The Legacy of the Surplus Ships From Europe

After World War II, the passenger shipping companies in the Philippines started almost from scratch as the ships they had before the war were almost all lost by scuttling or through war actions (mainly by aircraft bombing and through gunfire). Like before the war, not all passenger shipping companies were created equal. Some of the old shipping companies had a faster start because war surplus ships were given to them as reparations for the lost commandeered ships (pressed into service for the Allied war effort). The most prominent among those are the vessels of shipping companies Compania Maritima, De la Rama Steamship, Manila Steamship, Philippine Steam Navigation Company (a postwar merger of the Everett Steamship of the US and Aboitiz Shipping), Madrigal Shipping and Escano Lines, all established and politically well-connected shipping companies. The owner of Compania Maritima was a Senator of the Republic, the General Manager of De la Rama Steamship was a son of the former President and the founder was a former Senator, the owner of Manila Steamship was a funder of presidential campaigns, Everett Steamship was an American company which were always supported by the State Department of the USA, the owner of Madrigal Shipping was a Senator of the Republic and it was only Escano Lines which might not be on the level of the six others in terms of political connections but their history anteceded Aboitiz Shipping and was Aboitiz Shipping’s partner before the war in the shipping company La Naviera.

But some other shipping companies which were not established shipping companies before the war had enough money and political connections to be able to also get war surplus ships given to the Philippine Government by the US Government as an aid in jumpstarting the economy. Among these were General Shipping Company (which was owned by several elite families who were funders of national campaigns and were aides of the top politicians), Southern Lines Inc. (owned by the gentility of Western Visayas and the President then was from that region), William Lines Inc. (owned by a powerful and influential Congressman) and Bisaya Land Transport (owned by a Senator of the Republic). That was the secret then of establishing a shipping company fast. One must be a heavyweight in his own right and one must be full of clout to be able to get preferential treatment from the government. And since Chinoys were not in this mold then they were left out in this race except for one (that is William Chiongbian of William Lines). The ability to get US war surplus ships generally determined the pecking order of the shipping companies in the first years after the war, the so-called “Liberation Time”.

Lanao

An example of an ex-“FS” ship. Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library.

Some other companies might not have been so fortunate in acquiring surplus ships and so in order to grow, they had to be good in finding war surplus discards and buying the ships of the shipping companies that were weak and on the verge of quitting. The most prominent examples of these were the growth of Carlos A. Gothong & Company and Sweet Lines Inc. which both started with regional shipping operations and became national liner shipping companies by buying the routes and ships of national shipping companies that quit (Pan-Oriental Shipping for Gothong and half of General Shipping Company for Sweet Lines). Moreover, some shipping companies also lengthened former “F” ships so it will be on the same size as the former “FS” ships. Carlos A. Gothong & Company was good in this regard. Their first flagship when they became a national liner company, the Dona Conchita was actually a lengthened “F” ship.

Dona Conchita

An example of a lengthened “F” ship. Research by Gorio Belen in the Nationa; Library.

The war surplus ships then were preponderantly ex-“FS” ships which were formerly freight and supply ships by the US Army in the Pacific theater of war. There were also some of the bigger “C1-M-AV1” type and similar types like the Type “N” ships which were bigger cargo ships of the US Navy in World War II and used in the ship convoys transporting war material and supplies in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Along with them were the former “Y” ships which were former tankers and related to the “FS” ship in design and the small “F” type, many of which were lengthened and were almost as numerous as the ex-”FS” ships plus an assortment of former minesweepers and PT boats (but note the US also burned a lot of PT boats off Samar thinking they were useless with its gas-guzzling engines).

Mindanao

An example of a former “C1-M-AV1” ship. Research of Gorio Belen in the Nat’l Library.

