The Princess of the Orient

When William Lines fielded the Wililines Mabuhay 1 in the premier Manila-Cebu route as their challenger in the flagship wars, her main shipping rival Sulpicio Lines rolled out the bigger Princess of the Orient as their answer. Amazingly, the two ships in came from the same company in Japan and both belonged to the highly-regarded and legendary “Sun Flower series” of the Nihon Kosoku Ferry of the Terukuni group. The Princess of the Orient was the Sun Flower 11 while the Mabuhay 1 was the Sun Flower 5. The Princess of the Orient was a lengthened version of the series of sister sister and she had two center funnels in a line. Her superstructure was different too and that was the reason, along with the length, that it was not obvious that the two belonged to the same series of ships. The forepart below the bridge was convex too so she did not look as angular as Mabuhay 1. She also had long bridge wings.

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Sun Flower 11 (Photo by funekichemurase)

The “Sun Flower” series of luxury ships was the dream of Mr. Kijiro Nakagawa, the shipping king of Kyushu, one of the four main islands of Japan. He was the Chief of the Terukuni Kauin which controlled the Nihon Kosoku Ferry, the operator of the beautiful, luxurious and well-regarded “Sun Flower” series of ships which was the nearest equivalent in Japan of the highly-regarded and famous Stena series of luxury ships of Sweden. In this series of seven, it was Sun Flower 11 which was the biggest and longest.

The Sun Flower 11 was built by the Kurushima Dockyard Company in their Onishi shipyard in 1974. At 195.8 meters length over-all (LOA), she was 10 meters longer than her sister ships but she had a similar breadth like the others at 24.0 meters. Consequently, her gross tonnage (GT) was larger at 13,598 and her DWT (deadweight tonnage) was 3,110 tons. This big ship was powered by two Kawasaki-MAN diesel engines of 28,000 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 25 knots when new. Her engine configuration were different from her sister ships and she had only two, not four and her engine arrangement, having no synchronizers, were different, too.

The ship already had the then-very-modern bulbous stem but her stern was cruiser and this contributed to her more rounded look (compared to the angular look of her sister ships). She had three passenger decks and two car decks plus a mezzanine deck for sedans. This ship was actually one of the so-called “highways of the sea” — overnight ROROs on long-distance routes of Japan via overnight voyages mainly and that was why they needed to be fast. Catering not only to truckers but also to commuters and travelers, they were given luxurious accommodations with many amenities including good food and entertainment.

Unlike Sun Flower 5, Sun Flower 11 had no front quarter ramps nor a bow ramp. What she had instead at the front was a side ramp on the starboard side. She was also equipped with two stern quarter ramps of the three-piece kind. For added comfort for passengers in rough seas, the ship was also equipped with fin stabilizers which decreased the roll of the ship (the swaying from side to side). She was also advertised to have a computer-controlled steering system. Maybe that meant it was computer inputs and motors that controlled the action of the rudder (and the stabilizers) and not via the traditional cables. Her original route was Osaka to Kagoshima.

The “Sun Flower” series of luxury ships were not successful financially because the Oil Crisis of 1973 where fuel prices spiked caught them hard. Terukuni Yusen went bankrupt but Nihon Kosoku Ferry continued operations. In 1984, the Sun Flower 11 was sold to her builder Kurushima Dockyard Company along Sun Flower 5 but she was chartered back to Nihon Kosoku Ferry so that their operations can continue. However, in 1990, Nihon Kosoku Ferry finally gave up and Sun Flower 11 (and Sun Flower 5) went to Nihon Enkai Ferry which was later named as the Blue Highway Line. So though future competitors in the Philippines that was how tightly interwoven were the careers of two luxury sister ships. In 1991, she was renamed as the Sun Flower Satsuma and in 1993, she was sold to the Philippines (together with Sun Flower 5).

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Princess of the Orient by Britz Salih

Sun Flower Satsuma went to Sulpicio Lines Inc. (SLI) and her sister ship, the original Sun Flower 5 (renamed as Sun Flower Osaka) went to William Lines Inc., SLI’s chief rival. And so the intertwined sister ships began their battle in the Philippines as flagships of the two leading shipping companies then. In refitting and conversion, the superstructure of Sun Flower Satsuma was largely left unchanged except that additional scantling was added to the whole top deck to accommodate the Economy class. The mezzanine of the car deck was also converted into additional Economy accommodations. However, since this lacked ventilation it was hot and not too liked by the passengers.

In the conversion, the Gross Tonnage (GT) of the ship barely rose from 13,593 in to 13,734 here. She had a net tonnage of 6,445 locally and a deadweight tonnage of 3,172. She was given the local Call Sign of DUAO8. The main difference here compared to Japan was her big drop in speed. Unlike Mabuhay 1 which was still capable of 20 knots, she can only do 18.5 knots, the reason why she takes 21 hours for the 393-nautical mile Manila-Cebu route. With a tall air height and tall masts, she goes around Mactan Island as she cannot go under the two Mactan bridges. She only did the Manila-Cebu route twice a week that is why she has plenty of lay-overs.

The Princess of the Orient had eight accommodation classes. Highest was the Royal and the Imperial Suites which was not really meant for the common passengers even if they can afford it. Those were reserved for the relatives of the owners and the rich of Cebu who still took ships then. The other classes were the Suite, the Cabin for 4 with Toilet and Bath, the Cabin for 2 w/o Toilet and Bath, the Tourist Deluxe, Tourist, Economy Deluxe (air-conditioned Economy) and Economy. If P464 was the fare of the lowest class then P1,650 was the passage of the highest class but it has all the amenities and its occupants need not go to the restaurants for their meals because it will be served right there and they have their own personal sala so they need not mix with the hoi polloi. This was also true for Suite passengers.

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Princess of the Orient by Britz Salih

The Princess of the Orient had the biggest passenger capacity ever by a liner in the Philippines at 3,912 persons which was almost double that of her main rival Mabuhay 1. Being super-big she had plenty of space, accommodations and amenities. It was tiring to make the rounds of the spaces devoted to passengers especially if one includes the converted mezzanine (many thought this had no access to the rest of the ship but if one knows how to read general arrangement plans then one could reach it from the other classs). With its big space and few windows, the Tourist of this ship can be disorienting after one wakes up as from the bunk one can’t tell if it is night or day. In roaming this section too, one has to mind his route as it is not easy to locate back one’s bunk because the passageways are byzantine-like. In the First Class at the forward portion of the ship, it was rows and rows of cabins. In the Economy in the converted top deck it was one long walk from one end to the other.

All the passage classes were entitled to free meals aboard the ship. The highest classes will be assigned to the First Class restaurant and here it was eat-all-you-can as in smorgasbord, a feature of dining always appreciated by top passengers in Sulpicio Lines. The Tourist classes also have their own restaurant and here real china and crystal glasses were used along with linen. The Third Class restaurant, meanwhile, resembles a cafeteria and steel trays were used and glasses were plastic. Nevertheless, since it is rice-all-you-can, the passengers will still have full stomachs especially since it is soup-all-you-can. In Third Class, meals will be by schedule, it was announced in loudspeakers and bellmen will make the rounds to call out as not all Economy passengers can be accommodated in one sitting (well, the bellmen also make a round of the Tourist sections since the favorite activity of the passengers is sleeping). Well, even in the Tourist restaurant, long queues can form and some passengers rather than line up will just come back at a later hour. Anyway, they know that for sure the meals and the unlimited rice will never run out in Sulpicio Lines.

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(c) closedcircuitdivers.com.au. Credits also to Arckz Pananganan

The Princess of the Orient had plenty of amenities and offerings. She was also sold as “hotel on the sea” and as a “floating convention center”. For this purpose, she had a conference room with all the necessary equipment. As “floating hotel”, her suites were luxurious and had amenities that can be found in good hotel rooms. For First Class passengers there was a separate VIP lounge for them not accessible to the passengers of the lower passage classes. For unwinding during the night, there was a theater with live entertainment where drinks and finger food can be ordered. The ship also had a dance floor with dance instructors. For the children, there were kiddie rides, video games and playground equipment. She was also equipped with a gym for those wanting to work out a sweat. Well, visiting all the parts of the ship was already a work-out as one deck from one end to the other was already a third of a kilometer and there were three-and-a-half decks to roam plus there were stairs to navigate.

After sailing serenely for four years, the Princess of the Orient had a bad incident when on December of 1997 she caught fire in the engine room while refueling in North Harbor. With significant damage she was sent to Singapore for repairs. It was noticeable that she had a slight but visible list to port and rumors ascribed it to the fire and some said her fin stabilizers were also damaged and locked into position. It also seemed she lost a little speed to just 18 knots.

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Princess of the Orient (Credits to Nonoy Lacza, Manila Chronicle & Gorio Belen)

On September 18, 1998, on one voyage from Manila, she left port in a typhoon (based on the Philippine definition of typhoon which is just a storm or a gale in other countries). Liners then can routinely leave port at Signal Number 2 (this was defined then as having center winds of 91-120kph). It was a Friday night 10:00 PM when Princess of the Orient left Manila North Harbor about two hours late. Most probably she waited a little for the typhoon to pass. During that time, “Typhoon Gading” (“Typhoon Vicki” internationally) was already in the Quirino-Pangasinan border in northern Luzon.

The 8:00 PM weather bulletin of PAGASA, THE forecast winds was only 100 KPH at the center. A few hours before that PAGASA said the center winds was only 75 KPH. With the typhoon completely passing in a few hours and with such low forecast of winds, maybe it put complacence on the Captain and on the company. However, the 100 KPH center winds was a severe underestimation as later analysis by other weather centers put the true strength of the typhoon at 160 KPH which is already in Signal No. 3 and hence, dangerous to all sea vessels (now 45 KPH can already deemed “dangerous” for all sea vessels except for foreign vessels which have no tolerance for such inanity and just continue sailing in our waters when all our local ships, big or small are suspended from sailing). The Typhoon Vicki case earned PAGASA censure from other weather forecasting agencies.

Coming out of Manila Bay, the Princess of the Orient was subjected to fierce winds, much more than what they expected. Reports and speculation said the container vans on chassis with wheels were not properly secured (maybe that meant only wooden chocks were used) and these moved in a situation where the car deck was not full. A mariner familiar with her theorized she had not fully ballasted by the time she left Manila Bay as it takes several hours for her to be fully ballasted (and hence lowering her center of gravity and adding to her depth, the portion of the ship below water).

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The long reach of Typhoon Vicki (NOAA image)

Soon, the Princess of the Orient developed an uncontrollable list to port around 12 midnight, a dangerous condition in a severe tropical storm or higher (with winds maybe over 120 KPH, locally). A survivor I had talked to who suffered a broken collarbone because he slammed into a bulkhead said the list then was already over 45 degrees. Remember she had a previous list to port and waves were continuously pounding her at the bow and at starboard. The Board of Marine inquiry later blamed the Captain for errors in handling the situation.

Off the shores of Cavite province, the ship floundered about 5 minutes before 1:00 AM. She was able to launch life rafts and in the gathering light of the day these were seen by Cavite fishermen bobbing in the angry swells. In the Philippines, it is the fishermen who are the bravest in strong seas and they are the best hope of passengers struggling to survive in these kinds of seas. Even with such dangerous conditions, the brave Cavite fishermen launched their fishing bancas before light to come to the aid of the passengers of the Princess of the Orient. The Coast Guard rescue boats arrived much later.

Of the 388 passengers and 102 crewmen aboard the ship, 95 lost their lives in the floundering of the Princess of the Orient. Some sources though said the number of deaths reached 150 but there could be speculation in that number. The Captain did not survive the loss of his ship and a witness said the last time he saw him, the Captain was assisting passengers into life rafts. I was taught Captains should behave that way in such critical situations.

Today, Princess of the Orient lies on its port side in the seabed at 150 meters depth a few kilometers off the coast of Cavite. She has now become a dive site although few can reach her because of the depth.

The Princess of the Orient sailed for five years only here. What a waste of a great liner!

A Good Ship Is Gone

The uncle of a PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) member saw the former SuperFerry 5 (last known as St. Joan of Arc in the Philippines) in Singapore a few months ago in what can be surmised as a one-way trip to a ship-breaking yard somewhere in South Asia. That ship has long been reported for sale and its owner 2GO is just as much willing to dispose of her. The ship’s final fate must have been sealed when the former SuperFerry 16 arrived back in the Philippines in 2015 after having been sold abroad for profit in 2007 at the height of the world metal prices then that was driven by the great China demand when its industrial output and drive to sell to the world hit high gear. 2GO wants a more modern fleet and they have no patience for old and graying ships.

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The former SuperFerry 5 which was known as the St. Joan of Arc in the fleet of 2GO was actually the last of our old generation of liners that was built in the 1970’s and which arrived in the country in the 1990’s. She was the lone wolf after the Princess of the South of Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation, the former Sulpicio Lines was disposed off in 2015 and the former SuperFerry 2 which was renamed to St. Thomas Aquinas sank in a collision near Mactan island in 2013 and after the former SuperFerry 1 which was renamed to St. Rita de Cascia was sold to China in and after the St. Joseph The Worker and the St. Peter The Apostle were sold to Bangladeshi breakers.

