are good. One thing sure though is the replacements will not be local-built ships. Local-builds generally cost much more than China-builds and the price of the ship is a key decision point.

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A Meiling LCT a.k.a. deck loading ship

A decade ago, China-built LCTs were practically unknown in the country as we were building our own LCTs in many shipyards around the country. Then the first palpable show of LCTs happened early this decade was when a lot of brand-new LCTs suddenly appeared and anchored for long in North Mactan Channel waiting for business. Some of these were rumored to be destined for the mines of Surigao which was then booming. That area already had China-owned and -built LCTs to carry ores to China just like some other provinces which allowed black sand mining had China-owned LCTs docking. But then here, I am talking of China-built LCTs that are locally-operated or owned. However, the Surigao mining boom when world metal prices spiked a decade ago because of China demand was one of our key introduction to China-built LCTs.

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Row of LCTs in North Mactan Channel

Then the demand for ore of China suddenly weakened and so those brand-new China-built LCTs that showed in Mactan Channel owned by Cebu Sea Charterers (of the renowned Premship group), Broadway One Shipping and Concrete Solutions Incorporated went into regular cargo moving. Later, the two companies plus others like Primary Trident Solutions (owner of the Poseidon series of LCTs), and Adnama Mining Resources which also acquired China-made LCTs went into Cargo RORO LCT operations like the Cebu Sea Charterers which meant conveying rolling cargo or vehicles between islands. The Cebu to Leyte routes was the first staple of the Cargo RORO LCTs. Cargo RORO LCTs were also fielded in the key Matnog-Allen and Liloan-Lipata routes to ease backlogs of trucks waiting to be loaded. They became the augmentations to short-distance ferry-ROROs in heavily crowded routes during peak season or when there are disruptions after typhoons.

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Cargo RORO LCTs in Carmen port

The old overnight passenger-shipping companies of Cebu more than noticed the emergence of the Cargo RORO LCTs and felt its threat to their trade and so they also joined the bandwagon in acquiring China-built LCTs. Roble Shipping first chartered LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation before buying their own and those were China-made LCTs. However, it was Lite Ferries that made a bet in acquiring new China LCTs to be converted into passenger-cargo LCTs after some modifications. Outside of Cebu the shipping company 2GO, under the name NN+ATS and brand “Sulit Ferries” chartered China-built LCTs from Concrete Solutions Incorporated, which are the Poseidon LCTs for use in their Matnog-Allen route.

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A ROPAX LCT operated by Sulit Ferries (LCT Poseidon 26)

Meanwhile, LCTs were also tried by Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping as container ships. When they started they also chartered LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation like Roble Shipping. They were successful in using LCTs as container ships and they were always full (and maybe to the chagrin of the CHA-RO messiah Enrico Basilio). This mode might be a no-frills way of moving goods through container vans but it is actually the cheaper way as LCTs are cheap to operate. Later, Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping also acquired their own LCTs with the blessings of Asian Shipping Corporation. Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping might have been successful in showing a new mode of transport but the self-proclaimed “shipping experts” never took notice of them nor studied their craft and mode.

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Brizu, a container carrier LCT by Ocean Transport

Asian Shipping Corporation (ASC) which really has a lot of LCTs for charter and probably with the most number in the country started by building their own LCTs right in their yards in Navotas just like some other smaller shipping had their LCTs built in Metro Manila wharves. Asian Shipping Corporation have not completely turned their back of own-built LCTs but more and more they are acquiring China-built LCTs which come out cheaper than local-builds. Shipbuilding on the lower technology level like LCT-building is at times can also be viewed too as selling of steel and China is the cheapest seller of steel in the whole world. Their engines and marine equipment are also on cheap end.