Initially, aside from US surplus ships, a few big and wealthy shipping companies also sourced ships from Europe after the war (there were plenty of cheap ships then there that were released from war convoy duty). Among the local shipping companies, three stood out for having the capability to acquire ships from Europe after the war. These were the Compania Maritima, the Manila Steamship (or Elizalde y Compania) and Madrigal Shipping which were in the top tier of shipping companies before the war. All of the three were owned by top-ranking industrialists with plenty of high political connections and all the way to Malacanang. Moreover, they all already had the experience of acquiring ships from Europe even before the war. The owners of Compania Maritima, the biggest shipping company then in the country were even dual Philippine and Spanish citizens and they were able to buy a few good cargo-passenger ships from Europe which were just a few years old and almost new.

Meanwhile, the ship acquisitions from Europe of Manila Steamship and Madrigal Shipping consisted of really old ships and especially the latter. These were being disposed of because there was really an abundance of much better and newer war surplus ships then at ludicrously low prices (there was no longer a war after all). The three mentioned shipping companies used ships purchased from Europe to augment their fleet of war-surplus ships from the US.

And it then resulted in fleet augmentation alright, their aim. For Compania Maritima, it was enough to vault them to the very top which was their old position before the war. For Manila Steamship and Madrigal Shipping, that move brought them to the rank of majors, just like their position before the war, too. However, their fleet quality was not the same like before the war when they really had good ships in the main. That was the setback caused to them by the order to scuttle the ships in the war. The main replacement ships given by the US to them which were mainly ex-”FS” were nowhere as good as their prewar ships as the replacements were cargo ships in origins and not purpose-built liners (Madrigal Shipping also received ex-“Y” ships aside from ex-“FS” ships). These replacements were also smaller than the lost prewar ships and so they were simply shortchanged by the US . In the main, Manila Steamship and Madrigal Shipping were not given the big ex-“C1-M-AV1” ships which were mainly reserved for Everett Steamship, a US company operating in the country like a national and because of the so-called “Parity Rights”.

The other companies whose ships were also lost in the war like Escano Lines and Aboitiz Shipping also received just ex-“FS” ships as replacements for their good liners before the war. Meanwhile, the smaller shipping companies before the war like the regionals mainly received former “F” ships, former minesweepers and former PT boats as replacements for their lost ships in the war.

Meanwhile, the De la Rama Steamship which was also very well connected politically had a good fate, shall we say. The National Development Corporation (NDC) gave them three big brand-new ships on charter. Aside from that, two big ships of them before the war were also returned to them plus two big war-surplus “Type C1-B” ships were also given to them. Additionally, three ex-“FS” ships plus three ex-“F” ships were also handed to them. And that is aside from four ex-liners they also acquired from abroad. With this fast replacement of their lost fleet (and in size, they rivalled Compania Maritima, the old No. 1), I am wondering if this is somehow connected to former President Sergio Osmena Sr. not contesting seriously his election rivalry against the winner President Manuel Roxas.

Don Isidro

The Don Isidro of De la Rama Steamship lost in war action.

These war surplus ships plus a few surplus European ships were basically enough for our local shipping needs after the war and for the next 15 years and those were augmented by local builds which were mainly wooden-hulled motorboats (batel or lancha).

But one-and-a-half decades after the war, it was already apparent there was already a need to augment our passenger shipping fleet which then consisted almost entirely of war surplus ships from the US. There were ships lost at sea plus our economy has already grown including the population. The whole of Mindanao was finally conquered and ships were needed to connect it to the rest of the country especially southern Mindanao which needs a lot of ships to run a regular schedule. With the general growth of population and the rise of production, the passenger and cargo capacities of the small surplus ships from World War II were no longer enough even though the Philippine President Lines came in 1959 with the last war surplus ships released by the US Navy.

Galaxy

The most prominent ship released by the US to Philippine President Lines. Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library.

And so a lot of additional ships had to be acquired as lengthening of the former “FS” ships was no longer enough. And in the 1960s there were no longer war surplus ships available in the market. The last batch released by the US in 1959-61 already went to different owners including our own Philippine President Lines (PPL) which was a newly-established shipping company then.

