The Legacy of the Surplus Ships From Europe

After World War II, the passenger shipping companies in the Philippines started almost from scratch as the ships they had before the war were almost all lost by scuttling or through war actions (mainly by aircraft bombing and through gunfire). Like before the war, not all passenger shipping companies were created equal. Some of the old shipping companies had a faster start because war surplus ships were given to them as reparations for the lost commandeered ships (pressed into service for the Allied war effort). The most prominent among those are the vessels of shipping companies Compania Maritima, De la Rama Steamship, Manila Steamship, Philippine Steam Navigation Company (a postwar merger of the Everett Steamship of the US and Aboitiz Shipping), Madrigal Shipping and Escano Lines, all established and politically well-connected shipping companies. The owner of Compania Maritima was a Senator of the Republic, the General Manager of De la Rama Steamship was a son of the former President and the founder was a former Senator, the owner of Manila Steamship was a funder of presidential campaigns, Everett Steamship was an American company which were always supported by the State Department of the USA, the owner of Madrigal Shipping was a Senator of the Republic and it was only Escano Lines which might not be on the level of the six others in terms of political connections but their history anteceded Aboitiz Shipping and was Aboitiz Shipping’s partner before the war in the shipping company La Naviera.

But some other shipping companies which were not established shipping companies before the war had enough money and political connections to be able to also get war surplus ships given to the Philippine Government by the US Government as an aid in jumpstarting the economy. Among these were General Shipping Company (which was owned by several elite families who were funders of national campaigns and were aides of the top politicians), Southern Lines Inc. (owned by the gentility of Western Visayas and the President then was from that region), William Lines Inc. (owned by a powerful and influential Congressman) and Bisaya Land Transport (owned by a Senator of the Republic). That was the secret then of establishing a shipping company fast. One must be a heavyweight in his own right and one must be full of clout to be able to get preferential treatment from the government. And since Chinoys were not in this mold then they were left out in this race except for one (that is William Chiongbian of William Lines). The ability to get US war surplus ships generally determined the pecking order of the shipping companies in the first years after the war, the so-called “Liberation Time”.

Lanao

An example of an ex-“FS” ship. Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library.

Some other companies might not have been so fortunate in acquiring surplus ships and so in order to grow, they had to be good in finding war surplus discards and buying the ships of the shipping companies that were weak and on the verge of quitting. The most prominent examples of these were the growth of Carlos A. Gothong & Company and Sweet Lines Inc. which both started with regional shipping operations and became national liner shipping companies by buying the routes and ships of national shipping companies that quit (Pan-Oriental Shipping for Gothong and half of General Shipping Company for Sweet Lines). Moreover, some shipping companies also lengthened former “F” ships so it will be on the same size as the former “FS” ships. Carlos A. Gothong & Company was good in this regard. Their first flagship when they became a national liner company, the Dona Conchita was actually a lengthened “F” ship.

Dona Conchita

An example of a lengthened “F” ship. Research by Gorio Belen in the Nationa; Library.

The war surplus ships then were preponderantly ex-“FS” ships which were formerly freight and supply ships by the US Army in the Pacific theater of war. There were also some of the bigger “C1-M-AV1” type and similar types like the Type “N” ships which were bigger cargo ships of the US Navy in World War II and used in the ship convoys transporting war material and supplies in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Along with them were the former “Y” ships which were former tankers and related to the “FS” ship in design and the small “F” type, many of which were lengthened and were almost as numerous as the ex-”FS” ships plus an assortment of former minesweepers and PT boats (but note the US also burned a lot of PT boats off Samar thinking they were useless with its gas-guzzling engines).

Mindanao

An example of a former “C1-M-AV1” ship. Research of Gorio Belen in the Nat’l Library.

Initially, aside from US surplus ships, a few big and wealthy shipping companies also sourced ships from Europe after the war (there were plenty of cheap ships then there that were released from war convoy duty). Among the local shipping companies, three stood out for having the capability to acquire ships from Europe after the war. These were the Compania Maritima, the Manila Steamship (or Elizalde y Compania) and Madrigal Shipping which were in the top tier of shipping companies before the war. All of the three were owned by top-ranking industrialists with plenty of high political connections and all the way to Malacanang. Moreover, they all already had the experience of acquiring ships from Europe even before the war. The owners of Compania Maritima, the biggest shipping company then in the country were even dual Philippine and Spanish citizens and they were able to buy a few good cargo-passenger ships from Europe which were just a few years old and almost new.

Meanwhile, the ship acquisitions from Europe of Manila Steamship and Madrigal Shipping consisted of really old ships and especially the latter. These were being disposed of because there was really an abundance of much better and newer war surplus ships then at ludicrously low prices (there was no longer a war after all). The three mentioned shipping companies used ships purchased from Europe to augment their fleet of war-surplus ships from the US.

And it then resulted in fleet augmentation alright, their aim. For Compania Maritima, it was enough to vault them to the very top which was their old position before the war. For Manila Steamship and Madrigal Shipping, that move brought them to the rank of majors, just like their position before the war, too. However, their fleet quality was not the same like before the war when they really had good ships in the main. That was the setback caused to them by the order to scuttle the ships in the war. The main replacement ships given by the US to them which were mainly ex-”FS” were nowhere as good as their prewar ships as the replacements were cargo ships in origins and not purpose-built liners (Madrigal Shipping also received ex-“Y” ships aside from ex-“FS” ships). These replacements were also smaller than the lost prewar ships and so they were simply shortchanged by the US . In the main, Manila Steamship and Madrigal Shipping were not given the big ex-“C1-M-AV1” ships which were mainly reserved for Everett Steamship, a US company operating in the country like a national and because of the so-called “Parity Rights”.