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ASC Ashley of Asian Shipping Corporation

Another big operator of China-built LCTs that must be noted is the Royal Dragon Ocean Transport which owns the Meiling series of LCTs. Many of their LCTs can be found in Surigao serving the mines there. Right now, China-built LCTs are already mushrooming in Central and Eastern Visayas but in other parts of the country they are still practically unknown except in Manila or when passing by or calling. Ironically, it might actually be a typhoon, the super-typhoon “Yolanda” which devastated Leyte that might have given the China LCTs a big break because they were used in Leyte and in the eastern seaboard routes (in San Bernardino Strait and Surigao Strait) when there a big need for sea transport after the typhoon and their potential was exposed. The super-typhoon also showed the need for Cargo RORO LCTs separate from short-distance ferry-ROROs.

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Owned LCTs by Roble Shipping

Ocean Transport of Cebu, as stated earlier, now also have their own China LCTs to haul container vans from Manila after initially chartering from Asian Shipping Corporation. The same is true for Roble Shipping which initially chartered Cargo RORO LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation for Cebu-Leyte use. Now other Cebu passenger shipping companies are also beginning to acquire their China LCTs. And that even includes Medallion Transport. Actually there are so many LCTs now from China that don’t have a name but just sports a number (i.e. LCT 308, etc.). But among Cebu overnight ferry companies, it is actually Lite Ferries who is betting the biggest on China LCTs that carries passengers too after some modifications.

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PMI-3, a Cargo RORO LCT of Premium Megastructures Inc.

In the following years I still see a lot of China-built LCTs coming and that will include LCTs that have provisions for passenger accommodations. If the government cull the old (but still good) ferries, I bet that type will suddenly mushroom especially in the short-distance routes. But of course it will not have the speed nor the comfort of the basic, short-distance ferry-ROROS. But who knows if that is actually the wish of some decision-making foggy old bureaucrats who don’t ride ships anyway? They will just be giving China yards and engine makers a big break. And a final note – LCTs from China are also called as “deck loading ships”. So don’t get confused.

Now let us just see how these China imports grow in size and importance.

The Longest Route After The War

The longest route after the war was the Manila-Cebu-Tagbilaran-Dumaguete-Zamboanga-Dadiangas-Davao route which was around 1,000 nautical miles in distance and which took up 6 days to cover. Some of the ships on this route actually still called in one or more ports (like Dipolog), some with less and in earlier days it was Maribojoc port on a nearby town which they used in Bohol.

Most of the ships that plied this route in the first two decades after the war were former, converted “FS” ships with a sprinkling of ex-“C1-M-AV1” ships. The first was much smaller than the but both were surplus cargo ships during the war which were only capable of 11 knots at most which made for a languorous voyage. 11 knots is actually the speed of the cargo ships of today (and even of old) and their speed actually betrayed their cargo ship origins.

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Gorio Belen research in the National Library

The ships plying the route takes nearly two weeks to be able to return to Manila. So to be able to offer a weekly voyage on a specific day, a shipping company should have a pair of ships sailing the route. When one is leaving Manila, the other will then be leaving Davao and they will cross path somewhere in Mindanao Sea if one is not delayed (the weather is one particular source of delays then because the ex-”FS” ships need to look for shelter when the weather acts up and roils the seas).

Long routes, if there are not enough rest for the engines on inter-port calls can be murderous for the engines. Of the two types most used here it was the former ex-”FS” ships which lasted longer and it outlasted the ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships. One reason maybe is because the latter is equipped with one engine only while the former had two and it had an electromechanical transmission (which meant less maintenance). Ex-”FS” ships generally lasted about 4 decades of service here before giving up. The were practically the “jeep” of the sea.

The leading shipping company then which was Compania Maritima had the luxury of using passenger-cargo ships from Europe in this route which were the almost-new MV Jolo, MV Cebu and MV Panay. Those ships were faster and had more passenger conveniences aside from being big. Two of their competitors which were William Lines and Carlos A. Go Thong & Company were only able to field former passenger-cargo ships from Europe to this route only in the late 1960’s. When those arrived Compania Maritima began deploying newer, bigger and faster ships from Europe like the MV Filipinas, MV Luzon and MV Visayas.