It was not actually the St. Joan of Arc which 2GO wanted to retain longer. It was actually the refitted St. Thomas Aquinas but as fate would have it she tried to test how the hard was the ice-classed bow of the container ship Sulpicio Express Siete of Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation or PSACC, the successor company of Sulpicio Lines. The former SuperFerry 5 was not a converted ship to two cargo decks like the St. Thomas Aquinas and hence her container capacity is lower while she can no longer fill her passenger accommodations. This was because passengers have already moved to other means of transportation after the liners became a disappointment when they failed to handle the challenge of the budget airlines and the intermodal buses and trucks.

I was puzzled how 2GO handled the St. Joan of Arc. She was already long for sale but there were no takers. That was the time when she still had a route to Tagbilaran and Dumaguete from Manila. She was already smokey then but if the experience of her sister ship the St. Thomas Aquinas which has the same engines is used as a guideline then if there was a decision to refurbish her she will still be a better ship. After refitting, the St. Thomas Aquinas was capable of 18.5 knots when to think she was only running at 17.5 knots when she was newly-fielded in the 1990’s. But of course she already had less metal when two passenger deck were removed. The St. Thomas Aquinas was also less smokey than her sister ship after she was refurbished.

I have long hated that policy of 2GO which they called “finding the right size” which is just a euphemism for culling ships and routes when their bean counters find out that they do not contribute to the profitability of the company. You see they are primarily in business and not in real shipping. It is just cold-bloodied calculation and not passion for sailing and moving goods and people. But then they are oblivious to the fact that with their uncertainty in serving a route makes patrons especially shippers look for other carriers. Like when the Cebu Ferry 2 abandoned Surigao. When they came back there was no cargo anymore and they didn’t even bother to deploy the car ramps anymore when we rode her. And ships cannot maintain a route without meaningful cargo. It is different when patrons know a shipping company will maintain the route no matter what. Otherwise, they will be talking to other carriers.

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In recent history, it was the Aboitiz Transport System (ATS), its subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC) and the latter 2GO which has been the greatest “donors” of passengers and cargo to their competition that the receivers should always give them giant cakes during Christmas as thanks for business they gained without any effort or investment. Actually, the Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI) should have rolled out two bands when Cebu Ferry 1 and Cebu Ferry 3 left Cebu for Batangas to become the “Batangas Ferries”. Well, even Cokaliong Shipping Line iNC. (CSLI) also became a beneficiary with the withdrawal of the Cebu Ferries from Surigao, Nasipit, Ozamis and Iligan. Imagine given four major Northern Mindanao ports free.

I just wonder why 2GO can’t give the St. Joan of Arc a permanent route then before they withdraw from the Zamboanga route. When they withdrew from Zamboanga they cited the Abu Sayyaf threat. But then they still sailed their container ships and other shipping companies still continued sailing to Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao. Then they came back to Zamboanga when Abu Sayyaf attacks were continuing and they did not withdraw again until now. So that means they were simply lying the first time around that they withdrew.

When they came back to Zamboanga, it was a Manila-Cebu-Dumaguete route which was later redacted into a Manila-Dumaguete-Zamboanga route, a route longer than a Manila-Iloilo-Bacolod-Zamboanga route. If a route via Dumaguete can be maintained then for sure a route via Iloilo and/or Bacolod can be maintained profitably since Iloilo and Bacolod are both bigger than Dumaguete and the route is shorter. Besides there is no ferry between Iloilo and Zamboanga and there is no bus too while Dumaguete has a bus to Zamboanga and there was also the once-a-week Zamboanga Ferry of George & Peter Lines. And it is easy to cross to Dapitan and take a bus to Zamboanga from Dipolog, the next locality.

2GO could have refurbished the St. Joan of Arc and made her a permanent Zamboanga ship. Her size and speed would have been enough for the route and maybe they can even make a twice a week voyage there. And passenger load might have been better if their arrival time was proper. A 5pm arrival is bad as the connecting trips to the minor islands like the Pangutaran group and even Basilan are already gone by the time their ship arrives in Zamboanga. Actually buses to the the “3S” (Sibuco, Sirawai, Siocon) direction and the direction of Payao (the Lizamay buses) would have also been gone by that time. I noticed ATS and 2GO are not passenger-friendly with regards to arrivals as many of their arrivals are at night. Right now, three out of their five arrivals in Manila from Cebu are at night and they will force passengers down even when it is already midnight. So they think the streets of Manila are safe at night? Ha ha! That is also the time the taxis make a killing.

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St. Joan of Arc not sailing

2GO does not have the program of the likes of Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc. and Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. to give their old ships a second lease of life. Those two companies still has many ships built in the early 1970’s like the St. Joan of Arc. And those ships are still creditable and reliable. In the international cruise industry, ships can be refurbished even when they were built decades ago and niche routes and cruising can be found for them. Like if the St. Joan of Arc was refurbished and assigned to Zamboanga permanently even before 2GO withdrew from there before. Or maybe toughened it out and served Tagbilaran, Dumaguete and Dapitan continuously with a Manila-Tagbilaran-Dumaguete-Dapitan-Manila route. Well, just wishing but Tagbilaran and Bohol has no more direct connection after the Dipolog Princess of Sulpicio Lines was gone. Those three ports might have enough passengers and cargo to sustain the ship.

But this is all water under the bridge now. The St. Joan of Arc is already gone as old ships have no future in 2GO. And maybe it was just proper that the people that initiated this system are already retired now too. They deserve the same fate maybe. It was just like when in ATS the execs approved of the culling and culling of ships until there were more VPs than liners and they did not realize that they will also be culled because that situation cannot continue.

There is a new management in 2GO after new investors came in. I just hope they are forward-looking and love ships instead of being wielders of knives.

The Mabuhay 1/SuperFerry 10

When Sulpicio Lines fielded the great liner Filipina Princess in the premier route to Cebu in 1988, their main competitor William Lines had to suffer silently for several years. That was because sticking to their old Japanese agent that send them ferries from A” Line, they cannot roll out an equivalent and their liner and new flagship Sugbu that was fielded to the Cebu route in 1990 does not begin to match the Sulpicio Lines flagship (although in actual passengers carried, she can according to a research). And to think in their last match-up in this primary route of the country at the start of the 1980’s, their flagship Dona Virginia, which was the biggest and fastest liner in the country then was at least the equal of the Sulpicio Lines flagship Philippine Princess.

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Sun Flower 5 (from Funikichemurase)

In 1992, William Lines was able to field the Maynilad but although she was impressive and modern-looking she was still not the match of the Filipina Princess especially with her great deficit in speed as she was really a slow ship. In 1993, however, William Lines was able to acquire one of the legendary Sun Flower ships from Blue Highway Line, the Sun Flower 5. It had everything a great liner should possess — the size, the beautiful looks, the luxurious interiors and the speed. It was more than a match for the Filipina Princess which suddenly looked dated by comparison. But Sulpicio Lines will not be denied and they also fielded one of the Sun Flower liners from Blue Highway Line, too, the Sun Flower 11. This liner was bigger, just as well-appointed but a little slower. This ship became the Princess of the Orient and so a great battle of flagships began again in the premier route to Cebu.

The Sun Flower 5 was built in 1973 by the Kurushima Dockyard Company in their Onishi shipyard. She was the third in the Sun Flower series of luxury ships which were all sister ships. However, Sun Flower 11, the future Princess of the Orient, was a little different from the rest. She was a stretched version and she had two center funnels in a line. Two later ships, meanwhile, were shortened versions of the series.

Sun Flower 5 was exactly 185.0 meters in length over-all and her beam was 24.0 meters. Her length between perpendiculars was only 170.0 meters. That difference can be gleaned in her long bow that nearly resembles a clipper bow. She was 12,710 in gross tons, her cubic measure, and her deadweight tonnage (DWT), her cargo carrying capacity, was 3,231 tons. The ship had three passenger decks, two car decks and a mezzanine deck for sedans. Her navigation deck also served as the sun deck and accessible to passengers. She had the permanent ship ID IMO 7302108.

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Mabuhay 1 by Britz Salih

The ship’s RORO ramps were already of the modern design. It was no longer located at the bow which was already deemed as more dangerous then as continuous pounding of the waves over the years along with corrosion were already shown to weaken bow ramps. A frontal collision could also prove calamitous for the ship as shown by experiences. What she had were a pair of front quarter ramps on the port and on the starboard sides. She also had a pair of quarter ramps at the stern. That was a very advantageous set-up because docked sideways she can load and unload simultaneously. Docked stern-wise or Mediterranean style, she can also load and unload at the same time. She had three-piece hydraulic ramps which can always be straightened full-out and long, whether it is high tide or low tide, whether she is docked in a high pier or low pier.

Since her front ramps were no longer located at the bow, it no longer needed to be oval. Instead, it was sleek which gave her a more modern look. She had a single center funnel which also served as the stern mast. To complete the modernity, she was a pioneer among liners in using the new and more efficient bulbous stem. This breaks and guides the waters around the ship better so giving the ships’ speed a little boost. Or put it in another way, for the same speed, a little less fuel will be needed. She was equipped with four Hitachi diesel engines with a total output of 26,080 horsepower. This was coupled to two synchronizers in order to turn the two propellers. She had a top speed of 25.5 knots when new which was really fast for that time. To make the voyage more comfortable in rough waters, she was equipped with fin stabilizers.

The original operator of Sun Flower 5 was the Nihon Kosoku Ferry which was under the Terukuni group. She plied the Tokyo-Nachikatsuura-Kochi route. However, the Oil Crisis of 1973 hit the group hard and Terukuni Kaiun went bankrupt but Nihon Shikoku Ferry continued operating. In 1984, the Nihon Kosoku Ferry sold the Sun Flower 5 to her builder, the Kurushima Dock Company and chartered them back in order to continue operating. But Kurushima Dock Company also collapsed and in 1990, the Nihon Enkai Ferry acquired Sun Flower 5 and fielded her in the Osaka-Kagoshima route. In 1991, Sun Flower 5 became the Sun Flower Osaka. Then Nihon Enkai Ferry changed the company’s name into Blue Highway Line.

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SuperFery 10 by Chief Ray Smith

When she came to the Philippines for William Lines in 1993, Sun Flower Osaka was renamed officially as the Wililines Mabuhay 1. But almost nobody called her by her full name and she was simply Mabuhay 1 to most. She started the William Lines series of luxury liners that were beautiful, well-appointed, fast and with good service to match. And with her characteristics, she was really a good and proper progenitor plus a worthy flagship.

In refitting here, her superstructure was largely left untouched and with such, her beautiful lines remained intact. Moreover, William Lines did not try to cram her with passenger accommodations. So for her size and for the standards of the day, her passenger capacity of 2,034 was relatively low. It was just a little over half of the passenger capacity of her main rival Princess of the Orient. Maybe with her intended routes of Manila-Cebu and Manila-Iloilo only with no Mindanao connections, her passenger capacity might have just enough.

The ship had plenty of passenger space as a result and so she had features like conference and function rooms that take up space but which will be unused most of the time. She was intended to be sold as a “floating hotel” where meetings or small conventions can be held and so she has utilities like fax and telephone services and xerox machines. That was not a far-off sell then because liner rates in those days were comparable to hotel rates when the free food was factored in. It was just like staying in a hotel with free conveyance to one’s destination in province. Actually, with this idea, I was able to convince a friend to just take the Princess of the Pacific as their honeymoon suite instead of a hotel in Baguio.

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SuperFerry 10 by Britz Salih

In her sun deck, Mabuhay 1 had a small swimming pool and a wading pool too for children. The sun deck also hosted a playground for children. If that was not one’s taste, there were also video games in the arcade and movies in the theater. For those who liked it “hotter”, one can belt a tune in the videokes or gyrate in the disco. If that was not enough to work a sweat there was also a physical fitness center. However, as a ship feature I noticed that this one was barely patronized. The fitness craze was not yet “on” then for Pinoys. Cruising should be laid back and fun, wasn’t it?

For those who were in a hurry and forgot their grooming for an important meeting or interview, the beauty and grooming salons took care of that. Those in need of relaxation or easing of body pains can go the shipboard massage parlor. The ship had many lounges where passengers can while their time and this included the ship’s many restaurants. This ship with its high net tonnage to passenger ratio had many spaces where one can walk around in the softness of the carpeted floors. The poop decks also served as promenade areas and observation decks. One of the places to visit then for the artistically inclined was the art gallery, a supportive gesture of William Lines to the budding artists of Cebu.

In refitting here, the ship’s gross tonnage (GT) increased to 13,288. She had a local net tonnage (NT) of 5,480 but her deadweight tonnage (DWT) increased a lot to 7,827 tons. She carried the Philippine Call Sign DUHN3.