In fleet augmentation which was already needed then, a good source has to be found. Japan was not yet a good source of surplus ships then because they still needed their ships for their postwar economic boom. If ships have to be sourced from them, it would have to be ordered brand-new. And the US was also not a good source either because their liners were simply too big. And so Europe was the only possible source (if the ships are surplus) especially Scandinavia which was shedding their older ships and France which has already lost its colonies in Africa.

There were shipping companies that tried augmenting their fleet by ordering brand-new ships locally, from Japan and West Germany using loan windows provided by the government. But from the middle 1960s to the early 1970s, the surplus ships from Europe were more numerous. And the biggest reasoning was that for a brand-new ship, two or three surplus ships can be acquired and thus the capacity and revenue are far greater. Although surplus, it was assumed they will last as long if it was still in good condition and Europe is known for quality.

Why were surplus ships favored by more shipping companies compared to the brand-new? Well, brand-new ships are more expensive to acquire and thus for one brand-new ship, two or three surplus ships can be acquired. If the ratio is one to one, the brand-new ship will take longer to amortize. Moreover, with the subsequent devaluation of the peso in 1962, more pesos were needed to pay off a loan taken to acquire a ship and that will hinder further acquisitions (and President Diosdado Macapagal made sure of that by devaluing the peso in 1962 upon the advice of the US). Surplus or brand-new, the carrying capacity and revenues of the ships are the same (that of the surplus ships from Europe might have more capacity as they were bigger than the ones ordered brand-new and with no less speed except for those ordered by Compania Maritima). Actually, those with surplus ships were the ones that are in a position to offer discounts or rebates which was decisive in cornering cargo. Supposedly, the discounting of rates was “illegal” but it was actually rampant (and were actually sidestepped by the shipping companies on the way up).

Aside from leading Compania Maritima which continuously sourced ships from Europe, five shipping companies joined the trend in purchasing second-hand ships from Europe for conversion here into passenger-cargo liners. These were  Gothong & Company (the old undivided company), Sweet Lines and William Lines, three Chinoy shipping companies working its way up the shipping totem pole plus the new and unknown Dacema Lines. Additionally, the old Madrigal Shipping Company also acquired a ship from Europe during this period. This will be the focus of this article. [However, may I note that Escano Lines did not acquire a surplus ship this period but they acquired three brand new ships, two from West Germany and one from Japan].

The surplus ships from Europe were significantly bigger and faster than the backbone then of Philippine passenger-cargo shipping, the former “FS” ships and the lengthened ex-“F” ships. These ships were generally from 80 to over 100 meters in length and they usually have speeds of 13 to 16 knots. In speed, these ships from Europe were a better fit for the Southern Mindanao routes and its bigger capacity afforded dockings in many in-ports along the way thus making the voyage more profitable.

Sweet Love

An example of a surplus European ship. Gorio Belen research in the National Library.

Other advantages of these European surplus ships compared to the US war-surplus ships were also in comfort and accommodations because as former cargo-passenger ships in Europe they already have passenger accommodations and amenities right at the start and all that was needed in the main was to add Economy passenger accommodations. Also, many of them were already purpose-built liners right from the start and that means more comfort. Additionally, with the former refrigerated cargo ships, it was sure they already had refrigeration and air-conditioning from the start, the marks of a luxury ship hereabouts then.

Sweet Faith

A purpose-built liner from Europe. Gorio Belen research in the National Library.

These ships began arriving in the Philippines from 1963 to the early 1970s when it stopped because we already had a new supplier of surplus ships which was Japan. In total, some 30 ships from Europe came to the Philippines during this period and that is about half of the total ex-“FS” ships we had then. But since these European ships are bigger in gross register tonnage (GRT) which is the measure of a ship’s size, the two types were just about even in capacity. Even if the other war surplus ship types are considered, still the local fleet capacity almost doubled since we also ordered brand-new ships from various sources during this period including from Europe. So that is how the surplus European ship expanded the capacity of our passenger-cargo fleet in the 1960s.