This route was really important then to the leading shipping companies and the route provided good load and high passenger load. One reason is the opening up of Mindanao for exploitation (in the real sense!) and the consequent coming of outsiders to the then-undivided Cotabato and Davao provinces. This route was their link to Cebu and Bohol. And this route was the artery of goods to and from Manila.

While this route could be murderous for the engines and taxing for the crews, I noticed that the shipping companies which stuck to this route lasted longer than the shipping companies that mainly did the Visayas routes only. Since passenger-cargo ships mainly carried the cargoes in those day and cargo is the bread and butter of shipping having a long route passing through more ports was more advantageous. Among the notable shipping companies then which did not try this route and did not last were General Shipping Company and Southern Lines Inc.

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Gorio Belen research in the National Library

Many shipping companies tried this route right after the war especially the bigger shipping companies. This route was not for the smaller companies because to do this route they must have enough ships because the ships won’t be at port again before two weeks. Some of the earlier ones did not last like Manila Steamship of Elizalde y Compania which quit shipping after the loss of their flagship. Another was De la Rama Steamship which left the local routes to concentrate on ocean-going routes.

Compania Maritima was the one which bet early in the route and they had the muscle to dominate the route. Among the others it was William Lines which tried to match them and since its fleet is not big it assigned almost all of their ships to this route and all of them were just ex-”FS” ships. But such was the belief of William Lines in this route (well, being a power too in Cotabato especially along Dadiangas which is General Santos today was also a factor for sure).

Philippine Steam and Navigation Company (PSNC) also did this route but their commitment was inconsistent and they eventually withdrew from this route. But they and its successor Aboitiz Shipping Corporation were the ones which experimented on different wayports to reach Davao. Just like what Sweet Lines did later. Carlos A. Go Thong & Company also perservered in this route starting the mid-1950’s when they became a national liner operation.

When the former passenger-cargo ships from Europe started arriving for William Lines and Carlos A. Go Thong & Company (and also to upstart Dacema Lines) in the late 1960’s, the ex-”FS” ships of this route were slowly relegated to shorter routes although that type was still used in this route up to the late 1970’s. By that time they were functioning more like cargo ships already and as carrier in the inter-port routes. In the Philippines which has no tradition of sending ships to the breakers until it is no longer capable of sailing, it also meant still trying to find a role for these old but sturdy ships.

The nature of this route started to change in the middle 1970’s when a new type of ship arrived, the fast cruiser liners. This new type ambitioned to have weekly sailing and so it tried to make the voyage to Davao in just three days or even less. To make this possible the number of wayports where they will call was drastically cut back and that is just to one which is Cebu port. So for the new fast cruiser liners the route suddenly shrank to just Manila-Cebu-Davao (and that practically torpedoed the old route since passengers no longer want to be cooped in ships that long).

I think this was also the reason and situation why Iloilo suddenly became “the” wayport to Davao instead of Cebu. The route is shorter and it still afforded a call to Zamboanga which was difficult for a ship calling in Cebu. With the fast cruiser liners, the old ship and route did not go away entirely immediately. Actually the old ships and route served as adjuncts but as if it is the “second class”.

Another alternative and adjunct-competitor was the arrival en masse of a new type of ship, the container ships which began to multiply starting in 1979. Many were of the express type and it either sailed direct or with just one wayport. Slowly this type killed the old, slow passenger-cargo ships and in 1980 and 1981 a lot of them were already laid up. The selling point then already was the speed of shipment and the security afforded by the new container vans (in terms of protection against pilferage and damage in handling and because of the rains). For the passengers they no longer wanted a 6-day voyage even though they were fed the entire way.

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Gorio Belen research in the National Library

In the 1980’s, this old longest route was practically gone already with the forced retirement or reassignment of the ships which once sailed the route (actually the ex-”C1-M-AV1” type was gone earlier when its engines gave up in the 1970’s and many were simply sent to the breakers). The main carriers, the ex-”FS” ships were also on their last legs and getting more unreliable and no longer suited for this distance.