For William Lines, she sailed to Cebu twice a week and once a week for Iloilo. She took 20 hours for the 393-nautical mile cruise to Cebu and 18 hours for the 343-nautical mile cruise to Iloilo. Locally, her speed was down to 20 knots but that was still fast by local standards. She had an overnight lay-over in Manila every Saturday. Lay-overs like that were very welcome rest to the crew and an opportunity to them to make visits.

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SuperFerry 10 by Chief Ray Smith

Mabuhay 1 did not have that many accommodation classes unlike one will expect for a ship this size. The reason, I surmise, is they respected and used many of the cabin lay-out in Japan. There were four classes in cabin setting, the Special Suite, the Suite, the First Class Cabin for 4 and the De Luxe Cabin for 2 (First Class Cabins have their own Toilet and Baths while De Luxe Cabins only have a wash). There was also the De Luxe (these has better, semi-private bunks), Tourist and Economy. The fare of the highest class was three-and-a-half times the fare of the lowest class.

All the passage classes were entitled to free meals like in the rest of the liner shipping companies before except for Aboitiz Shipping Corporation where meals were not free (but their fares are correspondingly a little less). There were three restaurants according to class group –– the First Class restaurant, the Tourist restaurant and the Economy restaurant. Suite passengers have the option of being served in their cabins. The fare or meal in each class varies a lot along with the plates and table linen as in from none to true restaurant type. It was not eat-all-you-can for rice in the Economy restaurant.

She did not sail long for William Lines because the merger of William Lines, Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) and Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (ASC) happened which produced the super-big (for that time) shipping company William, Gothong & Aboitiz or WG&A Philippines in the first day of1996 (but the agreement was sealed in late 1995). In the combined fleet, she was renamed as the SuperFerry 10. “10” maybe because that signifies perfect or highest. They cannot give the “1” to her because the numbers of the original SuperFerries were not changed and there was already a SuperFerry 1.

There was a question which was the flagship of the WG&A fleet. The big, new ship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation which arrived in 1996 (and which was originally meant to be the new flagship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had there been no merger) was given the number “12”. Initially, both the SuperFerry 10 and SuperFerry 12 held the premier Manila-Cebu, v.v. route which was the indication of which is the flagship. SuperFerry 10, however, is bigger than SuperFerry 12, she was no less luxurious or stunning and their speeds were about equal. They might have been actually co-flagships.

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SuperFerry 10 model (Credits to WG&A and Triztan Mallada)

In WG&A, her accommodation class designations were changed. It was now Economy, Tourist, Business Class, Stateroom and Suite. The last two had to be purchased now on a per-room basis and no longer by person basis. There were also changes in the passage rates. The Economy class became more expensive but the highest classes got cheaper.

In later years, SuperFerry 10 was removed from the Manila-Cebu route and she was paired in rotation with SuperFerry 1 and SuperFerry 8 in the express Manila-Iloilo-General Santos City-Davao route. Later, she was paired with SuperFerry 6 in that route and in other routes like the Manila-Cebu-Cagayan de Oro route. All three had about the same passenger capacity and size and about the same speed too, the bases then for the pairing practice of WG&A. The pairing was a way to maintain the same Manila departures for long routes without resorting to the use of the ship on a short voyage (like a Manila-Iloilo or a Manila-Bacolod route) for the duration of the week. This was most acute in the Davao route where one complete voyage takes five days.

After six years, the merger of the William, Gothong and Aboitiz shipping companies broke apart. The Gothong and Chiongbian (of William Lines) families pulled out from WG&A one after the other. To pay off the divestments, ships (both passenger and cargo) had to be liquidated and sold. This started the one-way trip of WG&A and Cebu Ferries Corporation or CFC (their regional subsidiary) ships to the ship breakers and mainly in China. And, sadly, these were ships that were still in good condition and perfectly sailing as WG&A was really good in ship maintenance through WG&A Jebsens which was the former (and later after the break-up) Aboitiz Jebsens.

Among the casualties of these liquidations, very sadly, was Mabuhay 1 or SuperFerry 10. Together with the Our Lady of Akita 2 (the former Maynilad) and the Our Lady of Naju, they were sent as a batch to a China ship breaker. She was broken up on September of 2002 when she was still a good and reliable ship and just sailing for 9 years here. I just wonder why the divesting partners were not just paid in ships. That move would have been able to preserve our good and great liners instead of them becoming ugly scrap metal.

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From http://www.greenshipspotting.com

And that was the inglorious end of the beautiful and great liner Mabuhay 1, a casualty of a wrong turn in Philippine shipping which was the “Great Merger” that in the end only resulted in the liquidation of two great shipping companies. If that did not happen, I am pretty sure the Mabuhay 1 and the William Lines fleet would have been living until the new millennium and who knows, maybe until now.

A Good Class of Ferry is Going Away Soon

I love speed in ships but maybe not that much and so maybe that is the reason I am not too attached to High Speed Crafts or HSCs. That is also the reason why I tend to look at the size and the engine capacity ratio of a ship and see which is more efficient.

A certain class of ferry which belongs to the great ferries (ferries with at least 10,000 gross tons) caught my attention and respect. While we had many ferries that are in the 150-meter class, that class basically used engines of 20,000 horsepower and more. They were capable of 20 knots locally and even more when they were still new abroad.

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Subic Bay 1

But then there was a class of ferries that arrived here that were in the 160-meter class whose engines were below 20,000 horsepower. They were a little less speedy but they proved to be capable of 18.5 knots locally and in a Manila-Cebu run that meant an additional sailing time of just one more hour. And, of course, in capacity they were a little more than the capacity of the 150-meter ferries.

There were only four examples of this class locally. The fast Princess of Paradise of Sulpicio Lines is not included there and so are the St. Pope John Paul II of 2GO which is the former SuperFerry 12 of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and its sister ship, the Princess of the Universe of Sulpicio Lines and the Mary Queen of Peace of Negros Navigation (which is a shade under 160 meters at 159.5 meters length) for they all packed engines of over 20,000 horsepower.

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Princess of the World by Britz Salih

I am referring here to Manila Bay 1 of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. and its sister ship, the late SuperFerry 6 nee Our Lady of Akita and also the Subic Bay 1 and its sister ship the late Princess of the World. Manila Bay 1 had a length of 162.1 meters and 18,000 horsepower from two NKK-Pielstick engines and here she was capable of 18.5 knots early on. The SuperFerry 6/Our Lady of Akita had exactly the same length, engines and speed here.

Subic Bay 1 of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. has a length of 166.5 meters and 19,700 from two Mitsubishi-MAN engines. Her sister ship the late Princess of the World of Sulpicio Lines had the same length and engines but the rated power is only 18,800 horsepower. They are “thinner” at 24.0 meters breadth compared to the 26.4 meters of SuperFerry 6 and Manila Bay 1 and so they were capable of over 19 knots when they were first fielded here.

How insignificant was their speed disadvantage? Well, WG&A paired the SuperFerry 6 and the SuperFerry 10, the former Mabuhay 1 of William Lines in the Manila-Iloilo-General Santos-Davao, Manila-Cebu-Cagayan de Oro and Manila-Zamboanga-Davao routes. And many know that the SuperFerry 10 ran at up to 20 knots.

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SuperFerry 6 (Credits to PAF and jethro Cagasan)

The SuperFerry 6 did not last sailing as she was hit by engine fire off Batangas in 2000 while sailing from Davao and General Santos City and the Princess of the World was also hit by fire in 2005 off Zamboanga del Norte while en route to Zamboanga from Manila and Iloilo. Both did not sink, however and there were almost no casualties.

What lasted long were the two ships of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI), the Manila Bay 1 and the Subic Bay 1. Well, it seems ships not painted well last longer? However, the Manila Bay 1 was also hit by fire in the bridge but the fire was controlled early. The two ships of CAGLI did not sail as ROPAXes (RORO-Passenger ships) for long as they were suspended by MARINA from carrying passengers because of numerous complaints about long delays in departures and very late arrivals (I was actually a victim of that too when I arrived in Pier 6 at 8pm for a 10pm departure and the ship left at 4:30am and we arrived in Nasipit at night instead of afternoon). From that suspension, CAGLI turned the two into RORO Cargo ships just carrying cars and container vans.

Now those who know shipping knows the replacements of the two ships are already around, the RORO Cargo ships Panglao Bay 1 and Dapitan Bay 1 (which is still being refitted as of the writing of this article in June of 2017). In fact, last April, a member of PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) saw the Subic Bay 1 being towed by a tug headed south and probably destined to a South Asian breaker. Manila Bay 1 might be following her soon when Dapitan Bay 1 enters service and if it does, it will be the end of an era of the 160-meter liners with just 18,000 horsepower engines and 18.5 knots of speed locally.

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Manila Bay 1 and her future replacement Dapitan Bay 1

In terms of cargo capacity they are superior to the 150-meter, 20,000 horsepower ROPAXes especially since they are “fatter” which means their breadths were greater. The four might have not looked sleek or modern as they still have the lines of the Japan big ROPAXes built in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s (well, they were actually built in that period!). But their interiors, if their brochures are studied, says they were not inferior to the sleeker 150-meter ROPAXes.

It is just too bad that two of the four did not last long (but both were highly praised when they were still in service) and the other two were converted into RORO Cargo ships and that is the reason why the lingering appreciation for them is not high and they are even identified by most as a separate separate class. And I just rue they did not really stand out when to think they could have been great.

So this piece is just a paean to them, a reminder too and also a farewell.

The First Liner Built in the Philippines After World War II

In 1957, President Carlos P. Garcia ascended to Malacanang after the death of President Ramon Magsaysay and thereafter he won the Philippine presidency in his own right. While President Magsaysay worked very closely with the Americans and relied on them for the economic development of the country, President Garcia rolled out his “Filipino First” policy. Under that policy, he tried to promote Philippine industries and supported Filipino industrialists, to the consternation of some Americans used to having their way in the country, given first preference and who treated Filipinos like their wards.

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Keel-laying of Hull No.1 (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

Among the industries President Garcia tried to push forward was shipbuilding (shipbuilding is selling steel too and on the same track President Garcia encouraged steel-making which resulted in the establishment of IISMI or Iligan Integrated Steel Mills Inc. which later became the National Steel Corporation or NSC). That made sense, at least on paper, as our country is an archipelago and hence we need a lot of ships. From an enterprise concerned with refitting and lengthening of ships (where before this was done in Hongkong), NASSCO (National Shipyards & Steel Corporation) went into shipbuilding and Hull No. 1 was laid in the NASSCO shipyard (the Bataan National Shipyard) in Mariveles, Bataan in 1957.

Lacking the experience and equipment maybe, the ship took too long to complete. Well, we are a country where engineering is still in infancy. We are not a country where work is fast and based on a production line and our craftsmen are not used to mass production. That is what we get by being proud of our jeepneys and our talyers. Yes, it can fabricate anything but the speed and quality is low. Essentially, we are a country of fabricators.

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Hull No. 1 as the General Roxas (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

Maybe there was a problem of timing and priority too. In the time Hull No. 1 was under construction it was also the same time that reparations ships were beginning to come to the Philippines because the final peace treaty between Japan and her victim countries was already signed. Reparations ships came from the reparations payment of Japan as settlement of the damages she inflicted because of the war she launched in the Pacific in 1941 (but it was just basically payment for public works and infrastructure damage and did not include personal damages which were never paid by Japan unlike Germany).

Hull No. 1 was financed by a loan from the government-owned Development Bank of the Philippines to the tune of P2.5 million or a little over $ 1 million dollars then. Hull No. 1 was launched on July 1959 and completed as a passenger-cargo ship in May 1960 and she became the ship General Roxas of the General Shipping Company. This company previously just operated a fleet of former “FS” ships before which were cargo ships converted into passenger-cargo use. The General Roxas was way ahead in size, quality and comfort compared to the ex-”FS” ships and she was probably the flagship of General Shipping Company which operated routes to Palawan, Romblon, Masbate, Bicol, the Visayas and Northern Mindanao.

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General Roxas when newly-fielded (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

The General Roxas’ external measurements were 84.7 meters by 12.3 meters by 6.7 meters in L x B x D with a Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) of 1,757 tons. Her Net Register Tonnage (NRT) was 968 and her load capacity in Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) was 1,544 tons. The ship was equipped by a single Uraga engine of 2,200 horsepower which gave her a top sustained speed of 13.5 knots when still new. The General Roxas has two sister ships built also by NASSCO and these were the General del Pilar (later the Mactan of Compania Maritima) and the Governor B. Lopez of Southern Lines Incorporated. The latter was built in the same yard and almost simultaneously with General Roxas.

The General Roxas’ hull steel, engine and navigational equipment all came from Japan. The ship had air-conditioning and in those days it was practically what defined what is a luxury liner. Her First Class accommodations, lounges and dining rooms were all air-conditioned. This ship had three passenger decks and for handling cargo she had booms in the front section or bow of the ship. Cargo was stowed below the passenger decks and above and on the engine deck. The ship is a cruiser ship (it was not yet the time of the ROROs which can load vehicles through ramps) with a high prow. The ship later was assigned the IMO Number 5128015.