Visayas

An example of a brand-new passenger-cargo ship from Europe. Gorio Belen research in the National Library.

Carlos A. Gothong & Co. was the biggest buyer of surplus ships from Europe with a total of 10 ships but that does not even include some big cargo-passenger ships that they basically used on the ocean-going routes to the Far East and West Germany (but those have limited passenger accommodations). The new national liner company Sweet Lines acquired seven ships from Europe while the venerable Compania Maritima purchased six ships from Europe during this period. William Lines also purchased four ships from Europe (plus two brand-new ships from Japan) during. A new shipping company, the Dacema Lines also purchased two ships from Europe and the old Madrigal Shipping Company also purchased one.

The ex-Europe ships of Go Thong:

  • Gothong (a.k.a. Dona Pamela), built 1950 in Sweden, first known as Cap Gris Nez, acquired in 1963, 88.8m x 12.4m, 14 knots design speed. Once a flagship of Go Thong.
  • Don Arsenio (a.k.a. Tayabas Bay), built 1950 in Denmark, first known as Tekla, acquired in 1965, 110.0m x 14.0m, 14.5 knots design speed.
  • Dona Helene (a.k.a. Don Alberto), built 1950 in France, first known as Atlas, acquired in 1967, 95.4m x 14.0m, 13 knots design speed.
  • Dona Rita, built 1949 in France, first known as Tafna, acquired in 1967, 95.3m x 14.0m, 15 knots design speed. Sister ship of Dona Helene.
  • Don Lorenzo (a.k.a. Dona Julieta), built 1951 in West Germany, first known as Liebenstein, acquired in 1968, 105.1m x 14.2m, 16 knots design speed.
  • Don Camilo, built 1951 in West Germany, first known as Lichtentein, acquired in 1968, 105.1m x 14.2m, 16 knots design speed. Sister ship of Don Lorenzo.
  • Dona Gloria, built 1947 in West Germany, first known as Colombia, acquired in 1969, 85.9m x 11.6m, 13 knots design speed.

Two of the ships from Europe contracted by Go Thong from its agents were actually not built in Europe but were ex-World War II US-built cargo ships that were in Europe  with the original names Cape St. George (which became Subic Bay) and Cape Arago (which became Manila Bay). The two were acquired in 1966 and these were Type “C-1A” ships with external measurements of 125.7m x 18.3m and a design speed of 14.5 knots. The two were used in transporting the Lu Do, Lu Ym coconut products to Europe and the Far East [and the two were assisted by the Sarangani Bay, an NDC-owned repossessed ship from De la Rama Steamship].

In 1972, an additional last ship for them also arrived from Europe, the Dona Angelina which was the former Touggourt which was built in France in 1950. This ship measured 91.4m x 14.0m with a design speed of 13.5 knots.

Among the liner companies then, it was Go Thong that relied the heaviest on ex-Europe ships which they fielded in their major routes especially in their Southern Mindanao routes which they then began to dominate.

The shipping company with the second-most ships from Europe during this period was the new national liner company Sweet Lines with seven. The company needed those to beef up their fleet as they were a new national liner company. One of these was ordered brand-new.

The Sweet Lines ships from Europe:

  • Sweet Bliss, built in 1953 in Denmark, first known as Broager, acquired in 1967, 92.5m x 13.3m, 13 knots design speed.
  • Sweet Grace, built 1968, acquired brand-new, 88.8m x 12.8m, 15 knots design speed. She became the flagship of the company.
  • Sweet Life (a.k.a. Sweet Dream), built in 1950 in Denmark, first known as Birkholm, acquired in 1969, 92.4m x 13.3m, 13 knots design speed. Sister ship of Sweet Bliss.
  • Sweet Faith, built in 1950 in Denmark, first known as P. Prior, acquired in 1970, 104.0m x 14.9m, 20 knots design speed. She was the fastest liner then when she was fielded.
  • Sweet Lord (a.k.a. Sweet Land), built in 1951 in Denmark, first known as Ficaria, acquired in 1972, 101.1m x 14.0m, 14.5 knots design speed.
  • Sweet Love, built in 1952 in Denmark, first known as Primula, acquired in 1972, 101.0m x 14.0m, 14.5 knots design speed. Sister ship of Sweet Lord.
  • Sweet Home, built in 1957 in Italy, first known as Caralis, acquired in 1973, 120.4m x 16.0m, 18 knots design speed.