Now that long route is just a distant memory. But the passengers and shippers relying on it in the inter-port routes suffered and has to take other means of commute or shipping and that sometimes meant the uncomfortable bus. This is a route that will never come back (and gone was the free tourism associated with it).

Well, things change and times change too.

Lite Ferries

Many people know this shipping company simply as “Lite Ferries”. The name of their ships now start with “Danilo Lines Incorporated” and then a number, hence, people easily make the connection . Actually their ships are numbered now (as of May 2017) from Lite Ferry 1 to Lite Ferry 30. Well, even their official website refers to the company as “Lite Ferries”

Lite Ferries is actually the amalgamation of three shipping companies — the Lite Shipping Corporation, the Sunline Shipping Corporation and Danilo Lines Incorporated. The mother company of this combined shipping corporation is Lirio Shipping Corporation which is into cargo shipping. It is not a big shipping company on its own, however, but the big company Lite Ferries started from that.

Lite Ferries is connected to Bohol, the place of origin of the founder Lucio Lim which still has various business interests in that island-province including in Panglao development. In a sense, many in Bohol has a new company to root for after the demise of Sweet Lines, the old favorite and pride of Bol-anons. However, the nerve center of Lite Ferries’ operation is now Cebu City although they still use a Tagbilaran address.

It is hard not to discuss now Lite Ferries because in this decade its ship acquisitions continued almost yearly and almost always multiple ship in a year and its acquisitions have accelerated since 2009. From a second-tier Cebu passenger shipping company, it now has the most ferries in the Visayas. Their ferries are mainly of medium size for non-liners but with their numbers they now cover more routes and their competitors are now feeling their presence and weight.

Lite Ferries started ferry operations in a limited way in 1992 when it was able to acquire the triple-screwed LCT St. Mark, a surplus ship of the US Navy built in 1964 which has limited passenger accommodations like most conventional LCTs. Lite Ferries used this ship to connect Cebu and Bohol via Argao and Loon. Argao is the southern link of Cebu province to Bohol and with it there is no need for a vehicle to still go to Cebu port. In a later renaming of their ships, the LCT St. Mark became the Lite Ferry 20. She was by then a re-engined ship with just two screws.

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The Lite Ferry 20

In 1994, Lite Ferries acquired the former Horai Maru No. 12 in Japan and in the company this ferry became the Sta. Lucia de Bohol which betrayed the place origin of the company. This ship was a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO with external dimensions of just 32.0 meters length of 8.0 meters beam by 3.0 meters depth with a Gross Tonnage of 199. Sadly this ship is no longer around.

Lite Ferries then acquired the former Hayabusa in Japan in 1996 and she became the Lite Ferry, without a number. This was not a small ship for she measured 88.0 meters by 15.0 meters by 4.8 meters in L x B x D with a Gross Tonnage of 1,389 and she had a Cebu to Ozamis route. Maybe in Lite Ferries this ship was too big for them then and so they sold this ship to Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Incorporated (TASLI) where she became the Trans-Asia II.

After this, Lite Ferries was able to acquire the rump of the fleet of San Juan Shipping Corporation. That company plummeted after the loss in an explosion and fire and subsequent sinking of their biggest ship, the San Juan Ferry which was the former Dona Cristina of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (CAGLI) and Cebu Ferries Corporation. From San Juan Shipping Corporation, Lite Ferries was able to acquire the Sr. San Jose, a beautiful cruiser but with a weak engine and the John Carrier-1, a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO with problematic engines also. The important thing this purchase gave Lite Ferries were not the ships and these were not used by Lite Ferries for long. Actually, it was the important franchises and route to Leyte which they did not have before and which proved profitable for them in the long run.