The other companies whose ships were also lost in the war like Escano Lines and Aboitiz Shipping also received just ex-“FS” ships as replacements for their good liners before the war. Meanwhile, the smaller shipping companies before the war like the regionals mainly received former “F” ships, former minesweepers and former PT boats as replacements for their lost ships in the war.

Meanwhile, the De la Rama Steamship which was also very well connected politically had a good fate, shall we say. The National Development Corporation (NDC) gave them three big brand-new ships on charter. Aside from that, two big ships of them before the war were also returned to them plus two big war-surplus “Type C1-B” ships were also given to them. Additionally, three ex-“FS” ships plus three ex-“F” ships were also handed to them. And that is aside from four ex-liners they also acquired from abroad. With this fast replacement of their lost fleet (and in size, they rivalled Compania Maritima, the old No. 1), I am wondering if this is somehow connected to former President Sergio Osmena Sr. not contesting seriously his election rivalry against the winner President Manuel Roxas.

Don Isidro

The Don Isidro of De la Rama Steamship lost in war action.

These war surplus ships plus a few surplus European ships were basically enough for our local shipping needs after the war and for the next 15 years and those were augmented by local builds which were mainly wooden-hulled motorboats (batel or lancha).

But one-and-a-half decades after the war, it was already apparent there was already a need to augment our passenger shipping fleet which then consisted almost entirely of war surplus ships from the US. There were ships lost at sea plus our economy has already grown including the population. The whole of Mindanao was finally conquered and ships were needed to connect it to the rest of the country especially southern Mindanao which needs a lot of ships to run a regular schedule. With the general growth of population and the rise of production, the passenger and cargo capacities of the small surplus ships from World War II were no longer enough even though the Philippine President Lines came in 1959 with the last war surplus ships released by the US Navy.

Galaxy

The most prominent ship released by the US to Philippine President Lines. Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library.

And so a lot of additional ships had to be acquired as lengthening of the former “FS” ships was no longer enough. And in the 1960s there were no longer war surplus ships available in the market. The last batch released by the US in 1959-61 already went to different owners including our own Philippine President Lines (PPL) which was a newly-established shipping company then.

In fleet augmentation which was already needed then, a good source has to be found. Japan was not yet a good source of surplus ships then because they still needed their ships for their postwar economic boom. If ships have to be sourced from them, it would have to be ordered brand-new. And the US was also not a good source either because their liners were simply too big. And so Europe was the only possible source (if the ships are surplus) especially Scandinavia which was shedding their older ships and France which has already lost its colonies in Africa.

There were shipping companies that tried augmenting their fleet by ordering brand-new ships locally, from Japan and West Germany using loan windows provided by the government. But from the middle 1960s to the early 1970s, the surplus ships from Europe were more numerous. And the biggest reasoning was that for a brand-new ship, two or three surplus ships can be acquired and thus the capacity and revenue are far greater. Although surplus, it was assumed they will last as long if it was still in good condition and Europe is known for quality.

Why were surplus ships favored by more shipping companies compared to the brand-new? Well, brand-new ships are more expensive to acquire and thus for one brand-new ship, two or three surplus ships can be acquired. If the ratio is one to one, the brand-new ship will take longer to amortize. Moreover, with the subsequent devaluation of the peso in 1962, more pesos were needed to pay off a loan taken to acquire a ship and that will hinder further acquisitions (and President Diosdado Macapagal made sure of that by devaluing the peso in 1962 upon the advice of the US). Surplus or brand-new, the carrying capacity and revenues of the ships are the same (that of the surplus ships from Europe might have more capacity as they were bigger than the ones ordered brand-new and with no less speed except for those ordered by Compania Maritima). Actually, those with surplus ships were the ones that are in a position to offer discounts or rebates which was decisive in cornering cargo. Supposedly, the discounting of rates was “illegal” but it was actually rampant (and were actually sidestepped by the shipping companies on the way up).

Aside from leading Compania Maritima which continuously sourced ships from Europe, five shipping companies joined the trend in purchasing second-hand ships from Europe for conversion here into passenger-cargo liners. These were  Gothong & Company (the old undivided company), Sweet Lines and William Lines, three Chinoy shipping companies working its way up the shipping totem pole plus the new and unknown Dacema Lines. Additionally, the old Madrigal Shipping Company also acquired a ship from Europe during this period. This will be the focus of this article. [However, may I note that Escano Lines did not acquire a surplus ship this period but they acquired three brand new ships, two from West Germany and one from Japan].

The surplus ships from Europe were significantly bigger and faster than the backbone then of Philippine passenger-cargo shipping, the former “FS” ships and the lengthened ex-“F” ships. These ships were generally from 80 to over 100 meters in length and they usually have speeds of 13 to 16 knots. In speed, these ships from Europe were a better fit for the Southern Mindanao routes and its bigger capacity afforded dockings in many in-ports along the way thus making the voyage more profitable.

Sweet Love

An example of a surplus European ship. Gorio Belen research in the National Library.