Compania Maritima already acquired three ferries from Europe from 1949 to 1951. Those three were the best then in the fleet of the company and helped it secure the No. 1 place in the pecking order of liner companies after the war (except for a brief period when De la Rama Steamship challenged them). But the three will not be counted in this topic as they were not reinforcements from Europe in the 1960s when there were no longer war-surplus ships available in the second-hand market (aside from those later released by the US Navy starting in the late 1950s many of whom went to the newly-established Philippine President Lines).

The ships from Europe acquired by Compania Maritima from Europe in the 1960s (two of these were ordered brand-new):

  • Visayas, built in 1963 in West Germany, acquired brand-new, 117.0m x 16.4m, 16 knots design speed. This became the flagship of the company then.
  • Guimaras, built in 1957 in France, first known as Sidi-Aich, acquired in 1964, 98.6m x 14.9m, 16.5 knots design speed.
  • Filipinas, built 1968 in West Germany, acquired brand-new, 121.0 x 18.1m, 18 knots design speed. This became a flagship of the company and was the biggest and fastest liner when she was launched.
  • Isla Verde (a.k.a. Dadiangas) built in 1957 in France, first known as Kitala, acquired in 1969, 109.5m x 15.4m, 16 knots design speed.
  • Leyte Gulf, built in 1957 in France, first known as Foulaya, acquired in 1969, 113.4m x 15.5m, 17.5 knots design speed.
  • Mindanao, built in 1959 in West Germany, first known as Hornkoog, acquired in 1970, 134.6m x 16.1m, 18 knots design speed.

Aside from the six, Compania Maritima also acquired two former ocean-going ships (which were sister ships) from De la Rama Steamship in 1965 which were charted from the National Development Corporation (NDC). These were the Lingayen Gulf (the former Dona Alicia) and Sarangani Bay (the former Dona Aurora). They measured 153.7m x 19.7m with a design speed of 17 knots and built in Japan.

The ex-Europe ships of William Lines:

  • Virginia, built in 1943 in Sweden, first known as Fylgia, acquired in 1966, 102.9m x 13.6m, 14 knots design speed. She became the flagship of the company. She was also known as Virginia IV, Dona Virginia, Dumaguete City, Dumaguete and when she was converted into a container ship she was known as Wilcon VI.
  • William, built in 1948 in Sweden, first known as Ragunda, acquired in 1966, 103.3m x 13.6m, 14 knots design speed. She is the sister ship of Virginia. She was also known as Misamis Occidental, Misamis and Zamboanga City.
  • General Santos City, built in 1956 in Denmark, first known as Blenda, acquired in 1972, 89.4m x 13.0m, 13 knots design speed.
  • Tagbilaran City, built in 1956 in Denmark, first known as Bellona, acquired in 1972, 89.4m x 13.0m, 13 knots design speed. Sister ship of General Santos City. She was known as Wilcon IX when she was converted into a container ship.

Take note that William Lines also acquired two brand-new ships from Japan during this period.

The ex-Europe ships of Dacema Lines:

  1. Demeter, built 1950 in West Germany, first known as Falke, acquired in 1966, 82.8 m x 12.0m, 12 knots design speed.
  2. Athena, built 1950 in West Germany, first known as Adler, acquired in 1967, 82.8 m x 12.0m, 12 knots design speed. Athena and Demeter are sister ships.

The ex-Europe ship of Madrigal Shipping:

  1. Viria, built 1948 in Sweden, first known as Viria too, acquired in 1965, 52.4m x 8.7m, 12 knots design speed.

There were other ships sourced not from Europe but from the British Commonwealth during this period but I just decided to exclude them because they were just about four in number. Most of these belonged to the new shipping company KL Lines which soon gave up.