In 2004, Lite Ferries acquired the Salve Juliana of the MBRS Shipping Lines of Romblon which was then disposing their earlier ships as it has already acquired bigger ones. This ship became the Sr. San Jose de Tagbilaran (in that period many of the ships of Lite Ferries were still named after saints) and it seems it is this ferry that displaced the Sta. Lucia de Bohol in the Tagbilaran route. Later this ship was also assigned to the Ormoc route. When the ships of Lite Ferries were renamed to “Lite Ferry”, she became the Lite Ferry 6.

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The Lite Ferry 6

The next year, in 2005, Lite Ferries acquired the former Daishin Maru and made her into a small overnight ferry-RORO. Her dimensions were only 42.6 meters by 11.5 meters by 3.0 meters and forward part of the car deck has to be converted in Tourist accommodation to increase her passenger capacity. The ship was first known as the Our Lady of Barangay-1. Her engines were later not strong and she was put up for sale. When there were no takers, Lite Ferries had her re-engined and now she is known as the Lite Ferry 5 and still sailing for Lite Ferries in her original route which is the Tagbilaran route.

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The Lite Ferry 5

In 2005, Lite Ferries acquired the former Shodoshima Maru No.1 which was the former Zhu Du No.2 in China. In the Lite Ferries fleet she was first known as the San Ramon de Bohol with a flat bow ramp. Later, Lite Ferries fitted her with a conventional pointed bow thereby adding to her length (but I wonder what other things were gained by that). In the renaming of their ships, this became the Lite Ferry 7.

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The Lite Ferry 7

Many will ask where is Lite Ferry 1, Lite Ferry 2 and Lite Ferry 3? Lite Ferries was able to acquire the shipping company Danilo Lines which served the San Carlos-Toledo route in 2006 and the two main ships of that fleet, the Danilo 1 and Danilo 2 became the Lite Ferry 1 and Lite Ferry 2, respectively. The two are actually sister ships and they are actually sister ships too to Lite Ferry 6. Danilo Lines actually has two wooden ships, the Danilo III and Danilo IV but those were not transferred to Lite Ferries anymore which by that time was just sticking to ROROs (well, they even had the Sr. San Jose cut up).

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The Lite Ferry 1

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The Lite Ferry 2

The Lite Ferry 3 was also acquired in 2006. This was the former Noumi No.8 in Japan and she became the second Santiago de Bohol in the Lite Ferries fleet. As an overnight ferry-RORO, the Lite Ferry 3 is small and she has just the external dimensions of a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO at 38.3 meters by 9.0 meters by 2.9 meters with a Gross Tonnage of just 250 but she has one-and-a-half passenger decks. The Lite Ferry 3 is now the shortest ship in the fleet of Lite Ferries.

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The Lite Ferry 3

In 2007, Lite Ferries bought again a relatively big ship, the former GP Ferry-1 of George & Peter Lines which was the former small liner Sta. Maria of Negros Navigation Company. This was no longer renamed to a saint and she directly became the Lite Ferry 8. The ship was fielded to the Ormoc route to battle the Heaven Stars of Roble Shipping Incorporated which by then was having engine unreliability already. Soon after her rival was laid up, Lite Ferry 8‘s engines also began acting up also and so she was spending half of her time laid up. Lite Ferry decided to have her re-engined and the ship was used for Lite Ferry’s foray to Cagayan de Oro.

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The Lite Ferry 8

The next year, in 2008, Lite Ferries purchased a second-hand LCT from the Socor Shipping Lines, the former LCT Socor 1. Like the Lite Ferry 20m she was over 50 meters in length at 55.4 meters but like the conventional LCT, her passenger capacity is small. She was initially named as LCT Sto. Nino de Bohol in the Lite Ferries fleet before she was renamed to Lite Ferry 22.

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The Lite Ferry 22 by James Gabriel Verallo

In 2009, Lite Ferries made a decision to acquire double-ended ferries and this was a surprise to me given the nature of her routes which are not very short actually. In their routes, the double-ended ferries can actually suffer because of the drag and sometimes the lack of speed and their characteristic of having not to maneuver might just be negated.