Other advantages of these European surplus ships compared to the US war-surplus ships were also in comfort and accommodations because as former cargo-passenger ships in Europe they already have passenger accommodations and amenities right at the start and all that was needed in the main was to add Economy passenger accommodations. Also, many of them were already purpose-built liners right from the start and that means more comfort. Additionally, with the former refrigerated cargo ships, it was sure they already had refrigeration and air-conditioning from the start, the marks of a luxury ship hereabouts then.

Sweet Faith

A purpose-built liner from Europe. Gorio Belen research in the National Library.

These ships began arriving in the Philippines from 1963 to the early 1970s when it stopped because we already had a new supplier of surplus ships which was Japan. In total, some 30 ships from Europe came to the Philippines during this period and that is about half of the total ex-“FS” ships we had then. But since these European ships are bigger in gross register tonnage (GRT) which is the measure of a ship’s size, the two types were just about even in capacity. Even if the other war surplus ship types are considered, still the local fleet capacity almost doubled since we also ordered brand-new ships from various sources during this period including from Europe. So that is how the surplus European ship expanded the capacity of our passenger-cargo fleet in the 1960s.

Visayas

An example of a brand-new passenger-cargo ship from Europe. Gorio Belen research in the National Library.

Carlos A. Gothong & Co. was the biggest buyer of surplus ships from Europe with a total of 10 ships but that does not even include some big cargo-passenger ships that they basically used on the ocean-going routes to the Far East and West Germany (but those have limited passenger accommodations). The new national liner company Sweet Lines acquired seven ships from Europe while the venerable Compania Maritima purchased six ships from Europe during this period. William Lines also purchased four ships from Europe (plus two brand-new ships from Japan) during. A new shipping company, the Dacema Lines also purchased two ships from Europe and the old Madrigal Shipping Company also purchased one.

The ex-Europe ships of Go Thong:

  • Gothong (a.k.a. Dona Pamela), built 1950 in Sweden, first known as Cap Gris Nez, acquired in 1963, 88.8m x 12.4m, 14 knots design speed. Once a flagship of Go Thong.
  • Don Arsenio (a.k.a. Tayabas Bay), built 1950 in Denmark, first known as Tekla, acquired in 1965, 110.0m x 14.0m, 14.5 knots design speed.
  • Dona Helene (a.k.a. Don Alberto), built 1950 in France, first known as Atlas, acquired in 1967, 95.4m x 14.0m, 13 knots design speed.
  • Dona Rita, built 1949 in France, first known as Tafna, acquired in 1967, 95.3m x 14.0m, 15 knots design speed. Sister ship of Dona Helene.
  • Don Lorenzo (a.k.a. Dona Julieta), built 1951 in West Germany, first known as Liebenstein, acquired in 1968, 105.1m x 14.2m, 16 knots design speed.
  • Don Camilo, built 1951 in West Germany, first known as Lichtentein, acquired in 1968, 105.1m x 14.2m, 16 knots design speed. Sister ship of Don Lorenzo.
  • Dona Gloria, built 1947 in West Germany, first known as Colombia, acquired in 1969, 85.9m x 11.6m, 13 knots design speed.

Two of the ships from Europe contracted by Go Thong from its agents were actually not built in Europe but were ex-World War II US-built cargo ships that were in Europe  with the original names Cape St. George (which became Subic Bay) and Cape Arago (which became Manila Bay). The two were acquired in 1966 and these were Type “C-1A” ships with external measurements of 125.7m x 18.3m and a design speed of 14.5 knots. The two were used in transporting the Lu Do, Lu Ym coconut products to Europe and the Far East [and the two were assisted by the Sarangani Bay, an NDC-owned repossessed ship from De la Rama Steamship].

In 1972, an additional last ship for them also arrived from Europe, the Dona Angelina which was the former Touggourt which was built in France in 1950. This ship measured 91.4m x 14.0m with a design speed of 13.5 knots.

Among the liner companies then, it was Go Thong that relied the heaviest on ex-Europe ships which they fielded in their major routes especially in their Southern Mindanao routes which they then began to dominate.

The shipping company with the second-most ships from Europe during this period was the new national liner company Sweet Lines with seven. The company needed those to beef up their fleet as they were a new national liner company. One of these was ordered brand-new.

The Sweet Lines ships from Europe:

  • Sweet Bliss, built in 1953 in Denmark, first known as Broager, acquired in 1967, 92.5m x 13.3m, 13 knots design speed.
  • Sweet Grace, built 1968, acquired brand-new, 88.8m x 12.8m, 15 knots design speed. She became the flagship of the company.
  • Sweet Life (a.k.a. Sweet Dream), built in 1950 in Denmark, first known as Birkholm, acquired in 1969, 92.4m x 13.3m, 13 knots design speed. Sister ship of Sweet Bliss.
  • Sweet Faith, built in 1950 in Denmark, first known as P. Prior, acquired in 1970, 104.0m x 14.9m, 20 knots design speed. She was the fastest liner then when she was fielded.
  • Sweet Lord (a.k.a. Sweet Land), built in 1951 in Denmark, first known as Ficaria, acquired in 1972, 101.1m x 14.0m, 14.5 knots design speed.
  • Sweet Love, built in 1952 in Denmark, first known as Primula, acquired in 1972, 101.0m x 14.0m, 14.5 knots design speed. Sister ship of Sweet Lord.
  • Sweet Home, built in 1957 in Italy, first known as Caralis, acquired in 1973, 120.4m x 16.0m, 18 knots design speed.