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A miniature to show underwater portion of General Roxas (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

In General Shipping Company, she was the second General Roxas as the company had an earlier ship named General Roxas too and that was a former “FS” ship (and that is the beauty of IMO Numbers as it can differentiate ships with the same names). In General Shipping Corporation the first route of General Roxas was Manila-Iloilo-Pulupandan-Iligan. Iligan then was beginning to boom because of the Maria Cristina power plant which provided cheap hydroelectric power and Iloilo and Pulupandan ports served two big and progressive islands.

But despite two new passenger-cargo ships and a healthy fleet, in 1965, after a boardroom dispute General Shipping Company abandoned inter-island shipping and moved into international shipping. Their local fleet and routes were then divided between Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and the former regional shipping company Sweet Lines Incorporated which then became a national liner company (however, the new ship General del Pilar became the Mactan of Compania Maritima). Among the ships acquired by Sweet Lines was the General Roxas which became the Sweet Rose in the new company.

In the new liner fleet of Sweet Lines (to distinguish it from the regional fleet of Sweet Lines which mainly had the small ex-”F” ships), the Sweet Rose was the biggest and best ship. However, the tactic then of Sweet Lines was to field their ships not on the primary routes and so Sweet Rose was assigned the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route. Right after fielding Sweet Rose was the newest, the best and fastest ship in the route that only had ex-”FS” ships before and this helped stabilize the company in the national routes for she then dominated that route.

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Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen

The ship’s next route was Manila-Cebu-Iligan-Ozamis route when the Sweet Grace, a brand-new ship from West Germany arrived. That only confirmed that the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route was the primary route of Sweet Lines before the arrival of the fast cruiser liner Sweet Faith in 1970 and Sweet Rose was the flagship of the company before 1968 when Sweet Grace came.

In the early 1970’s, the Sweet Rose was returned to the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban-Cebu, v.v. route in a pairing with the Sweet Grace. That indicated the level of importance Sweet Lines assigned to the route which was not high in the priority of other shipping companies (well, before William Lines entered the route with their fast cruiser liner Tacloban City in 1975) and that jeopardized a bread and butter route for Sweet Lines as the Tacloban City was a faster and superior ship.

The Sweet Rose stayed on the route though but she now called in Masbate instead of Catbalogan leaving Sweet Grace to serve that port. However, she was assigned again the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban route after Sweet Lines invaded Mindanao routes outside Northern Mindanao and Sweet Grace did the Manila-Cebu-Zamboanga route.

Sweet Rose never left the Catbalogan/Tacloban route again but in the 1980’s she began having unreliability in her engine and this trouble even reached the authorities. Engines of her period were not really that tough and she had the bad luck of having been equipped with an Uraga engine which was not a top of the line Japanese engine. She too had difficulty coping with Tacloban City and the Dona Angelina, the ship used by Sulpicio Lines when it entered the Catbalogan/Tacloban route just before Tacloban City came. The Dona Angelina which came from Europe also had air-conditioning like the Tacloban City. As a footnote, Sweet Rose also went up against her sister ship in the route when the Mactan was fielded there by Compania Maritima. That was before Mactan sank in 1973.

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Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

In the great political and economic crisis that started with the Aquino assassination in 1983, Sweet Lines culled old liners and the Sweet Rose was among them. Others were the former European ships Sweet Bliss, Sweet Life and Sweet Love, ships they used in the Davao route via the eastern seaboard of Mindanao. That also included Sweet Sound which was a former “FS” ship. It was no dishonor to Sweet Lines because a lot a ships were cut up in this period when the industrial economy shrank and many shipping companies collapsed or shut down like the former No. 1 Compania Maritima.

Sweet Lines was broken up just locally in Acuario Marketing, a local ship-breaking specialist in Navotas in 1984. She was just 24 years old then but actually she was able to outlast her two sister ships. Maybe she was not just good enough for a 30-year service like the former ships from Europe and Japan (the Tacloban City which was built in 1962 lasted until the late 1990’s but then she has the better Mitsubishi engine). The Dona Angelina also lasted over 30 years of sailing.

Sweet Rose is a distant memory now but she holds a record that won’t ever be broken and that is being the first liner ever built in the country after World War II. She was also one of the ships that brought Sweet Lines to her peak in the late 1970’s.

The China-built LCTs

It seems that just like in buses, in due time China-made LCTs might rule our waves just like China-made buses are now beginning to rule the Luzon highways. The process will not be that sudden though because ships last longer than buses and it is much more costlier to acquire ships. We too have that attachment to our old ships and we don’t suddenly just let them go. But then who knows if some crazy people try to cull our old ferries? I am sure many of the replacements of them will be Cargo RORO LCTs and ROPAX LCTs from China. They are simply that cheap and the terms are good. One thing sure though is the replacements will not be local-built ships. Local-builds generally cost much more than China-builds and the price of the ship is a key decision point.

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A Meiling LCT a.k.a. deck loading ship

A decade ago, China-built LCTs were practically unknown in the country as we were building our own LCTs in many shipyards around the country. Then the first palpable show of LCTs happened early this decade was when a lot of brand-new LCTs suddenly appeared and anchored for long in North Mactan Channel waiting for business. Some of these were rumored to be destined for the mines of Surigao which was then booming. That area already had China-owned and -built LCTs to carry ores to China just like some other provinces which allowed black sand mining had China-owned LCTs docking. But then here, I am talking of China-built LCTs that are locally-operated or owned. However, the Surigao mining boom when world metal prices spiked a decade ago because of China demand was one of our key introduction to China-built LCTs.

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Row of LCTs in North Mactan Channel

Then the demand for ore of China suddenly weakened and so those brand-new China-built LCTs that showed in Mactan Channel owned by Cebu Sea Charterers (of the renowned Premship group), Broadway One Shipping and Concrete Solutions Incorporated went into regular cargo moving. Later, the two companies plus others like Primary Trident Solutions (owner of the Poseidon series of LCTs), and Adnama Mining Resources which also acquired China-made LCTs went into Cargo RORO LCT operations like the Cebu Sea Charterers which meant conveying rolling cargo or vehicles between islands. The Cebu to Leyte routes was the first staple of the Cargo RORO LCTs. Cargo RORO LCTs were also fielded in the key Matnog-Allen and Liloan-Lipata routes to ease backlogs of trucks waiting to be loaded. They became the augmentations to short-distance ferry-ROROs in heavily crowded routes during peak season or when there are disruptions after typhoons.

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Cargo RORO LCTs in Carmen port

The old overnight passenger-shipping companies of Cebu more than noticed the emergence of the Cargo RORO LCTs and felt its threat to their trade and so they also joined the bandwagon in acquiring China-built LCTs. Roble Shipping first chartered LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation before buying their own and those were China-made LCTs. However, it was Lite Ferries that made a bet in acquiring new China LCTs to be converted into passenger-cargo LCTs after some modifications. Outside of Cebu the shipping company 2GO, under the name NN+ATS and brand “Sulit Ferries” chartered China-built LCTs from Concrete Solutions Incorporated, which are the Poseidon LCTs for use in their Matnog-Allen route.

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A ROPAX LCT operated by Sulit Ferries (LCT Poseidon 26)

Meanwhile, LCTs were also tried by Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping as container ships. When they started they also chartered LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation like Roble Shipping. They were successful in using LCTs as container ships and they were always full (and maybe to the chagrin of the CHA-RO messiah Enrico Basilio). This mode might be a no-frills way of moving goods through container vans but it is actually the cheaper way as LCTs are cheap to operate. Later, Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping also acquired their own LCTs with the blessings of Asian Shipping Corporation. Ocean Transport & Key West Shipping might have been successful in showing a new mode of transport but the self-proclaimed “shipping experts” never took notice of them nor studied their craft and mode.

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Brizu, a container carrier LCT by Ocean Transport

Asian Shipping Corporation (ASC) which really has a lot of LCTs for charter and probably with the most number in the country started by building their own LCTs right in their yards in Navotas just like some other smaller shipping had their LCTs built in Metro Manila wharves. Asian Shipping Corporation have not completely turned their back of own-built LCTs but more and more they are acquiring China-built LCTs which come out cheaper than local-builds. Shipbuilding on the lower technology level like LCT-building is at times can also be viewed too as selling of steel and China is the cheapest seller of steel in the whole world. Their engines and marine equipment are also on cheap end.

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ASC Ashley of Asian Shipping Corporation

Another big operator of China-built LCTs that must be noted is the Royal Dragon Ocean Transport which owns the Meiling series of LCTs. Many of their LCTs can be found in Surigao serving the mines there. Right now, China-built LCTs are already mushrooming in Central and Eastern Visayas but in other parts of the country they are still practically unknown except in Manila or when passing by or calling. Ironically, it might actually be a typhoon, the super-typhoon “Yolanda” which devastated Leyte that might have given the China LCTs a big break because they were used in Leyte and in the eastern seaboard routes (in San Bernardino Strait and Surigao Strait) when there a big need for sea transport after the typhoon and their potential was exposed. The super-typhoon also showed the need for Cargo RORO LCTs separate from short-distance ferry-ROROs.

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Owned LCTs by Roble Shipping

Ocean Transport of Cebu, as stated earlier, now also have their own China LCTs to haul container vans from Manila after initially chartering from Asian Shipping Corporation. The same is true for Roble Shipping which initially chartered Cargo RORO LCTs from Asian Shipping Corporation for Cebu-Leyte use. Now other Cebu passenger shipping companies are also beginning to acquire their China LCTs. And that even includes Medallion Transport. Actually there are so many LCTs now from China that don’t have a name but just sports a number (i.e. LCT 308, etc.). But among Cebu overnight ferry companies, it is actually Lite Ferries who is betting the biggest on China LCTs that carries passengers too after some modifications.

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PMI-3, a Cargo RORO LCT of Premium Megastructures Inc.

In the following years I still see a lot of China-built LCTs coming and that will include LCTs that have provisions for passenger accommodations. If the government cull the old (but still good) ferries, I bet that type will suddenly mushroom especially in the short-distance routes. But of course it will not have the speed nor the comfort of the basic, short-distance ferry-ROROS. But who knows if that is actually the wish of some decision-making foggy old bureaucrats who don’t ride ships anyway? They will just be giving China yards and engine makers a big break. And a final note – LCTs from China are also called as “deck loading ships”. So don’t get confused.

Now let us just see how these China imports grow in size and importance.

The Longest Route After The War

The longest route after the war was the Manila-Cebu-Tagbilaran-Dumaguete-Zamboanga-Dadiangas-Davao route which was around 1,000 nautical miles in distance and which took up 6 days to cover. Some of the ships on this route actually still called in one or more ports (like Dipolog), some with less and in earlier days it was Maribojoc port on a nearby town which they used in Bohol.

Most of the ships that plied this route in the first two decades after the war were former, converted “FS” ships with a sprinkling of ex-“C1-M-AV1” ships. The first was much smaller than the but both were surplus cargo ships during the war which were only capable of 11 knots at most which made for a languorous voyage. 11 knots is actually the speed of the cargo ships of today (and even of old) and their speed actually betrayed their cargo ship origins.

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Gorio Belen research in the National Library

The ships plying the route takes nearly two weeks to be able to return to Manila. So to be able to offer a weekly voyage on a specific day, a shipping company should have a pair of ships sailing the route. When one is leaving Manila, the other will then be leaving Davao and they will cross path somewhere in Mindanao Sea if one is not delayed (the weather is one particular source of delays then because the ex-”FS” ships need to look for shelter when the weather acts up and roils the seas).

Long routes, if there are not enough rest for the engines on inter-port calls can be murderous for the engines. Of the two types most used here it was the former ex-”FS” ships which lasted longer and it outlasted the ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships. One reason maybe is because the latter is equipped with one engine only while the former had two and it had an electromechanical transmission (which meant less maintenance). Ex-”FS” ships generally lasted about 4 decades of service here before giving up. The were practically the “jeep” of the sea.

The leading shipping company then which was Compania Maritima had the luxury of using passenger-cargo ships from Europe in this route which were the almost-new MV Jolo, MV Cebu and MV Panay. Those ships were faster and had more passenger conveniences aside from being big. Two of their competitors which were William Lines and Carlos A. Go Thong & Company were only able to field former passenger-cargo ships from Europe to this route only in the late 1960’s. When those arrived Compania Maritima began deploying newer, bigger and faster ships from Europe like the MV Filipinas, MV Luzon and MV Visayas.

This route was really important then to the leading shipping companies and the route provided good load and high passenger load. One reason is the opening up of Mindanao for exploitation (in the real sense!) and the consequent coming of outsiders to the then-undivided Cotabato and Davao provinces. This route was their link to Cebu and Bohol. And this route was the artery of goods to and from Manila.

While this route could be murderous for the engines and taxing for the crews, I noticed that the shipping companies which stuck to this route lasted longer than the shipping companies that mainly did the Visayas routes only. Since passenger-cargo ships mainly carried the cargoes in those day and cargo is the bread and butter of shipping having a long route passing through more ports was more advantageous. Among the notable shipping companies then which did not try this route and did not last were General Shipping Company and Southern Lines Inc.