The Lite Ferry 9 which was actually a beautiful double-ended ferry was the former Daian No.8 and relatively new when acquired in 2009 because the ship was built just in 1997. She was not really small at 45.0 meters length, 10.0 meters breadth and 2.8 meters depth. Her Gross Tonnage was only 170 and her Net Tonnage is only 89 which is small. That is so because double-ended ferries cannot maximize their passenger deck up to the stern of the ship. Now this ship is no longer in the fleet of Lite Ferries and might have been sold elsewhere.

In the Lite Ferry 10, another double-ended ferry, Lite Ferries tried to increase passenger space by adding scantling and bunks. With limitations this ship can also serve as an overnight ferry-RORO and there was not much of a problem with that since its route is only to Tubigon which is some two hours sailing distance away. The ships is also not that small at 46.0 meters by 10.0 meters by 3.8 meters with a Net Tonnage of 165. However, like in Lite Ferry 9, maybe double-ended ferries are not really fit for them and so Lite Ferries sold this ship to Medallion Transport in 2011 where she became the Lady of Miraculous Medal.

Later, another Lite Ferry 10 came into the fleet of Lite Ferries which arrived first as a charter and later a purchase. This ship was the former Ocean King I of Seamarine Transport Incorporated. Ocean King I was an overnight ferry -RORO which abandoned the Liloan-Lipata route and then tried the Leyte route without going anywhere. Lite Ferries then took over her and Seamarine Transport became defunct. Lite Ferry 10 is bigger and has more capacity than the other overnight ferries of Lite Ferries because she has 3 passenger decks.

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The second Lite Ferry 10 by James Gabriel Verallo

In 2010, Lite Ferries acquired 4 surplus ferries. None of them was the expensive kind but as the norm in the Philippines those can be converted into valuable ferries and they were refitted simultaneously in Ouano wharf.

The biggest of the 4 became the Lite Ferry 11 and this was the Misaki No.5 of Oishi Shipping in Japan. In international maritime databases, she is mistaken for the Lite Ferry 12 maybe because that is what reflected is in the AIS transmissions. The Lite Ferry 11 measures 65.7 meters by 15 meters by 3.5 meters but her Gross Tonnage of 498 in Japan shrank to 249 here even when decks were added. The Lite Ferry 11 is now the primary ship of Lite Ferries in the Ormoc route.

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The Lite Ferry 11

The Lite Ferry 12 is a pocket overnight ferry-RORO with a registered length of just 41.6 meters, a breadth of 9.6 meters, a depth of 5.6 meters (which is rather deep) and just a Gross Tonnage of 249 which is low. This ship I found to be densely packed, so to speak. The Lite Ferry 12 rotates among many routes of Lite Ferries but she was the ship that opened the Nasipit-Jagna route for her company.

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The Lite Ferry 12

There is no Lite Ferry 13 (nor a Lite Ferry 4) because those numbers are usually not used by local shipping companies out of superstition. There is also not a Lite Ferry 14 but I don’t know the reason for that. Maybe the owner is just averse to that number.

The Lite Ferry 15 is almost the size of Lite Ferry 11 at 60.3 meters length, 11.4 meters beam and a Gross Tonnage of 827 with a Net Tonnage of 562. From twin Akasaka engines, she has 2,600 horsepower on tap which is higher than the 2,000 horsepower of Lite Ferry 1, Lite Ferry 6 and Lite Ferry 7 but below the 3,000 horsepower of Lite Ferry 11. Most of the time this ship holds the Cagayan de Oro to Jagna route of the company.

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The Lite Ferry 15

The fourth ship to be acquired in 2010, the Lite Ferry 23 is very unique and there is no other of her kind in the country. It is a RORO and looks like an LCT from the side but it has a catamaran hull and so she is wider at 16.0 meters (her registered length is 57.5 meters). Attached and rigged to the stern before were two pusher tugs (in Japan those were free). Two funnels were attached to the ship here because there are now passengers. Modifications were made so a passenger deck could be added to the ship which is a little bigger than the average LCT.