Compania Maritima already acquired three ferries from Europe from 1949 to 1951. Those three were the best then in the fleet of the company and helped it secure the No. 1 place in the pecking order of liner companies after the war (except for a brief period when De la Rama Steamship challenged them). But the three will not be counted in this topic as they were not reinforcements from Europe in the 1960s when there were no longer war-surplus ships available in the second-hand market (aside from those later released by the US Navy starting in the late 1950s many of whom went to the newly-established Philippine President Lines).

The ships from Europe acquired by Compania Maritima from Europe in the 1960s (two of these were ordered brand-new):

  • Visayas, built in 1963 in West Germany, acquired brand-new, 117.0m x 16.4m, 16 knots design speed. This became the flagship of the company then.
  • Guimaras, built in 1957 in France, first known as Sidi-Aich, acquired in 1964, 98.6m x 14.9m, 16.5 knots design speed.
  • Filipinas, built 1968 in West Germany, acquired brand-new, 121.0 x 18.1m, 18 knots design speed. This became a flagship of the company and was the biggest and fastest liner when she was launched.
  • Isla Verde (a.k.a. Dadiangas) built in 1957 in France, first known as Kitala, acquired in 1969, 109.5m x 15.4m, 16 knots design speed.
  • Leyte Gulf, built in 1957 in France, first known as Foulaya, acquired in 1969, 113.4m x 15.5m, 17.5 knots design speed.
  • Mindanao, built in 1959 in West Germany, first known as Hornkoog, acquired in 1970, 134.6m x 16.1m, 18 knots design speed.

Aside from the six, Compania Maritima also acquired two former ocean-going ships (which were sister ships) from De la Rama Steamship in 1965 which were charted from the National Development Corporation (NDC). These were the Lingayen Gulf (the former Dona Alicia) and Sarangani Bay (the former Dona Aurora). They measured 153.7m x 19.7m with a design speed of 17 knots and built in Japan.

The ex-Europe ships of William Lines:

  • Virginia, built in 1943 in Sweden, first known as Fylgia, acquired in 1966, 102.9m x 13.6m, 14 knots design speed. She became the flagship of the company. She was also known as Virginia IV, Dona Virginia, Dumaguete City, Dumaguete and when she was converted into a container ship she was known as Wilcon VI.
  • William, built in 1948 in Sweden, first known as Ragunda, acquired in 1966, 103.3m x 13.6m, 14 knots design speed. She is the sister ship of Virginia. She was also known as Misamis Occidental, Misamis and Zamboanga City.
  • General Santos City, built in 1956 in Denmark, first known as Blenda, acquired in 1972, 89.4m x 13.0m, 13 knots design speed.
  • Tagbilaran City, built in 1956 in Denmark, first known as Bellona, acquired in 1972, 89.4m x 13.0m, 13 knots design speed. Sister ship of General Santos City. She was known as Wilcon IX when she was converted into a container ship.

Take note that William Lines also acquired two brand-new ships from Japan during this period.

The ex-Europe ships of Dacema Lines:

  1. Demeter, built 1950 in West Germany, first known as Falke, acquired in 1966, 82.8 m x 12.0m, 12 knots design speed.
  2. Athena, built 1950 in West Germany, first known as Adler, acquired in 1967, 82.8 m x 12.0m, 12 knots design speed. Athena and Demeter are sister ships.

The ex-Europe ship of Madrigal Shipping:

  1. Viria, built 1948 in Sweden, first known as Viria too, acquired in 1965, 52.4m x 8.7m, 12 knots design speed.

There were other ships sourced not from Europe but from the British Commonwealth during this period but I just decided to exclude them because they were just about four in number. Most of these belonged to the new shipping company KL Lines which soon gave up.

If one will check the schedules of passenger-cargo ships entering the 1970s, the ex-Europe ships were very dominant in Southern Mindanao while the ex-“FS” ships were sailing up to Northern Mindanao only with just some exceptions  (meanwhile, Negros Navigation which has the most brand-new ships in number was content in just protecting their Western Visayas turf). The new growth area then of Southern Mindanao was no longer for ex-“FS” ships with its lack of speed, capacity, amenities and vulnerability to typhoons (they have to seek shelter earlier and that ruins schedules). Former Southern Mindanao runners, the bigger war-surplus ex-“C1-M-AV1” and ex-“N” ships proved to be less rugged and were not even good for 25 years and so were already out of the equation before the 1970s got going. And so the additions from Europe became the key especially in growth area battles and when liners generally speeded up (the 10 knots sailing speed of the big and small war surplus ships was no longer enough).

Actually, the lack of the bigger and faster ex-European ships precluded other shipping companies from challenging in Southern Mindanao which happened to be the biggest growth area then of the country because of the big influx of settlers and the opening up for exploitation the natural resources of the island. Such their routes ended in Northern Mindanao only, if at all they reached Mindanao because there were shipping companies that sailed up to the Visayas only especially those which continued to rely on ex-“FS” and lengthened “F” ships only.