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Gorio Belen research in the National Library

Many shipping companies tried this route right after the war especially the bigger shipping companies. This route was not for the smaller companies because to do this route they must have enough ships because the ships won’t be at port again before two weeks. Some of the earlier ones did not last like Manila Steamship of Elizalde y Compania which quit shipping after the loss of their flagship. Another was De la Rama Steamship which left the local routes to concentrate on ocean-going routes.

Compania Maritima was the one which bet early in the route and they had the muscle to dominate the route. Among the others it was William Lines which tried to match them and since its fleet is not big it assigned almost all of their ships to this route and all of them were just ex-”FS” ships. But such was the belief of William Lines in this route (well, being a power too in Cotabato especially along Dadiangas which is General Santos today was also a factor for sure).

Philippine Steam and Navigation Company (PSNC) also did this route but their commitment was inconsistent and they eventually withdrew from this route. But they and its successor Aboitiz Shipping Corporation were the ones which experimented on different wayports to reach Davao. Just like what Sweet Lines did later. Carlos A. Go Thong & Company also perservered in this route starting the mid-1950’s when they became a national liner operation.

When the former passenger-cargo ships from Europe started arriving for William Lines and Carlos A. Go Thong & Company (and also to upstart Dacema Lines) in the late 1960’s, the ex-”FS” ships of this route were slowly relegated to shorter routes although that type was still used in this route up to the late 1970’s. By that time they were functioning more like cargo ships already and as carrier in the inter-port routes. In the Philippines which has no tradition of sending ships to the breakers until it is no longer capable of sailing, it also meant still trying to find a role for these old but sturdy ships.

The nature of this route started to change in the middle 1970’s when a new type of ship arrived, the fast cruiser liners. This new type ambitioned to have weekly sailing and so it tried to make the voyage to Davao in just three days or even less. To make this possible the number of wayports where they will call was drastically cut back and that is just to one which is Cebu port. So for the new fast cruiser liners the route suddenly shrank to just Manila-Cebu-Davao (and that practically torpedoed the old route since passengers no longer want to be cooped in ships that long).

I think this was also the reason and situation why Iloilo suddenly became “the” wayport to Davao instead of Cebu. The route is shorter and it still afforded a call to Zamboanga which was difficult for a ship calling in Cebu. With the fast cruiser liners, the old ship and route did not go away entirely immediately. Actually the old ships and route served as adjuncts but as if it is the “second class”.

Another alternative and adjunct-competitor was the arrival en masse of a new type of ship, the container ships which began to multiply starting in 1979. Many were of the express type and it either sailed direct or with just one wayport. Slowly this type killed the old, slow passenger-cargo ships and in 1980 and 1981 a lot of them were already laid up. The selling point then already was the speed of shipment and the security afforded by the new container vans (in terms of protection against pilferage and damage in handling and because of the rains). For the passengers they no longer wanted a 6-day voyage even though they were fed the entire way.

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Gorio Belen research in the National Library

In the 1980’s, this old longest route was practically gone already with the forced retirement or reassignment of the ships which once sailed the route (actually the ex-”C1-M-AV1” type was gone earlier when its engines gave up in the 1970’s and many were simply sent to the breakers). The main carriers, the ex-”FS” ships were also on their last legs and getting more unreliable and no longer suited for this distance.

Now that long route is just a distant memory. But the passengers and shippers relying on it in the inter-port routes suffered and has to take other means of commute or shipping and that sometimes meant the uncomfortable bus. This is a route that will never come back (and gone was the free tourism associated with it).

Well, things change and times change too.

Lite Ferries

Many people know this shipping company simply as “Lite Ferries”. The name of their ships now start with “Danilo Lines Incorporated” and then a number, hence, people easily make the connection . Actually their ships are numbered now (as of May 2017) from Lite Ferry 1 to Lite Ferry 30. Well, even their official website refers to the company as “Lite Ferries”

Lite Ferries is actually the amalgamation of three shipping companies — the Lite Shipping Corporation, the Sunline Shipping Corporation and Danilo Lines Incorporated. The mother company of this combined shipping corporation is Lirio Shipping Corporation which is into cargo shipping. It is not a big shipping company on its own, however, but the big company Lite Ferries started from that.

Lite Ferries is connected to Bohol, the place of origin of the founder Lucio Lim which still has various business interests in that island-province including in Panglao development. In a sense, many in Bohol has a new company to root for after the demise of Sweet Lines, the old favorite and pride of Bol-anons. However, the nerve center of Lite Ferries’ operation is now Cebu City although they still use a Tagbilaran address.

It is hard not to discuss now Lite Ferries because in this decade its ship acquisitions continued almost yearly and almost always multiple ship in a year and its acquisitions have accelerated since 2009. From a second-tier Cebu passenger shipping company, it now has the most ferries in the Visayas. Their ferries are mainly of medium size for non-liners but with their numbers they now cover more routes and their competitors are now feeling their presence and weight.

Lite Ferries started ferry operations in a limited way in 1992 when it was able to acquire the triple-screwed LCT St. Mark, a surplus ship of the US Navy built in 1964 which has limited passenger accommodations like most conventional LCTs. Lite Ferries used this ship to connect Cebu and Bohol via Argao and Loon. Argao is the southern link of Cebu province to Bohol and with it there is no need for a vehicle to still go to Cebu port. In a later renaming of their ships, the LCT St. Mark became the Lite Ferry 20. She was by then a re-engined ship with just two screws.

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The Lite Ferry 20

In 1994, Lite Ferries acquired the former Horai Maru No. 12 in Japan and in the company this ferry became the Sta. Lucia de Bohol which betrayed the place origin of the company. This ship was a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO with external dimensions of just 32.0 meters length of 8.0 meters beam by 3.0 meters depth with a Gross Tonnage of 199. Sadly this ship is no longer around.

Lite Ferries then acquired the former Hayabusa in Japan in 1996 and she became the Lite Ferry, without a number. This was not a small ship for she measured 88.0 meters by 15.0 meters by 4.8 meters in L x B x D with a Gross Tonnage of 1,389 and she had a Cebu to Ozamis route. Maybe in Lite Ferries this ship was too big for them then and so they sold this ship to Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Incorporated (TASLI) where she became the Trans-Asia II.

After this, Lite Ferries was able to acquire the rump of the fleet of San Juan Shipping Corporation. That company plummeted after the loss in an explosion and fire and subsequent sinking of their biggest ship, the San Juan Ferry which was the former Dona Cristina of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (CAGLI) and Cebu Ferries Corporation. From San Juan Shipping Corporation, Lite Ferries was able to acquire the Sr. San Jose, a beautiful cruiser but with a weak engine and the John Carrier-1, a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO with problematic engines also. The important thing this purchase gave Lite Ferries were not the ships and these were not used by Lite Ferries for long. Actually, it was the important franchises and route to Leyte which they did not have before and which proved profitable for them in the long run.

In 2004, Lite Ferries acquired the Salve Juliana of the MBRS Shipping Lines of Romblon which was then disposing their earlier ships as it has already acquired bigger ones. This ship became the Sr. San Jose de Tagbilaran (in that period many of the ships of Lite Ferries were still named after saints) and it seems it is this ferry that displaced the Sta. Lucia de Bohol in the Tagbilaran route. Later this ship was also assigned to the Ormoc route. When the ships of Lite Ferries were renamed to “Lite Ferry”, she became the Lite Ferry 6.

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The Lite Ferry 6

The next year, in 2005, Lite Ferries acquired the former Daishin Maru and made her into a small overnight ferry-RORO. Her dimensions were only 42.6 meters by 11.5 meters by 3.0 meters and forward part of the car deck has to be converted in Tourist accommodation to increase her passenger capacity. The ship was first known as the Our Lady of Barangay-1. Her engines were later not strong and she was put up for sale. When there were no takers, Lite Ferries had her re-engined and now she is known as the Lite Ferry 5 and still sailing for Lite Ferries in her original route which is the Tagbilaran route.

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The Lite Ferry 5

In 2005, Lite Ferries acquired the former Shodoshima Maru No.1 which was the former Zhu Du No.2 in China. In the Lite Ferries fleet she was first known as the San Ramon de Bohol with a flat bow ramp. Later, Lite Ferries fitted her with a conventional pointed bow thereby adding to her length (but I wonder what other things were gained by that). In the renaming of their ships, this became the Lite Ferry 7.

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The Lite Ferry 7

Many will ask where is Lite Ferry 1, Lite Ferry 2 and Lite Ferry 3? Lite Ferries was able to acquire the shipping company Danilo Lines which served the San Carlos-Toledo route in 2006 and the two main ships of that fleet, the Danilo 1 and Danilo 2 became the Lite Ferry 1 and Lite Ferry 2, respectively. The two are actually sister ships and they are actually sister ships too to Lite Ferry 6. Danilo Lines actually has two wooden ships, the Danilo III and Danilo IV but those were not transferred to Lite Ferries anymore which by that time was just sticking to ROROs (well, they even had the Sr. San Jose cut up).

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The Lite Ferry 1

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The Lite Ferry 2

The Lite Ferry 3 was also acquired in 2006. This was the former Noumi No.8 in Japan and she became the second Santiago de Bohol in the Lite Ferries fleet. As an overnight ferry-RORO, the Lite Ferry 3 is small and she has just the external dimensions of a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO at 38.3 meters by 9.0 meters by 2.9 meters with a Gross Tonnage of just 250 but she has one-and-a-half passenger decks. The Lite Ferry 3 is now the shortest ship in the fleet of Lite Ferries.

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The Lite Ferry 3

In 2007, Lite Ferries bought again a relatively big ship, the former GP Ferry-1 of George & Peter Lines which was the former small liner Sta. Maria of Negros Navigation Company. This was no longer renamed to a saint and she directly became the Lite Ferry 8. The ship was fielded to the Ormoc route to battle the Heaven Stars of Roble Shipping Incorporated which by then was having engine unreliability already. Soon after her rival was laid up, Lite Ferry 8‘s engines also began acting up also and so she was spending half of her time laid up. Lite Ferry decided to have her re-engined and the ship was used for Lite Ferry’s foray to Cagayan de Oro.

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The Lite Ferry 8

The next year, in 2008, Lite Ferries purchased a second-hand LCT from the Socor Shipping Lines, the former LCT Socor 1. Like the Lite Ferry 20m she was over 50 meters in length at 55.4 meters but like the conventional LCT, her passenger capacity is small. She was initially named as LCT Sto. Nino de Bohol in the Lite Ferries fleet before she was renamed to Lite Ferry 22.

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The Lite Ferry 22 by James Gabriel Verallo

In 2009, Lite Ferries made a decision to acquire double-ended ferries and this was a surprise to me given the nature of her routes which are not very short actually. In their routes, the double-ended ferries can actually suffer because of the drag and sometimes the lack of speed and their characteristic of having not to maneuver might just be negated.

The Lite Ferry 9 which was actually a beautiful double-ended ferry was the former Daian No.8 and relatively new when acquired in 2009 because the ship was built just in 1997. She was not really small at 45.0 meters length, 10.0 meters breadth and 2.8 meters depth. Her Gross Tonnage was only 170 and her Net Tonnage is only 89 which is small. That is so because double-ended ferries cannot maximize their passenger deck up to the stern of the ship. Now this ship is no longer in the fleet of Lite Ferries and might have been sold elsewhere.

In the Lite Ferry 10, another double-ended ferry, Lite Ferries tried to increase passenger space by adding scantling and bunks. With limitations this ship can also serve as an overnight ferry-RORO and there was not much of a problem with that since its route is only to Tubigon which is some two hours sailing distance away. The ships is also not that small at 46.0 meters by 10.0 meters by 3.8 meters with a Net Tonnage of 165. However, like in Lite Ferry 9, maybe double-ended ferries are not really fit for them and so Lite Ferries sold this ship to Medallion Transport in 2011 where she became the Lady of Miraculous Medal.

Later, another Lite Ferry 10 came into the fleet of Lite Ferries which arrived first as a charter and later a purchase. This ship was the former Ocean King I of Seamarine Transport Incorporated. Ocean King I was an overnight ferry -RORO which abandoned the Liloan-Lipata route and then tried the Leyte route without going anywhere. Lite Ferries then took over her and Seamarine Transport became defunct. Lite Ferry 10 is bigger and has more capacity than the other overnight ferries of Lite Ferries because she has 3 passenger decks.

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The second Lite Ferry 10 by James Gabriel Verallo

In 2010, Lite Ferries acquired 4 surplus ferries. None of them was the expensive kind but as the norm in the Philippines those can be converted into valuable ferries and they were refitted simultaneously in Ouano wharf.

The biggest of the 4 became the Lite Ferry 11 and this was the Misaki No.5 of Oishi Shipping in Japan. In international maritime databases, she is mistaken for the Lite Ferry 12 maybe because that is what reflected is in the AIS transmissions. The Lite Ferry 11 measures 65.7 meters by 15 meters by 3.5 meters but her Gross Tonnage of 498 in Japan shrank to 249 here even when decks were added. The Lite Ferry 11 is now the primary ship of Lite Ferries in the Ormoc route.