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The Lite Ferry 23

Initially, Lite Ferry 23 was a slow craft barely able to do 7 knots and so she was just assigned the Mandaue to Tubigon route which caters basically to rolling cargo. Later, the tugs were removed and she was given two decent engines and now she can do what a short-distance ferry can do. Still, she is doing the same route and basically catering to rolling cargo with a few passengers mixed in.

2011 was a respite year for Lite Ferries and they did not acquire any ship. But in 2012 they acquired the LCT Dona Trinidad 1 of Candano Shipping Lines, a Bicol shipping company. This ship first became the LCT Sta. Filomena de Bohol and like the other LCT in the Lite Ferries fleet she is over 50 meters at 53.5 meters. Shortly later, this ferry was renamed to Lite Ferry 21.

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The Lite Ferry 21

In the same year 2012, Lite Ferries acquired a brand-new LCT from China, the Lite Ferry 25. Maybe this was the sign that in the future Lite Ferries will also be relying on this type of ship and mainly for rolling cargo with a few passengers mixed in. During this time China LCTs which are cheap (but which has questions on engine reliability) already had an allure for local shipping operators and maybe the Lite Ferry 25 was the test purchase of Lite Ferries from China. The size of this ship is almost the same as the other LCTs of Lite Ferries at 58.0 meters length. Some modifications to the ship was made to increase the passenger capacity.

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The Lite Ferry 25

In 2012, Lite Ferries also ventured into HSC (High Speed Crafts) operation when they acquired the beautiful and modern-looking Japan fastcraft Lite Jet 1 (which are not powered by waterjets anyway). She was fielded in the Tubigon route where the new company Star Crafts was making a heyday. Maybe they perceived the fastcrafts of this company as a threat to their ROROs in Tubigon as it multiplied fast. The Lite Jet 1 was more modern and faster than the Star Crafts.

Next year, in 2013, Lite Ferries acquired two more HSCs but this time from Vietnam. These were actually the former Aquan One and Aquan Two in Hongkong and they were the Nonan 1 and Nonan 2 in Vietnam and both were catamarans built in China. On conduction here one of the two grounded in the Spratly islands and it took longer to be fielded. The Aquan Two/Nonan 2 was named the Lite Jet 8 while the Aquan One/Nonan 1 was named the Lite Jet 9.

These two catamarans proved problematic and hard for the technical resources of Lite Ferries which has not much HSC experience. MTU engines are fast but needs attention to maintenance and can be problematic when it gets old. This is the engine of of the Lite Jet 8. On the other hand, the Lite Jet 9 was powered by Isotta-Fraschini engines, a make not that well-known in the HSC field. That proved balky and slower and Lite Ferries tried to re-engine it with Caterpillar engines.

Not long after, however, Lite Ferries completely gave up and sold all their High Speed Crafts including their good and reliable Oceanjet 1 to Ocean Fast Ferries Incorporated which operates the now-dominant Oceanjet HSCs. Maybe Lite Ferries realized that High Speed Crafts are not their cup of tea and they just better concentrate on RORO operations which they understand deeply as shown by their successful successful expansion.

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The Lite Ferry 26

With this divestment, Lite Ferries bought out two Cargo RORO LCTs that came and challenged them in the Cebu-Tagbilaran route which was proving to be a serious threat to them. These were the Diomicka and the Maria Dulce which were just chartered ships. With the buy-out in 2015, the Diomicka became the Lite Ferry 26 and the Maria Dulce became the Lite Ferry 28. These 2 LCTs are the only ships in the fleet of Lite Ferries that do not carry passengers.

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The Lite Ferry 28

With the remainder, in 2015, Lite Ferries continued the China experiment and purchased another brand-new LCT but which has a different design than the Lite Ferry 25. This was the Lite Ferry 27. It has a taller tower and and modifications were made so there will be two short passenger decks. Bunks were even provided (Lite Ferries is one of the shipping companies that combine bunks with seats). Like the Lite Ferry 25, this LCT is also powered by Weichai engines.