And so after a decade of ex-European ships coming (roughly in 1972, just before the breaking up of the old Go Thong into three whipping companies), the pecking order of the national liner companies changed. Compania Maritima was still on top but barely as their ship losses from accidents hit them hard. Go Thong which was not a national liner company before the war was already crowding them at the top if they haven’t surpassed Compania Maritima already. PSNC + Aboitiz which had integrated operations was still big with many ships but their fleet consisted mainly of war-surplus ships from the US and are already old although they were still trying to fight in the Southern Mindanao routes (but not up to Davao). The three might be the first tier then although Aboitiz Shipping which will soon absorb PSNC because of the ending of the “Parity Rights” is fast falling.

The second tier might consist of William Lines and Sweet Lines in near parity and just a little below the first tier. Note that Sweet Lines was not even a national liner company some seven years before but the surplus ships from Europe buoyed them up. They have already eclipsed Escano Lines and General Shipping, Philippine Pioneer Lines (and its successors Philippine Pioneer Lines and Galaxy Shipping) and Southern Lines were already gone from the inter-island routes. At this time De la Rama Shipping was just in ocean-going shipping and they acted as local agents for the foreign shipping companies whose ships are sailing here. Madrigal Shipping was already in its sunset and Manila Steamship was gone even before the European surplus ships came in force. Of course, Everett Steamship was also gone too because the “Parity Rights” which allowed them to sail here was already abrogated. Negros Navigation while healthy might just be in third tier all alone. And the fourth tier will consist of so-many small liner companies to Bicol, the Eastern Visayas and the current MIMAROPA now plus Northern Lines, Dacema Lines and KL Lines which all have routes up to Davao.

And so at the start of the 1970s, the biggest shipping companies were those which bet big in Southern Mindanao (especially General Santos City and Davao City) with their surplus European ships (the brand-new ships ordered from abroad were actually not present in Southern Mindanao except those of Compania Maritima). Some shipping companies had new ships but only a few in number and that was not enough as a route to Southern Mindanao to be maintained needs two ships alternating because roundtrip voyages need two weeks. Two ships are needed to maintain a weekly schedule and more if there are many voyages in a week to Southern Mindanao. And that is where the wisdom of buying two or three surplus ships from Europe versus a solo brand-new ship paid off.

Among the shipping companies that were not among the Top 4 (the first tier) in the mid-1960s (and that consisted of Compania Maritima, PSNC + Aboitiz Shipping, Go Thong and William Lines), it was only Sweet Lines and the combined Gothong Lines + Lorenzo Shipping (after 1972) that challenged in Southern Mindanao (the latter used a former brand-new ship acquired from Southern Lines and the other was the Dona Rita from Go Thong, their share in the partition of the old undivided company). Add to that the small Northern Lines, Dacema Lines and KL Lines which all did not last long.

The other shipping companies never entered Southern Mindanao like Escano Lines, Negros Navigation, Southern Lines, General Shipping, Philippine Pioneer Lines (the local successor of Philippine President Lines; and that includes successors Philippine Pioneer Lines and Galaxy Lines)  and Gothong Lines (when Lorenzo Lines split from them) as maybe the route was too taxing, their fleet size was not enough and they don’t have the proper ships. Aboitiz Shipping which was the successor to the Philippine Steam Navigation (PSNC) vessels was still a Southern Mindanao player in the 1970s but gradually they withdrew as they were already losing to the competition as they didn’t actually the proper ships anymore and their fleet was already growing old (what they soon rolled out were not passenger-cargo ships but container ships to Southern Mindanao).

But playing for Southern Mindanao was a critical factor then for the survival of the shipping companies as their business was already under pressure from many quarters and reasons from the 1970s (increased fuel prices, devaluation of the peso, competition from other modes of transport, local wars and other instabilities among others). It was still the area where people are still migrating in, there is still farmland to be opened (and grabbed from the natives) and land concessions were still being awarded to powerful and influential people. There was practically no road from Northern to Southern Mindanao and so the ships were still needed in the latter.

For those that did not play in Southern Mindanao and in Mindanao as a whole, the consequence was soon apparent when they were slowly defeated in the shipping competition and left in the wake or sank in the water. Shipping companies like General Shipping, Southern Lines and Philippine Pioneer Lines disappeared in the local shipping, some were weakened like Bisaya Land Transport and the other minor Eastern Visayas companies till they eventually died too, Gothong Lines practically just became a regional and the small liner companies eventually succumbed too. Some disappeared later from passenger shipping altogether like Escano Lines and Aboitiz Shipping became a ghost of its former self.

Who were the winners in these differing approaches, i.e., brand-new versus surplus ships?  It was actually those that stressed on buying second-hand ships from Europe especially Carlos A. Gothong & Co., William Lines and Sweet Lines if growth will be the basis of the comparison. In due time the three reached the rank of majors when two decades earlier they weren’t near that rank or were just regionals (and the other majors before them all sank except for Aboitiz Shipping which struck gold in container shipping). The surplus ships they purchased from Europe generally lasted 15-20 years (and some were even converted to container ships), just a little lower than the local brand-new ships) but more than enough to recoup their initial investment. However, although Compania Maritima also acquired surplus and brand-new ships from Europe, they also lost because they were bleeding ships from accidents and when Martial Law came they altogether stopped buying ships. The only exception was Negros Navigation which became stronger with brand-new ships and surplus from Japan plus they have a stranglehold in Negros Occidental.

And that was how important were the ex-European ships in our shipping history. They determined the pecking order in local shipping as soon as they arrived in numbers and they were a big factor in determining which will thrive and which will not survive.