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The Lite Ferry 11

The Lite Ferry 12 is a pocket overnight ferry-RORO with a registered length of just 41.6 meters, a breadth of 9.6 meters, a depth of 5.6 meters (which is rather deep) and just a Gross Tonnage of 249 which is low. This ship I found to be densely packed, so to speak. The Lite Ferry 12 rotates among many routes of Lite Ferries but she was the ship that opened the Nasipit-Jagna route for her company.

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The Lite Ferry 12

There is no Lite Ferry 13 (nor a Lite Ferry 4) because those numbers are usually not used by local shipping companies out of superstition. There is also not a Lite Ferry 14 but I don’t know the reason for that. Maybe the owner is just averse to that number.

The Lite Ferry 15 is almost the size of Lite Ferry 11 at 60.3 meters length, 11.4 meters beam and a Gross Tonnage of 827 with a Net Tonnage of 562. From twin Akasaka engines, she has 2,600 horsepower on tap which is higher than the 2,000 horsepower of Lite Ferry 1, Lite Ferry 6 and Lite Ferry 7 but below the 3,000 horsepower of Lite Ferry 11. Most of the time this ship holds the Cagayan de Oro to Jagna route of the company.

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The Lite Ferry 15

The fourth ship to be acquired in 2010, the Lite Ferry 23 is very unique and there is no other of her kind in the country. It is a RORO and looks like an LCT from the side but it has a catamaran hull and so she is wider at 16.0 meters (her registered length is 57.5 meters). Attached and rigged to the stern before were two pusher tugs (in Japan those were free). Two funnels were attached to the ship here because there are now passengers. Modifications were made so a passenger deck could be added to the ship which is a little bigger than the average LCT.

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The Lite Ferry 23

Initially, Lite Ferry 23 was a slow craft barely able to do 7 knots and so she was just assigned the Mandaue to Tubigon route which caters basically to rolling cargo. Later, the tugs were removed and she was given two decent engines and now she can do what a short-distance ferry can do. Still, she is doing the same route and basically catering to rolling cargo with a few passengers mixed in.

2011 was a respite year for Lite Ferries and they did not acquire any ship. But in 2012 they acquired the LCT Dona Trinidad 1 of Candano Shipping Lines, a Bicol shipping company. This ship first became the LCT Sta. Filomena de Bohol and like the other LCT in the Lite Ferries fleet she is over 50 meters at 53.5 meters. Shortly later, this ferry was renamed to Lite Ferry 21.

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The Lite Ferry 21

In the same year 2012, Lite Ferries acquired a brand-new LCT from China, the Lite Ferry 25. Maybe this was the sign that in the future Lite Ferries will also be relying on this type of ship and mainly for rolling cargo with a few passengers mixed in. During this time China LCTs which are cheap (but which has questions on engine reliability) already had an allure for local shipping operators and maybe the Lite Ferry 25 was the test purchase of Lite Ferries from China. The size of this ship is almost the same as the other LCTs of Lite Ferries at 58.0 meters length. Some modifications to the ship was made to increase the passenger capacity.

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The Lite Ferry 25

In 2012, Lite Ferries also ventured into HSC (High Speed Crafts) operation when they acquired the beautiful and modern-looking Japan fastcraft Lite Jet 1 (which are not powered by waterjets anyway). She was fielded in the Tubigon route where the new company Star Crafts was making a heyday. Maybe they perceived the fastcrafts of this company as a threat to their ROROs in Tubigon as it multiplied fast. The Lite Jet 1 was more modern and faster than the Star Crafts.

Next year, in 2013, Lite Ferries acquired two more HSCs but this time from Vietnam. These were actually the former Aquan One and Aquan Two in Hongkong and they were the Nonan 1 and Nonan 2 in Vietnam and both were catamarans built in China. On conduction here one of the two grounded in the Spratly islands and it took longer to be fielded. The Aquan Two/Nonan 2 was named the Lite Jet 8 while the Aquan One/Nonan 1 was named the Lite Jet 9.

These two catamarans proved problematic and hard for the technical resources of Lite Ferries which has not much HSC experience. MTU engines are fast but needs attention to maintenance and can be problematic when it gets old. This is the engine of of the Lite Jet 8. On the other hand, the Lite Jet 9 was powered by Isotta-Fraschini engines, a make not that well-known in the HSC field. That proved balky and slower and Lite Ferries tried to re-engine it with Caterpillar engines.

Not long after, however, Lite Ferries completely gave up and sold all their High Speed Crafts including their good and reliable Oceanjet 1 to Ocean Fast Ferries Incorporated which operates the now-dominant Oceanjet HSCs. Maybe Lite Ferries realized that High Speed Crafts are not their cup of tea and they just better concentrate on RORO operations which they understand deeply as shown by their successful successful expansion.

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The Lite Ferry 26

With this divestment, Lite Ferries bought out two Cargo RORO LCTs that came and challenged them in the Cebu-Tagbilaran route which was proving to be a serious threat to them. These were the Diomicka and the Maria Dulce which were just chartered ships. With the buy-out in 2015, the Diomicka became the Lite Ferry 26 and the Maria Dulce became the Lite Ferry 28. These 2 LCTs are the only ships in the fleet of Lite Ferries that do not carry passengers.

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The Lite Ferry 28

With the remainder, in 2015, Lite Ferries continued the China experiment and purchased another brand-new LCT but which has a different design than the Lite Ferry 25. This was the Lite Ferry 27. It has a taller tower and and modifications were made so there will be two short passenger decks. Bunks were even provided (Lite Ferries is one of the shipping companies that combine bunks with seats). Like the Lite Ferry 25, this LCT is also powered by Weichai engines.

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The Lite Ferry 27

At the same time of acquiring the Lite Ferry 27, Lite Ferries uncorked a new China experiment (well, their patron seems to really have strong China connections). Among these were two laid up Hainan Strait Shipping Company (HNSS) vessels that once connected Hainan island to the China mainland and which they acquired in 2015 and 2016. When the two arrived here they all looked very rusty but to the knowing they know once refitted the two will become beautiful and useful ferries (is there a rust that cannot be removed?).

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The Lite Ferry 16

The two were renamed to Lite Ferry 16 and Lite Ferry 19 look to be modified LCTs with a car ramp at the bow and two partial decks of passenger accommodations below the bridge where one extend to near amidship which means the passenger area is far higher than the conventional LCT. With extensions of both decks that becomes passenger promenades, the feeling of being too enclosed in an LCT with nowhere to go is gone. Lite Ferry 16 and Lite Ferry 19 look to be sister ships.

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The Lite Ferry 19 by Mark Ocul

Two other rusty ferries from China which are sister ships also arrived for Lite Ferries in 2016, the Bao Dao 5 and the Bao Dao 6 which will become the Lite Ferry 17 and Lite Ferry 18. The two looks to be conventional ROROs with the bridge at the bow and with car ramps at the bow and the stern. When finished, at 89.0 meters length and 16.0 meters breadth, these two ships will give Lite Ferries a size that can already challenge the ships of Cokaliong Shipping Lines Incorporated and Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Incorporated and it is titillating to think where Lite Ferries intend to field the two.

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The Lite Ferry 18 and Lite Ferry 17 by Mark Ocul

While three of these rusty ships were still being refitted, Lite Ferries also took delivery of another two brand-new LCTs from China, the Lite Ferry 29 and the Lite Ferry 30 which look sleek for an LCT. Slight modifications were also made in Ouano wharf to build passenger accommodations a la Lite Ferry 27. Right now these two LCTs which are obviously sister ships are now sailing.

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The Lite Ferry 29 by Edison Sy

Lite Ferry 30

The Lite Ferry 30 by R. Sanchez

Currently at the start of June 2017, Lite Ferries have 23 ferries that are ROPAXes plus 2 Cargo RORO LCTs. Of the 23 ferries, 9 are passenger-cargo LCTs while 1 is a passenger-cargo catamaran-RORO. Lite Ferries might have started behind other Cebu shipping companies as they are a relatively new company but with their turbo expansion in the last few years they have already overtaken most other operators of medium sized ferries and not only in the Visayas.

Aside from the old routes from Cebu to the Bohol ports of Tagbilaran and Tubigon and the route from Mandaue to Tubigon, the Cebu to Ormoc route is another old route that is a stronghold of Lite Ferries. That also includes the old route of Danilo Lines, the San Carlos-Toledo route.

Lite Ferries also serves the Cebu-Tagbilaran-Larena-Plaridel route that was already abandoned by Palacio Shipping. They were also successful in the expansion to the Cagayan de Oro to Jagna route. However, their Nasipit-Jagna route seems to be little seasonal. Recently they also tried the Cebu to Cagayan de Oro route.

Their Samboan to Dapitan route also proved successful as they offered a shortcut to the truckers that once had to go to Dumaguete first. They are also connecting Cebu to Negros with the Samboan to Sibulan route. A PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) member recently called and he was told the Dumaguete-Cagayan de Oro route is already off.

But with such a great fleet now Lite Ferries is seriously needing to expand already and I just hope they go to the underserved routes. With many profitable routes already they can actually afford to experiment with new routes now.

The expansion of Lite Ferries in the last 8 years is simply breathtaking with 17 ships added net. Lately their fleet addition even accelerated. They now have a critical mass and I will be watching where they will be headed.

Liners like the old Bohol shipping great Sweet Lines?

Camotes Sea and Bohol Strait Are Graveyards of Failed Shipping Companies (Part 1)

The Camotes Sea and Bohol Strait are two of the busiest shipping lanes in the country. These are the seas connecting Leyte and Bohol to the trade and commercial center of the central part of the country which is Cebu. Ships from Cebu going to Samar, Masbate, Mindanao and even Luzon have to pass through these seas also along with the foreign ships calling in Cebu. Over-all, the related Camotes Sea and Bohol Strait as sea connections are only rivaled by Manila Bay and the Verde Island Passage in the density of ships sailing and the three are the busiest shipping corridors in the country. There are many shipping companies operating here, both ferry and cargo. However, in terms of absolute numbers, this is also the area with the most number of failed shipping companies in the last 15 or 20 years when a Ph.D. from Philippine Institute of Development Studies (PIDS) said there is no competition or there is no effective competition or there is just mild competition in most routes here. Of course, she was definitely wrong if we sift through the evidence and among the most persuasive of evidences will be the number of shipping companies that failed. Why would they fail if there is no or only mild or no significant competition? Did they commit suicide? Of course not!

The greatest failure in this area is, of course, the big Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC), the subsidiary of the giant merged shipping company WG&A Philippines which was probably the biggest regional shipping company ever. Their old ships were gone and dead before their time is up because those were sent to the hangmen of ships, the shipbreakers. Their newer ferries, the MV Cebu Ferry 1, the MV Cebu Ferry 2 and the MV Cebu Ferry 3 (the Cebu Ferry series) were transferred to the successor company 2GO Travel and those ferries were sent to Batangas and they are jokingly called the “Batangas Ferries” because they were no longer in Cebu.

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Cebu Ferry 1 leaving Cebu for Batangas

Once upon a time, this company ruled the roost here when they had so many ferries, many of which were hand-me-down liners or equal to liners in caliber. These hand-me-downs were actually much better and bigger than the overnight ferries of their competition. Their only drawback were their big and generally thirsty engines which was needed for speed requirement of the liner routes. Before the Cebu Ferries series came, some ten ships that passed to the Cebu Ferries Corporation fleet were sent to the breakers and most of them were still sailing good when they were sent to the cutters.

For more on this shipping company, I have a separate article:

https://psssonline.wordpress.com/2016/05/15/the-grand-start-of-cebu-ferries-corporation-cfc/

Probably the next biggest casualty in this area is the Palacio Lines (a.k.a. FJP Lines) which had its origins in Western Samar. In their heyday they had routes from Cebu to Bantayan island, Masbate, Northern Samar, Western Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Siquijor, Negros Oriental and Misamis Occidental. They lost some routes because of paradigm changes like in Bantayan island when they were torpedoed by the short-distance ferry-ROROs from Hagnaya (which is a much shorter route than their route from Cebu City). Palacio Lines was slow in betting on ROROs and they did not immediately see that the paradigm will shift to the intermodal system (as they still acquired cruisers even in the early 1990s).

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Don Martin Sr. 8 not sailing before she was sold to breakers

Later, there were complaints about their ships which progressively got older and less reliable and soon competition was outstripping them. And finally the pressure from these (like Cokaliong Shipping Lines and Lite Ferries) ultimately did them in. They stopped sailing and soon they sold their remaining ferries one by one. This included their MV Bantayan (sold to Orlines Sea-Land Transport), MV Calbayog (sold to Starlite Ferries) and MV Don Martin Sr. 6 (supposedly sold to a Lucena concern). Meanwhile, their biggest ship, the MV Don Martin Sr. 8 was sent to the breakers. And the cruiser ships of the company were even laid up earlier. Their cargo ship, the MV Don Martin which was the first vessel of the company was also sold and this ended up with Quincela Shipping in Manila.