If one will check the schedules of passenger-cargo ships entering the 1970s, the ex-Europe ships were very dominant in Southern Mindanao while the ex-“FS” ships were sailing up to Northern Mindanao only with just some exceptions  (meanwhile, Negros Navigation which has the most brand-new ships in number was content in just protecting their Western Visayas turf). The new growth area then of Southern Mindanao was no longer for ex-“FS” ships with its lack of speed, capacity, amenities and vulnerability to typhoons (they have to seek shelter earlier and that ruins schedules). Former Southern Mindanao runners, the bigger war-surplus ex-“C1-M-AV1” and ex-“N” ships proved to be less rugged and were not even good for 25 years and so were already out of the equation before the 1970s got going. And so the additions from Europe became the key especially in growth area battles and when liners generally speeded up (the 10 knots sailing speed of the big and small war surplus ships was no longer enough).

Actually, the lack of the bigger and faster ex-European ships precluded other shipping companies from challenging in Southern Mindanao which happened to be the biggest growth area then of the country because of the big influx of settlers and the opening up for exploitation the natural resources of the island. Such their routes ended in Northern Mindanao only, if at all they reached Mindanao because there were shipping companies that sailed up to the Visayas only especially those which continued to rely on ex-“FS” and lengthened “F” ships only.

And so after a decade of ex-European ships coming (roughly in 1972, just before the breaking up of the old Go Thong into three whipping companies), the pecking order of the national liner companies changed. Compania Maritima was still on top but barely as their ship losses from accidents hit them hard. Go Thong which was not a national liner company before the war was already crowding them at the top if they haven’t surpassed Compania Maritima already. PSNC + Aboitiz which had integrated operations was still big with many ships but their fleet consisted mainly of war-surplus ships from the US and are already old although they were still trying to fight in the Southern Mindanao routes (but not up to Davao). The three might be the first tier then although Aboitiz Shipping which will soon absorb PSNC because of the ending of the “Parity Rights” is fast falling.

The second tier might consist of William Lines and Sweet Lines in near parity and just a little below the first tier. Note that Sweet Lines was not even a national liner company some seven years before but the surplus ships from Europe buoyed them up. They have already eclipsed Escano Lines and General Shipping, Philippine Pioneer Lines (and its successors Philippine Pioneer Lines and Galaxy Shipping) and Southern Lines were already gone from the inter-island routes. At this time De la Rama Shipping was just in ocean-going shipping and they acted as local agents for the foreign shipping companies whose ships are sailing here. Madrigal Shipping was already in its sunset and Manila Steamship was gone even before the European surplus ships came in force. Of course, Everett Steamship was also gone too because the “Parity Rights” which allowed them to sail here was already abrogated. Negros Navigation while healthy might just be in third tier all alone. And the fourth tier will consist of so-many small liner companies to Bicol, the Eastern Visayas and the current MIMAROPA now plus Northern Lines, Dacema Lines and KL Lines which all have routes up to Davao.

And so at the start of the 1970s, the biggest shipping companies were those which bet big in Southern Mindanao (especially General Santos City and Davao City) with their surplus European ships (the brand-new ships ordered from abroad were actually not present in Southern Mindanao except those of Compania Maritima). Some shipping companies had new ships but only a few in number and that was not enough as a route to Southern Mindanao to be maintained needs two ships alternating because roundtrip voyages need two weeks. Two ships are needed to maintain a weekly schedule and more if there are many voyages in a week to Southern Mindanao. And that is where the wisdom of buying two or three surplus ships from Europe versus a solo brand-new ship paid off.