 

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The Trip From Tacloban to Surigao del Sur (Part 1)

The smaller tour group of the Philippine Ship Spotters Society (PSSS) reached Tacloban on the midnight of the second night of the tour. Waiting for Mark to get a ride, we finally parted at about 3:30am of December 13 with Mark on the way to Bato, Leyte for a shipspotting of Bohol and James on the way back to Cebu via Palompon. Me and Joe’s destination was unmentioned but we were actually on the way to Cortes, Surigao del Sur, near the capital of Tandag to visit a shipmate of Joe and shipspot along the way.

There are really not many ports on the Tacloban-Panaon island axis if one follows the road to Mahaplag. From Tacloban, Joe and me had to take the Mahaplag route mainly because it was still dark and Joe also wanted to see the Agas-agas bridge. Besides, a trip via Silago will take longer and I want us to be on the 8am ferry in Benit because that will afford us the greatest chance of visits to the unexplored ports of Surigao without nightfall overtaking us. We had the thought of passing it on the way back, halfheartedly, because our tentative route on the way back now was via Isabel, Leyte to pick up a puppy.

lft

Liloan Ferry Terminal and Liloan bridge

We reached Liloan at about 6am and Joe tried entering the Liloan Ferry Terminal. I dissuaded him because I feared we will get in trouble with the LGU collectors of illegal exactions and we will lose more time if a scene erupts and anyway I don’t want to take the ferry there because I thought it will reach Lipata Ferry Terminal not sooner but later. I told Joe we can cover Lipata Ferry Terminal from the Liloan municipal port which is located just a kilometer from the other end of the Liloan bay.

I was not mistaken and we were lucky because as tipped by member Mervin Go Soon of Baybay (whom we met on the Oroquieta Stars on the way to the PSSS tour-meet assembly in Tacloban), the former Maharlika Cinco of Archipelago Ferries was there. The other tip of Mervin that the Grand Star RORO 3 was doing a Liloan Municipal Port to Surigao route also proved true because she was there besides the former Maharlika Cinco. We noticed no work was being done on the former Maharlika Cinco which would become the Gloria Five of Gabisan Shipping. I was wondering then who is operating the Grand Star RORO 3. I thought it was “M Shipping” whose AUV we encountered on the road (I was mistaken on that assumption as Mervin very recently told me that Grand Star RORO 3 was also bought by Gabisan Shipping and I wonder now if she is the Gloria One advertised by the company in Liloan port).

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Across the bay, we saw that it was only the Millennium Uno of Millennium Shipping which was docked in Liloan Ferry Terminal. With its slow speed and the triple distance of Liloan compared to Benit port, it would have been disaster to our schedule had we taken it (so our bet not to enter Liloan Ferry Terminal was right after all). There was also anchored in the bay the Cargo RORO LCT GT Express 1 of GT Shipping which was doing a route to Surigao so that trucks wouldn’t queue long like in the past. I noticed the old Liloan municipal port terminal was already converted into an office by the municipality. But the old arrastre office was still there.

At the end of our short, alloted time in Liloan we made a run for Benit in San Ricardo town at the tip of Panaon island. I did not want a photofinish and I told Joe we need to put in some allowance on time lest we were shut out of the ferry (“shut out” in maritime use here means one’s vehicle or cargo fails to be loaded to a ship) and probably have to backtrack to Liloan and so we did not look for a place to eat anymore (anyway there was probably none that is inviting as Liloan is just a small town). Along the way we saw the abandoned port of San Francisco which once docked the copra ships of great shipping line Go Thong in the past.

We next came to “The Saddle”, a renowned mountain pass that Joe wants to conquer (it was called by that name because it resembles a horse saddle if viewed from the sea). It was not shipspotting but there were views of the sea from there and we knew right after that will come the town of San Ricardo but Benit port will still be some distance from it.

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Leaving behind Benit, its collectors of illegal exactions and “The Saddle”

Approaching Benit port, before the turn inside, I told Joe that if the San Ricardo LGU collectors of the illegal exactions flag him down that he continues driving as if he did not see anything. The ruse worked and upon entering the people of Montenegro Lines and the arrastre rushed us saying we will be the last vehicle that will be loaded. There were already shortcuts in the processing of papers and we were already on the ramp before all the papers were even processed. The ship left even before 8am and I saw two vehicles that arrived minutes after us were no longer accommodated (and there was actually still some space for at least one of them). So it was still a photofinish alright and a lucky accommodation. Sometimes that is one gets from being disciplined in the travel approach. I told Joe before that many said I am lucky with trips and it seems it was holding. Actually, it held during the 1,000 kilometers me and Joe ran with two ferry crossings and with many ports visited.

Our ship was the Maria Vanessa of Montenegro Lines, sister of the Maria Felisa (actually no other shipping company serves the Benit-Lipata route). Since we both lacked sleep, me and Joe barely toured the ship. Instead we immediately looked for a cool, comfortable and quiet place and soon we were asleep although the voyage usually takes only 1 hour and 15 or 20 minutes. We two really needed that rest even if it was so short. We did not even care for food as all we wanted is sleep.