Former fleet: Calbayog, Bantayan, Don Martin Sr. Don Martin Sr. 3, Don Martin Sr. 6, Don Martin Sr. 7, Don Martin Sr. 8, Don Martin

The Rose Shipping Company which is also known as Vicente Atilano (after the owner) is probably the next most prominent loser in the shipping wars in this place. Originally they were a Zamboanga del Sur shipping company from the old town of Margosatubig. Leaving that area, they tried their luck here and they fully engaged in the wars in the Leyte routes especially against Aboitiz Shipping Corporation. One of their weakness, however, is their total reliance on cruiser ferries. Being obsolete, this type of ship progressively cannot compete with the ROROs in revenues (but not in comfort and service). Rolling cargo revenue is actually bigger and more significant than passenger revenues. They then stopped sailing and most of their ships had no takers even if for sale because almost nobody looks around for cruisers anymore. Their only notable ship sales were the MV April Rose which went to Atienza Shipping Lines in Manila and the MV Yellow Rose which went to Medallion Transport. Their MV Cherry Rose and MV Pink Rose were broken up while their MV White Rose and MV Tiffany Rose are missing and are presumed to be broken up. Their MV Pink Rose and MV Red Rose can’t also be found now and in all likelihood have been scrapped too by now.

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The Pink Rose in her last days

Maypalad Shipping which was earlier known as K&T Shipping is one of the older shipping companies in the area. They have disparate routes from as far as Lanao del Norte, Leyte, Southern Leyte and Samar. They seemed to have never really recovered from the sinking of their MV Kalibo Star which was their newest ship then and progressively their ships got older. They were also victims of routes that bit by bit weakened because of competition from other routes (like the Liloan route losing to the Bato and Hilongos routes and the Tacloban route losing to the Ormoc and Baybay routes). In due time, they had no good routes left and their ships were also unable to compete in the bigger routes.

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Part of the Maypalad Shipping fleet after it ceased operations

Among these bigger failures, it is Maypalad Shipping which has a fleet of cargo ships but upon being defunct all of these got anchored too in Mactan Channel. Their MV Cebu Star and MV Guiuan were broken up now while their MV Cabalian Star, MV Leyte Star and MV Tacloban Star could all also be gone now. Their MV Samar Star is the only sure extant ship now along with one freighter which may be too far gone now. Three other cargo ships of their wer also broken or sold to breakers and their LCT is also missing.

Roly Shipping and Godspeed Shipping and Ernesto Alvarado are actually legal-fiction entities of the other. They had routes before to Leyte and Bohol. But being a cruiser ferry company, they slow lost to the ROROs since this type of ship earns more revenues because the rolling cargo revenue is such that they can actually afford not to carry passengers as shown by the Cargo RORO LCTs. Some of their earlier ships were gone a long time ago (the MV Flo Succour, the MV Reyjumar-A, the MV Isabel 2 and the MV Tubigon Ferry). The tried to fight back with fast cruisers, the MV Roly 2, the MV Mega Asiana and the MV Tagbilaran Ferry but ultimately they lost too and quit a few years ago when the banks seized their ships and were laid up. The pressure of tightening competition was simply too great and the revenues were not enough to sustain operations. There were also allegations of internal rot.

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Mega Asiana and Tagbilaran Ferry cannibalized

Jadestar Shipping is another cruiser ferry company which just had a single route, the Cebu-Tubigon route. Then the ROROs of Lite Shipping came to Tubigon, four schedules in all daily. With a full load of rolling cargo these ships will not need any passengers to earn. And then a new paradigm came, the cheap but not-so-speedy but fastcrafts of the legal-fiction entities Sea Highway Carrier and SITI Inter-island and Cargo Services which were more popularly known as Star Crafts. Squeezed by two better competitors, Jadestar Shipping found they could not sustain operations and quit a few years ago (in connection with this, Island Shipping which also operated cruiser ships in the Cebu-Tubigon route also quit showing cruisers cannot beat ROROs).

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Jadestar Seis now in Ibnerizam Shipping fleet in Zamboanga

Some of the ships Jadestar Shipping were sold to other shipping companies like the MV Jadestar Tres which went to Wellington Lim and became a cargo ship and the MV Jadestar Seis which went to the Ibnerizam Shipping of Zamboanga). Two of their ships was broken up earlier and this were the MV Jadestar Nueve and MV Jadestar Doce. Head-on, the cruisers can only compete now in Zamboanga (but then that is another situation).

Former fleet: Jadestar, Jadestar Dos (cargo), Jadestar Tres, Jadestar Seis, Jadestar Nueve, Jadestar Doce.

Kinswell Shipping made a big splash when they started in 2002 because what they introduced were China-built vessels that were not of the usual design or hull material. Some of these are actually very small and not bigger than boats and were a little queer. But their Medium Speed Crafts (MSCs) could have been winners had they been handled well. One sold one, the MV Gloria G-1 is sailing well for Gabisan Shipping and the comparable Star Crafts were also successful.

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The derelict Kinswell boats

They tried many routes and the name of the ships reflected where they were sailing. The smallest ones were the first to quit sailing as it found no great patronage because they simply bobbed too much in unsettled seas. Now they are jut anchored near the Tayud shipyards. Being fiberglass they will not sink or rust and so up to this day those remain as floating markers outside Cansaga Bay. All their three bigger ships, the MSCs were sold, the MV Kinswell, MV Kinswell II and lastly, the MV Kinswell Cebu. They have no more sailing ships left.

Former fleet: Kinswell, Kinswell II, Kinswell Cebu (2), Kins Bantayan, Kins Ormoc, Kins Danao, Cadiznon 3, Kins Camotes.

San Juan Shipping of Leyte is another hard-luck company. They were doing relatively well with their first two ferries, the MV Sr. San Jose, a beautiful cruiser and the MV John Carrier-1, a small ferry even though competition to the Leyte route was already stiffening. Now, I wonder how they were sweet-talked into purchasing the MV Dona Cristina of the Cebu Ferries Corporation. This overnight ferry was a former regional ship of the Carlos A. Gothong Lines, Inc. (CAGLI) whose old ships invariably has a history of engine troubles (except for MV Our Lady of Mt. Carmel). However, it was already WG&A, the merged shipping company which sold the ship to them. Maybe they thought that since the name WG&A was glistening then, then the ship must be good.

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The remains of San Juan Ferry (Photo by Kontiki Diving Club-Cebu)

This ship which became the MV San Juan Ferry in their fleet and became the flagship and biggest ship. San Juan Shipping spent money to refurbish this ship. However, the ship brought misery to them when a explosion hit the ship and caught fire while on trials off Liloan, Cebu. The ship then sank. San Juan Shipping never recovered from that debacle especially since competition then to Leyte was very fierce. They then sold out to Lite Ferries lock, stock and barrel and it was there that Lite Ferries gained a foothold to Leyte.

M.Y. Lines is unique in a sense that when wooden motor boats were already on their way out they sort of made a revival out of it. They had two big, wooden motor boats in a fleet of three but one, the beautiful MV M.Y. Katrina was wrecked in a typhoon and scrapped. They bounced from one route to another and was never able to fully settle especially since they were using non-ROROs when ROROs had already come into full force and was proving its superiority. They tried to find niche routes in northwestern Leyte but was never able to really discover one. One thing that torpedoed them there was the opening of the Bogo-Palompon route and the rolling of Ceres buses from Cebu to that corner of Leyte. Later, their ferries were seized by the banks and laid up.

Former fleet: M.Y. Katrina, Michael-3, Sunriser

(To be continued)

The Other Passenger Ships Built in 1967 That Came to the Philippines

There were other ships built in 1967 that also came to the Philippines. Their number is about the same as those still existing until now. If they are gone now it is not because they sank or was lost (except for a few). Most of the reasons why they are gone circles around the situation that they were no longer wanted and there were no other takers. Sometimes that is just the simple reason why ships including ferries are retired, disposed off and broken up.

All of these ferries were built abroad and there were no local-builds (it looks like shipping companies hold on longer to the ships that they built). Some of these were gone even before the turn of the millennium but then they still they lasted more than 30 years of service. So, here then are the passenger ships built in 1967 that came to our country but are no longer around.

Maybe we should start with the grandest of them all, the cruise ship Dona Montserrat of Negros Navigation Company which came in late 1974 but unfortunately she did not last long. She was a fine ship, no doubt, but it seems she was way ahead of her time as most Filipinos don’t have enough money yet for cruises and if they have they would rather go on trips abroad ait is more sosyal. But then Dona Montserrat had voyages even to Hongkong too. Negros Navigation Company bought this cruise ship for $3.4M, a big sum in those days.

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Dona Montserrat by Dimas Almada

The Dona Montserrat was originally the Cabo Izarra and built by SECN (Navantia Carenas) in Matagorda, Spain for Ybarra Line. She was a cruiser ship with three passenger decks and with all the amenities of a cruise ship of her size during her period. These included 110 staterooms for 273 passengers, dining salon with international and Filipino cuisine, main lounge, penthouse, library, game room, swimming pool and bars. The ship was fully air-conditioned, fully carpeted and she had a well-equipped galley. Music (as in a band) and entertainment nightly was available in Dona Montserrat. The primary route of this cruise ship was Manila-Corregidor-Iloilo-Zamboanga-Davao aside from cruises to special destinations like Sicogon island and Hongkong.

This cruise ship measured 104.9 meters Length by 15.8 meters Breadth by 10.3 meters Depth, a Depth which means she is a stable ship. Her Gross Register Tonnage was 4,339 tons and her Net Register Tonnage was 1,675 tons. She was powered by two B&W engines developing 7,800 horsepower giving her a top sustained speed of 19.5 knots. So during her time she was the passenger ship with the highest power sailing in the country and in terms of size she was about equal to the bigger fast cruiser liners that arrived in the country in the latter half of the 1970’s.

In less than 5 years, however, Dona Montserrat quit sailing and she was sold to China where she was used a cruise ship.

The next ship in this list was also a cruise ship but she came later, in 1999, but was more successful and was also built in Spain. She was the Coco Explorer No.1 of Coco Explorer Inc. She was more successful maybe because she was able to attract foreign tourists who wanted to explore our hidden coves and islands, do diving tours and being smaller and of shallower draft she was more fit in this role.

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Coco Explorer No.1 by Dimas Almada

The Coco Explorer No.1 was the former Sta. Maria de la Caridad and she was built by Union Levante in Valencia, Spain. This cruise ship measures only 66.9 meters by 11.0 meters by 5.1 meters and her Gross Tonnage is only 1,199 and her Net Tonnage is only 562. In size she is just like many of the Cebu to Leyte overnight ferries but she is not as tall. This ship was powered by MWM engines of 2,000 horsepower total and her design speed was 15 knots. The Coco Explorer No.1 was a cruiser ship.

In 2005, the Coco Explorer No.1 was sold to China for breaking up. Maybe age caught up with her and there was already competition by smaller tour-dive ships in the waters she used to go which was mainly in the direction of Palawan. Moreover, the places which were her haunts were already accessible by other means and there were already facilities like resorts and hotels.

The next ship on this list was a beautiful ship and once was a flagship of Negros Navigation Company which was the Don Julio. This ferry was built brand-new for Nenaco by Maizuru Heavy Industries in Maizuru Japan. She measured 95.7 meters by 13.9 meters by 7.5 meters with a Gross Tonnage of 2,381 and a Net Tonnage of 1,111. Her later passenger capacity was 994 with accommodations from Suite to Economy classes. The Don Julio was a cruiser ship where cargo was handled by a boom in the bow which meant slow cargo handling. Cruiser ships also have less cargo capacity compared to RORO ferries. And maybe these were the reasons why she fell into disfavor later in the company.

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Don Julio by John Ward

The ship has a single Hitachi engine of 4,400 horsepower and her sustained top speed was 17.5 knots qualifying her as a fast cruiser liner of her era. Her main routes were to Iloilo and Bacolod but when she got old and bigger ships came along she was shunted to minor routes like Roxas City. Later, when she can no longer be accommodated in the fleet of Negros Navigation she was transferred to Jensen Shipping and among the routes of the company was Cebu to Iloilo. Later, this ship disappeared without trace and not because she sank. It was simply that databases lost track of her. It was sad because the person after she was named, Congressman Julio Ledesma IV was interested in buying her for posterity.

The Don Julio was a sister ship of the Dona Florentina and the Don Juan, both of Negros Navigation Company and the Cebu City of William Lines, all of which became flagships of their fleets one time or another. Now, that is a distinguised company.

The next ship on this list should be the Iligan City of William Lines which later became the Sampaguita Ferry 3 of Sampaguita Shipping Corporation of Zamboanga City. Originally, this ship was Amami Maru of Amami Kaiun of Japan. She was built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Shimoneseki, Japan and her external measurements were 83.1 meters by 12.0 meters by 4.5 meters. Her Gross Tonnage was 1,512 and her Net Tonnage was 562 and her passenger capacity was 635 persons. She was equipped with a single Mitsubishi engine of 3,800 horsepower which gave her a sustained top speed of 17 knots.