Among the shipping companies that were not among the Top 4 (the first tier) in the mid-1960s (and that consisted of Compania Maritima, PSNC + Aboitiz Shipping, Go Thong and William Lines), it was only Sweet Lines and the combined Gothong Lines + Lorenzo Shipping (after 1972) that challenged in Southern Mindanao (the latter used a former brand-new ship acquired from Southern Lines and the other was the Dona Rita from Go Thong, their share in the partition of the old undivided company). Add to that the small Northern Lines, Dacema Lines and KL Lines which all did not last long.

The other shipping companies never entered Southern Mindanao like Escano Lines, Negros Navigation, Southern Lines, General Shipping, Philippine Pioneer Lines (the local successor of Philippine President Lines; and that includes successors Philippine Pioneer Lines and Galaxy Lines)  and Gothong Lines (when Lorenzo Lines split from them) as maybe the route was too taxing, their fleet size was not enough and they don’t have the proper ships. Aboitiz Shipping which was the successor to the Philippine Steam Navigation (PSNC) vessels was still a Southern Mindanao player in the 1970s but gradually they withdrew as they were already losing to the competition as they didn’t actually the proper ships anymore and their fleet was already growing old (what they soon rolled out were not passenger-cargo ships but container ships to Southern Mindanao).

But playing for Southern Mindanao was a critical factor then for the survival of the shipping companies as their business was already under pressure from many quarters and reasons from the 1970s (increased fuel prices, devaluation of the peso, competition from other modes of transport, local wars and other instabilities among others). It was still the area where people are still migrating in, there is still farmland to be opened (and grabbed from the natives) and land concessions were still being awarded to powerful and influential people. There was practically no road from Northern to Southern Mindanao and so the ships were still needed in the latter.

For those that did not play in Southern Mindanao and in Mindanao as a whole, the consequence was soon apparent when they were slowly defeated in the shipping competition and left in the wake or sank in the water. Shipping companies like General Shipping, Southern Lines and Philippine Pioneer Lines disappeared in the local shipping, some were weakened like Bisaya Land Transport and the other minor Eastern Visayas companies till they eventually died too, Gothong Lines practically just became a regional and the small liner companies eventually succumbed too. Some disappeared later from passenger shipping altogether like Escano Lines and Aboitiz Shipping became a ghost of its former self.

Who were the winners in these differing approaches, i.e., brand-new versus surplus ships?  It was actually those that stressed on buying second-hand ships from Europe especially Carlos A. Gothong & Co., William Lines and Sweet Lines if growth will be the basis of the comparison. In due time the three reached the rank of majors when two decades earlier they weren’t near that rank or were just regionals (and the other majors before them all sank except for Aboitiz Shipping which struck gold in container shipping). The surplus ships they purchased from Europe generally lasted 15-20 years (and some were even converted to container ships), just a little lower than the local brand-new ships) but more than enough to recoup their initial investment. However, although Compania Maritima also acquired surplus and brand-new ships from Europe, they also lost because they were bleeding ships from accidents and when Martial Law came they altogether stopped buying ships. The only exception was Negros Navigation which became stronger with brand-new ships and surplus from Japan plus they have a stranglehold in Negros Occidental.

And that was how important were the ex-European ships in our shipping history. They determined the pecking order in local shipping as soon as they arrived in numbers and they were a big factor in determining which will thrive and which will not survive.

 

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The Ten Ships From Europe That Vaulted Go Thong To No.1 Before The Break-up in 1972

In the 1960’s, Carlos A. Go Thong & Co., as it was known then. was able to latch their sail to a new commodity crop that will soon rise as the Number 1 commodity crop in the Philippines. That commodity crop was copra and its downstream product coconut oil. In the world this was the decade when coconut oil will displace animal oil (lard) as the primary cooking oil. The Philippines will become the Number 2 producer of copra in the world and the Number 1 exporter. Lu Do and Lu Ym will become the biggest aggregator of copra in the Philippines in that decade and its partnership with Go Thong and its subsidiary for international routes Universal Shipping with bring the two to the highest of heights in the trade of this commodity crop.