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The Lite Ferry 27

At the same time of acquiring the Lite Ferry 27, Lite Ferries uncorked a new China experiment (well, their patron seems to really have strong China connections). Among these were two laid up Hainan Strait Shipping Company (HNSS) vessels that once connected Hainan island to the China mainland and which they acquired in 2015 and 2016. When the two arrived here they all looked very rusty but to the knowing they know once refitted the two will become beautiful and useful ferries (is there a rust that cannot be removed?).

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The Lite Ferry 16

The two were renamed to Lite Ferry 16 and Lite Ferry 19 look to be modified LCTs with a car ramp at the bow and two partial decks of passenger accommodations below the bridge where one extend to near amidship which means the passenger area is far higher than the conventional LCT. With extensions of both decks that becomes passenger promenades, the feeling of being too enclosed in an LCT with nowhere to go is gone. Lite Ferry 16 and Lite Ferry 19 look to be sister ships.

Lite Ferry 19

The Lite Ferry 19 by Mark Ocul

Two other rusty ferries from China which are sister ships also arrived for Lite Ferries in 2016, the Bao Dao 5 and the Bao Dao 6 which will become the Lite Ferry 17 and Lite Ferry 18. The two looks to be conventional ROROs with the bridge at the bow and with car ramps at the bow and the stern. When finished, at 89.0 meters length and 16.0 meters breadth, these two ships will give Lite Ferries a size that can already challenge the ships of Cokaliong Shipping Lines Incorporated and Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Incorporated and it is titillating to think where Lite Ferries intend to field the two.

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The Lite Ferry 18 and Lite Ferry 17 by Mark Ocul

While three of these rusty ships were still being refitted, Lite Ferries also took delivery of another two brand-new LCTs from China, the Lite Ferry 29 and the Lite Ferry 30 which look sleek for an LCT. Slight modifications were also made in Ouano wharf to build passenger accommodations a la Lite Ferry 27. Right now these two LCTs which are obviously sister ships are now sailing.

Lite Ferry 29

The Lite Ferry 29 by Edison Sy

Lite Ferry 30

The Lite Ferry 30 by R. Sanchez

Currently at the start of June 2017, Lite Ferries have 23 ferries that are ROPAXes plus 2 Cargo RORO LCTs. Of the 23 ferries, 9 are passenger-cargo LCTs while 1 is a passenger-cargo catamaran-RORO. Lite Ferries might have started behind other Cebu shipping companies as they are a relatively new company but with their turbo expansion in the last few years they have already overtaken most other operators of medium sized ferries and not only in the Visayas.

Aside from the old routes from Cebu to the Bohol ports of Tagbilaran and Tubigon and the route from Mandaue to Tubigon, the Cebu to Ormoc route is another old route that is a stronghold of Lite Ferries. That also includes the old route of Danilo Lines, the San Carlos-Toledo route.

Lite Ferries also serves the Cebu-Tagbilaran-Larena-Plaridel route that was already abandoned by Palacio Shipping. They were also successful in the expansion to the Cagayan de Oro to Jagna route. However, their Nasipit-Jagna route seems to be little seasonal. Recently they also tried the Cebu to Cagayan de Oro route.

Their Samboan to Dapitan route also proved successful as they offered a shortcut to the truckers that once had to go to Dumaguete first. They are also connecting Cebu to Negros with the Samboan to Sibulan route. A PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) member recently called and he was told the Dumaguete-Cagayan de Oro route is already off.

But with such a great fleet now Lite Ferries is seriously needing to expand already and I just hope they go to the underserved routes. With many profitable routes already they can actually afford to experiment with new routes now.

The expansion of Lite Ferries in the last 8 years is simply breathtaking with 17 ships added net. Lately their fleet addition even accelerated. They now have a critical mass and I will be watching where they will be headed.

Liners like the old Bohol shipping great Sweet Lines?