This ship was a cruiser ship and thus she had the same disadvantages of the Don Julio when the RORO ferries came. She was mainly fielded by William Lines in the Cebu-Iligan route and she stayed there until the merger which created WG&A in 1996. She was then transferred to the WG&A subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation where she was tried in the Cebu-Roxas City route and other routes. She was not successful and she was one of the ships offered for sale by Cebu Ferries Corporation immediately. By then she was no longer a satisfactory ship as her passenger accommodations were already tiny compared to the current standards of the times then.

In 1997, Iligan City was purchased by Sampaguita Shipping Corporation of Zamboanga City where unmodified she became the Sampaguita Ferry 3. During that time Sampaguita Shipping was building up its fleet to have modern and comfortable overnight ferries for its long routes using bank loans. They also used the abbreviation “SF”, a takeoff from the SF SuperFerry as in they are the SuperFerry of Zamboanga. Well, they even built a modern terminal a la SuperFerry near the entrance of Zamboanga port.

However, Sampaguita Shipping was hit by bad timing because soon the highways out of Zamboanga City became paved and they eventually lost to the buses. Competition also became very tight in Zamboanga which was a product of the deregulation policies and incentives laid out by the Ramos Administration. Modern and new High Speed Crafts (HSCs) even came to Zamboanga City like Weesam Express and the fastcrafts of A. Sakaluran. Under the crushing load of its debts, Sampaguita Shipping defaulted, collapsed and ceased operations. The last heard of Sampaguita Ferry 3 was she was sold to the breakers.

We will then come to three overnight ferries that first came to Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (CAGLI) locally. The first was the Dona Lili which was very well-known in the Cebu-Nasipit route battling the big Nasipit Princess of Sulpicio Lines. This ship was built in Japan as the Seiran Maru by Taguma Shipbuilding & Engineering Corporation in their Innoshima yard. And in 1980 this ferry came to CAGLI as one of the earliest RORO ships of the company and in the archipelago.

The Dona Lili had the external measurements 69.0 meters by 12.0 meters by 4.5 meters. Her Gross Register Tonnage in Japan was 856 tons and in conversion here to Gross Tonnage the figure was left unchanged. The ship’s Net Tonnage was 448 and her passenger capacity was 732 persons. The Dona Lili was powered by two Daihatsu marine engines with a total of 2,600 horsepower and her sustained top speed when still new was 15.5 knots. In size, she is just like the Cebu to Leyte overnight ferries of today.

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Credits to PDI and Gorio Belen

When the merger that resulted in WG&A came she was transferred to its subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation and in this company she was assigned the Cebu-Tacloban route with also a route to Camiguin. But when Cebu Ferries Corporation dropped its Tacloban route because it was losing to the shorter Ormoc route, it seems Dona Lili did not sail again. By that time Cebu Ferries had an excess of ships because they already dropped a third or more of its former routes and so the older and smaller ferries especially the cruisers had nowhere to go especially since WG&A can drop former liners to Cebu Ferries. With that situation, Dona Lili dropped from sight never to be seen again and not because she sank.

The next ferry that came to Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. was their second Don Benjamin (they had an earlier Don Benjamin which was a former “FS” ship) which arrived in 1982. This is a ship that served their Iligan and Ozamis overnight routes for them from Cebu but this ship only lasted until just before the mid-1990’s because of engine issues.

The second Don Benjamin was the former Shin Kanaya Maru in Japan and she was built by the Shimoda Dockyard in Shimoda, Japan. This ship measured 61.0 meters by 13.7 meters by 2.9 meters and in Japan her Gross Register Tonnage was 877 tons. Locally her Gross Tonnage was just 685 and her Net Tonnage was just 268 both of which looks suspiciously low. The second Don Benjamin was a smaller ship than Dona Lili.

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Don Benjamin partially scrapped by Edison Sy

The Don Benjamin was powered by a single Nippon Hatsudoki engine, a generic Japan engine of 2,550 horsepower. That was good for a sustained top speed of 15 knots. However, her engine seems to be the reason for her undoing as Hatsudoki engines are not long lasting and even early in the 1990’s she was already plagued by unreliability. When the new ship Our Lady of Naju came for Carlos A. Gothong Lines in 1994, she was sent to a Navotas breaker. During those times, re-engining then was not yet common. She was a rare ferry that did not last 30 years in service.

The third ferry from Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. was the Dona Casandra, a ship that came also in 1982. She was built as the Mishima in Japan by Hashihama Zosen in Hashihama yard. This ship had the measurements 53.8 meters by 11.0 meters by 3.7 meters, dimensions which were less than the war-surplus “FS” ships. Her Japan Gross Register Tonnage was 487 tons. What I find suspicious in her specifications was her Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) which was only 180 tons in Japan. Was she meant to just carry a few sedans and light trucks?

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Dona Casandra (Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen)

Here, after addition of more metal and passenger accommodations her Gross Tonnage rose to 682 but I was not able to obtain her Net Tonnage. The declared passenger capacity of the ferry was 650 persons. The Dona Casandra was powered by two Daihatsu marine engines with a total of 2,000 horsepower and her design speed was 14 knots.

The Dona Casandra did not last long in service because once in a voyage from Butuan to Cebu she foundered on November 21, 1983 in a rough Mindanao Sea experiencing the disturbance of a distant typhoon. She was then carrying lumber aside from passengers. The sinking caused the loss of lives of the bulk of the passengers and crew but the exact number was never established as the ship sank without trace. Was her load to much for her load capacity in DWT and in a rough sea and considering she has added metal to her structure?

The Lorenzo Shipping Corporation also had ships in this list which are about the same size as the mentioned ships of Gothong Lines (once from 1972 to 1979 the two had combined operations). Lorenzo Shipping once was also in passenger shipping and it was even in liner operations albeit not in high profile but later they quit passenger shipping to become an all-cargo operation and maybe that is why many people can’t connect their name to passenger shipping.

The first should be the Dona Okai which was the biggest of the three. This ship was also known as Dona Oka 1 and Don Okai in Lorenzo Shipping. What names! The Dona Okai was paired with another ship of the same size in the fleet of Lorenzo Shipping to do their unique Manila-Dipolog-Zamboanga-Pagadian-Dadiangas route which took nearly two weeks to compete and that is why two ships have to be paired in that route so a weekly schedule can be maintained.

The Dona Okai was originally the Ryoho Maru of the Kashima Kisen K.K. shipping company in Japan. She actually had three owners before coming to the Philippines in 1979. When she was sold to Ebisu Kisen K.K. she was converted into a chemical tanker. When she was sold to Daiei Kaiun K.K. In 1973 she was converted back into cargo ship.

The Dona Okai was a cruiser ship built by the Asakawa Shipbuilding Company in Imabari, Japan. She measured 74.2 meters by 10.5 meters by 5.4 meters. In Japan her Gross Register Tonnage was 1,093 but this rose to 1,173 in the country with a Net Register Tonnage of 780. The ship was equipped with a single Makita engine of 1,500 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 12.5 knots.

In 1992, Lorenzo Shipping sold her into another shipping company. She is now deleted from maritime databases which happens when ten years has passed and there is no further news about the ship. She might be a broken-up ship by now.

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Lorenzo Shipping schedule, 2/5/80 (Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

The second ship of Lorenzo Shipping was the Dona Lilian which had the external dimensions of 63.7 meters by 9.6 meters by 4.8 meters and in Japan her Gross Register Tonnage was 753 tons. This ferry was a cruiser ship which arrived in the country in 1978.

The Dona Lilian was the former Seiun Maru No.5 of Tsurumi Kisen K.K. of Japan. She was built by Imabari Zosen in Imabari, Japan. In the Philippines her Gross Register Tonnage remained unchanged and her Net Register Tonnage was 487. She was powered by a single Makita engine of 1,300 horsepower and her sustained top speed was just 11 knots, just about the same as freighters of her size as she is a little low on power.

This Lorenzo ferry held for the company the Iloilo and Pulupandan combined route from Manila and one of the last ferries to sail to Pulupandan as this port can only dock shallow draft vessels then (the reason why when ferries grew in size the route was abandoned). When the company eventually withdrew from the Pulupandan route because it can’t compete with the Negros Navigation ships using Banago port in Bacolod, she found herself on the Davao route. However, on a voyage with two distant typhoons affecting local weather conditions, she foundered in heavy seas off Tandag, Surigao del Sur on December 6, 1982.

Lorenzo Shipping had to other ships in this list, the Don Francisco. This ship was actually the second Don Francisco as there had been an earlier ship by that name in the Lorenzo fleet which was a former “FS” ship converted into passenger-cargo use. When the earlier Don Francisco was lost in the earlier part of the year 1978, this ship came to replace the lost ship in the same year 1978.

The second Don Francisco was first known in Japan as the Zensho Maru of the Marujutoko Unyusoko K.K. shipping company. She was built by the Higaki Shipbuilding Company in Imabari, Japan. Her external dimensions were 53.4 meters by 9.3 meters and her Japan Gross Register Tonnage was 496 and she has a speed of 10.5 knots. In terms of external dimensions, cubic volume and speed, this ship is very much alike the once-dominant former “FS” ships converted into ferry use here. This ship is also a cruiser ship.

The ship shouldered on in various capacity under Lorenzo Shipping until when the company was already taking a step back already from passenger ship (the company later on became an all-cargo company utilizing container ships until she was sold to the Magsaysay Group which continued to use the same name). This ship then disappeared from maritime databases but it is assumed that she did not sink and most likely she had just been quietly scrapped.

Another ship built in 1967 that is no longer around was the former Nadayoshi Maru No.2, a fishing vessel in Japan by Kanasashi Shipbuilding Company in Shizuoka, Japan. In 1974 this ship came into the Philippines and in her first rebuild she was converted into the passenger-cargo ship Gingoog City in 1987 and the name is already suggestive of her route.

In 1991, this ship was sold to the new shipping company Cokaliong Shipping Lines Incorporated (CSLI) which was already expanding their fleet and she became the Filipinas Siargao. This ship measures 49.5 meters by 7.8 meters by 3.6 meters with a Gross Tonnage of 327. Her Net Tonnage of 181 and the passenger capacity is 292 person in bunks as this was an overnight ferry-cruiser. The ship is powered by a single Hanshin engine of 900 horsepower.

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Filipinas Siargao (Parsed from a framed photo in Cokaliong Tower)

In 1997 the Filipinas Siargao was sold to Ting Guan in Mandaue as scrap because Cokaliong Shipping Lines is already converting to RORO ships. She lasted exactly 30 years.

Another ferry that was built in 1967 that was sold to local breakers under the same conditions in almost the same period but a little later was the beautiful cruiser Sr. San Jose which was even a little bigger than the Filipinas Siargao. The ship was a Cebu to Leyte ferry of the San Juan Shipping of Leyte.

The ship was originally the Tanshu Maru of Kansai Kisen K.K. of Japan. She was built by Hashihama Zosen in Hashihama, Japan. She had three owners in Japan the last of which was the Fukahi Kaiun. The ship had the measurements 54.0 meters by 8.6 meters by 2.3 meters. Her Gross Tonnage was 498 and her Net Tonnage was 185 with a passenger capacity of 558 persons. The Sr. San Jose was powered by a single Akasaka engine of 1,470 horsepower giving her a sustained top speed of 15 knots when new.

The ship together with her company was sold to Lite Ferries in the aftermath of the explosion, burning and sinking of the company’s flagship San Juan Ferry in 2000. When she was sold, Lite Ferries was already fully into ROROs and no further use was needed of her especially since her engines were no longer that good. She was then sold to the breakers.

The next ship on this list is a lost ship but not violently. She was the Princess Camille of the Shipsafe Shipping. The ship had the overnight route Batangas-Romblon but on a voyage on March 21, 2003 she developed a leak in the hull in Romblon port the next day which resulted in her capsizing in the port but her passengers were safe.

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Princess Camille remains by Arnel Hutalla

The Princess Camille was the former New Olympia of the Nanbi Kaiun K.K. She was built by the renowned Kanda Shipbuilding Company in Kure, Japan. The measurements of the ship was 39.2 meters by 11.2 meters by 3.4 meters which means she was not a big ferry, just the size of a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO (she is a RORO). Her Gross Tonnage was just 350 and her Net Tonnage was 197. The Princess Camille was equipped with a single Daihatsu engine of 900 horsepower and her top speed was 12 knots. The Princess Camille came to the Philippines when she was already 30 years of age. She reached 36 years of sailing.

The ship was no longer salvaged and her company soon collapsed especially since there was very tight competition then in Southern Tagalog shipping.

There are 13 ferries in this list. Three of the 13 were lost at sea .

One thing I can say is if ferries are no longer relevant then they quit sailing and the shipping owners does not need the government to tell them that.

And another thing is if the engine is no longer good and won’t be re-engined anymore then they also send the ships to the breakers and no government order is also needed for that because on their own shipping owners has enough common sense aside from financial sense.

I now leave it to the readers to weigh the careers of these ferries built in 1967 that are no longer around.