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Lipata Ferry Terminal

That short sleep reinvigorated the two of us and there was no hassle in the disembarkation process nor in getting out of the Lipata Ferry Terminal. We did not try anymore to tour the port since we will be exiting Mindanao through that port anyway. What we wanted was food as our stomachs were grumbling already. It was already mid-morning and we only had hamburger the previous night in Tacloban terminal and no breakfast at all.

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“Voyagers” (Photo by Joe Cardenas)

Going out of the port, I espied a new place which looked like a diner to me although it looks more of a lodging place. I was able to convince Joe to backtrack and what a discovery! Well, they really serve meals and snacks and it turned out that the owner is a master mariner abroad and so the place was themed by maritime things. The was not the usual rush of people, it was quiet and clean and it does not look or smell like the usual roadside stands. The name of the place is “Voyagers” and we recommend it. Me and Joe took a little time to unwind and relax there before we proceeded to the city (i.e. Surigao City). 

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In the city, we first went to what is called the “Boulevard”. It is a boulevard indeed, a seaside one. It is adjacent to the main port of Surigao and it is there where the so-many big motor bancas of Surigao to Dinagat, Siargao and other islands dock. We were lucky since we were early they were still all there and since the sea was calm so many came. I walked the entire length of the Boulevard getting shots of all the bigger boats. Offshore, a few LCTs were moored, as always. LCTs are a fixture of Surigao now because the mines employ them.

From there me and Joe proceeded to the main port of Surigao which is called Verano port. Joe wanted to enter but I told him there is almost no chance of a free pass as it is an ISPS port which means visitors are not welcome. To buy a ticket for Siargao so we can enter means a bit heavy “entrance fee”. Might have been affordable for our pockets but I was always mindful of the time and I do not want the quest for the unexplored ports of Surigao be compromised (why is it that long-distance shipspotting is always balancing of compromises?). Besides I was more interested in the old docking area of boats nestled on the side of Verano which was not obvious or visible from outside it. So I just contented myself with some shots of Verano ships from the gate. There are not many of them at a given time anyway and two i even caught while departing.

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A view of Verano Port from the nearly-enclosed marina beside it

I then nestled myself into the narrow opening that leads to what I found to be a dirty marina where many bancas and motor boats were anchored (there were more than 15 of them). This looked like to be the old port as can be deduced from the road on the other side of where I was. It is now almost encircled by Verano port but I knew from observation inside Verano that passenger-cargo motor bancas emanate from it which I found to be bound to the smaller islands that belong to Surigao City.

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The MARINA nestled by Verano Port

Many of the vessels in that nearly-enclosed marina were actually fishing bancas. But it seems nobody cares anymore for that port and marina. It is dirty and it looks as if there is no order there and even the roads and pathways leading to it look unmaintained. I did not dare exploring anymore as the walkways looked dangerous to me.

From there me and Joe exited Surigao City not through the main road but through some shortcuts which Joe saw on the GPS map. We did not try anymore the Surigao-Lipata coastal road whose turn we missed earlier. The unexplored municipal ports and the mining ports of Surigao were the ones that were already pulling us. Their magnetites seem to be strong….

(More on the next installment.)

The Last Stand of Compania Maritima

In the postwar years, Compania Maritima stressed routes going to southern and western Mindanao (because ships going to southern Mindanao dock in Zamboanga first). It was easy for them since they had liners bigger than former “FS” ships, a luxury not available to their competitors and they had more ships (which is needed since the route were long and takes time to come back). That period Compania Maritima was the biggest shipping company in the Philippines and half of their fleet were big ships. In terms of big ships, they then had the most in the country.

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Photo credits: Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen

Most ships running the southern Mindanao routes were former “FS” ships which were once small cargo ships of the US Army in World War II. In those routes, Compania Maritima were using former passenger-cargo ships from Europe and there was a whale of a difference between those and the former “FS” ships. The extra space and speed matters a lot and smaller ships were simply more bouncy in inclement weather or when the monsoons are blowing hard.

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Their competitors William Lines and Go Thong were just using former “FS” ships in the route and in the case of the latter it was even using lengthened ex-”F” ships. PSNC (Philippine Steam and Navigation Co.) meanwhile has mixed ex-”FS” and ex-C1-M-AV1” ships in the southern Mindanao routes. In 1955, when Everett Steamship’s duo of brand-new luxury liners which were sister ships arrived, the Legazpi and the Elcano, PSNC withdrew the former “C1-M-AV1” ships in the Davao route (Everett SS was then operating through PSNC in partnership with Aboitiz Shipping Corporation).

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A former ex-“C1-M-AV1” ship (Photo credits: Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

Compania Maritima was dominant in the southern Mindanao routes because their ships were simply bigger, better and faster. Their only worthy competition were the Legazpi and Elcano but still their ships which were former European passenger-cargo ships were bigger than those and has more cargo capacity, an important feature then since more cargo meant more revenue.

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(Photo credits: Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

In those routes to the south, Compania Maritima followed what was in vogue or normal then, that is the ships pass so many intermediate ports (as in up to six) and Cebu or Iloilo will be one of them. The ships will then dock in other Visayan ports like Tagbilaran, Dumaguete or Pulupandan or northern Mindanao ports like Cagayan de Oro, Iligan or Ozamis, among others. In the early ’70’s, Sweet Lines pioneered the route through the eastern seaboard of Mindanao. But just the same their ships docked first in Visayas ports.

That was the reason why ships then took nearly two weeks to complete a voyage and two ships had to alternate in serving a route to southern Mindanao so a weekly schedule can be maintained. Most had Davao as end port and some had Gensan as end port. Those still going to Davao usually docked also in Gensan (it was called Dadiangas then). A few ships had Cotabato as the end port (it was actually the Polloc port in Parang, Cotabato).

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MV Dona Ana (Wikimedia Commons)

However, in 1976, the new paradigm, that of fast cruiser liners came also to Mindanao. Bringers of it were Sulpicio Lines with the Dona Ana and William Lines with the Manila City. These fast ships only took three days to Davao compared to the six days of the liners before. These new ships only had one intermediate stop, Cebu for Sulpicio Lines and Zamboanga for William Lines. Fast cruisers of that era meant a ship can do 18 knots sustained. These fast cruisers had prompt departures and usually they will arrive at the posted ETA.

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Photo credits: Times Journal and Gorio Belen

Aside from the Dona Ana, Sulpicio Lines also introduced small passenger-cargo ships with direct Davao sailings and these ships only took five days for the voyage. In 1978, Sulpicio Lines introduced the fast cruiser liners Don Enrique and Don Eusebio to Southern Mindanao routes. Even with these fieldings, Sulpicio Lines and William Lines maintained their old ships with multiple intermediate ports which took six days and with two ships alternating. But passengers who can’t afford or who don’t want to take the plane suddenly has a faster and more luxurious passage. These moves of Sulpicio Lines and William Lines put a lot of pressure on the other operators.

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Photo credit: Gorio Belen

These new liners of Sulpicio Lines and William Lines, being fast and taking fewer days forced changes in the sailings of the other companies. Sweet Lines then assigned three ships rotating to the Davao route and by using the shorter eastern seaboard route and with just one intermediate port was capable of reaching Davao in 4 days. Sweet Lines cannot match Sulpicio Lines and William Lines because they have no fast cruiser liners (they will try to match in 1983 when they acquired the fast RORO liner Sweet RORO 2).

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Photo credit: Times Journal and Gorio Belen

The combined Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) and Lorenzo Shipping Company tried a new tack. They simply dropped passenger service to Davao and offered direct cargo sailings (hence, their ships can almost match the sailing times of the Sulpicio and William fast cruisers). Aboitiz Shipping Corporation meanwhile had already dropped Davao and Gensan even before and their ships were sailing up to Pagadian only (which they will also relinquish and abandon southern Mindanao). The other liner companies were not involved in this battle like Escano Lines, Negros Navigation and the minor liner companies because they had no southern Mindanao nor western Mindanao routes even before.

Compania Maritima which like the others used doubling of ships to Davao or Gensan also used the approach of Sweet Lines, that is to triple the ships in a Davao route so their sailings time will be reduced to four days. Their ships are faster than Sweet Lines’ but although they pruned the number of intermediate port they really can’t bring it down to just one port (so they are not faster to Davao than Sweet Lines). By this time Compania Maritima was already using their best and fastest ships to the Davao route and their next echelon of ships were also doing the other southern Mindanao routes. With this tactic Compania Maritima had a very thin coverage of their old northern Mindanao and Eastern Visayas routes.

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The Compania Maritima flagship (Photo credits: Evening News and Gorio Belen)

If Compania Maritima thought they can hold fort with this tactic they were sadly mistaken. In 1978, Aboitiz Shipping Corporation boldly came back to the southern Mindanao routes with its container ships, a new paradigm in Philippine shipping and they were offering direct sailings which means no intermediate ports. With that they can offer a faster (than Compania Maritima and Sweet Lines) and more secure shipping of goods with less damage. William Lines and Sulpicio Lines, not to be outdone, matched this new offering of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation the next year and this was followed soon by Lorenzo Shipping Corporation. Not to be left out was the new Sea Transport Company, a pure cargo company which offered direct container services to southern Mindanao even ahead of the national liner majors.

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Photo credits: Times Journal and Gorio Belen

As mentioned before, Sweet Lines also followed suit with a fast service to Davao with the Sweet RORO 2 in 1983. If Compania Maritima was also strong in Cebu cargo before, by this period the national liner majors also had direct and dedicated container ship sailings to Cebu. Cargo is actually the bread and butter of shipping and since Compania Maritima never invested in container ships in due time they were already badly outgunned. Their competition already had fast cruiser liners and it had containers ships too, both new paradigms that Compania Maritima never possessed and they were still stuck to the old cruisers and old way of sailing.

I don’t know if Compania Maritima ever thought of getting aboard the new paradigms. Whatever, events soon decided things for them. President Marcos’ grip on power was loosening, his health was deteriorating and soon Ninoy Aquino was gunned down in the airport in his return in 1983. Political crisis and financial crisis were soon raging in the land, the peso was sinking very fast and production and trade suffered. Even prime companies were tottering on the edge then because of crushing debt loads when lending from the banks was nearly impossible. In this period, even the local operations of the major car assemblers collapsed – Toyota, Ford, General Motors. Other big companies were closing shop too.

The next year Compania Maritima’s answer to the crisis became known to all. They simply ceased operations too like the motoring majors and soon their dual-citizen owners were on their way back to Spain. Compania Maritima’s ships were laid up but soon they were sold to the breakers one by one. By 1988, none of Compania Maritima’s ships were still existing.

And that was how the old and long No.1 in Philippine shipping ended its life.

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Compania Maritima building in Cebu