Go Thong will have many small ships with small passenger capacities or even none plying distant and out-of the way ports to load copra all over the Visayas and Mindanao. In many ports where they load copra, Go Thong will usually have big bodegas just for copra. In Iligan City, it was big as a city block and right there near the port and part of the city proper. All these copra will go to Lu Do and Lu Ym in Cebu and a portion of it will be milled into coconut oil, both crude coconut oil and refined coconut oil (this is what we buy from the supermarket and stores). The coconut oil and copra (mainly the latter) will be loaded in Universal Shipping vessels to be shipped to Europe (mainly West Germany) and the Far East. Other tankers, both foreign and local will also load coconut oil in the Lu Do and Lu Ym jetty in Cebu that is now partially enclosed by the SRP road.

Along the way with this trading in Europe, Go Thong was able to meet a broker or agent that promised them ten used European cargo-passenger ships that can be used in Philippine waters. In the middle of the 1960’s there was already a need for new liners in the inter-island routes as the population has already increased, the economy has already grown since 1945 and Mindanao was undergoing fast colonization (hence there was a need for ships to load people and cargo). At this time there were no more available former “FS”, former “Y”, former “F”, former PT boats and minesweepers and former “C1-M-AV1” ships from the US. Japan has no great supply yet of surplus ships as they were still in need of them to fuel their economic boom which was called the “Japan miracle”, their process of rising from the ashes of World War II to a great economic power of the world. It was only Europe that can provide the liners we needed then in the mid-1960’s.

These ten passenger-cargo ships for Go Thong along with a few local acquisitions and one from Japan vaulted a shipping company that was relatively late in the liner scene (they became a liner company only in 1954 with the launching of the lengthened ex-”F” ship Dona Conchita) to Number 1 in the very early 1970’s. They overtook the erstwhile leader Compania Maritima which was already then steadily losing ships through maritime accidents in what seemed to be a death wish. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation was then in the process of taking over the Philippine Steam Navigation Company (PSNC), their partnership with Everett Steamship. It had as many ships approximately but most of those were ex-”FS” ships whose size and quality cannot match with the new ships of Go Thong from Europe. Some of those have airconditioning and refrigeration because they were once refrigerated passenger-cargo ships in Europe and those were generally faster. Aboitiz Shipping through Everett Steamship had three good ships ordered new from Japan in 1955, the Legazpi, Elcano and Cagayan de Oro but Go Thong had more ships with airconditioning especially since they were able to acquire the former Gov. B. Lopez from the defunct Southern Lines which became the first Dona Ana.

The ten passenger-cargo ships from Europe which were fueled by the copra trade were the following:

The Gothong which was acquired from Cie Cherifienne d’Armament in 1963 whose first name was Cap Gris Nez. Later she was known as the Dona Pamela. She was built by Solvesborgs Varvs & Reden in Solvesborgs, Sweden in 1950. She measured 88.8 meters by 12.4 meters with a Gross Register Tonnage of 2,347 tons and Net Register Tonnage of 1,272 tons after modification. Her Deadweight Tonnage was 2,317 tons. She was powered with a single Atlas engine which gave her a top speed of 14 knots when new. Take note the US war-surplus ships usually ran only at 11 knots. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up in 1972.

The first Don Sulpicio which was acquired from Rederi A/B Samba in 1964 whose original name was the Colombia. Later she was known as Dona Gloria. She was built by Ekensberg in Stockholm, Sweden in 1947. Her measurements were 85.9 meters by 11.6 meters by 10.0 meters. The ship’s Gross Register Tonnage was 1,759 tons with a Net Register Tonnage of 1,079 tons. The Deadweight Tonnage was 2,235 tons. She was powered by a single Atlas engine of 2,000 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 13 knots when still new. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

The Tayabas Bay which was acquired from Liberian Navigation Company SA in 1965 which was first known as the Tekla. Later she was known as the Don Arsenio. She was built by Helsingor Vaerft in Elsinore, Denmark in 1945. She measured 110.0 meters by 14.0 meters by 8.7 meters with a Gross Register Tonnage of 2,306 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 4,197 tons. She was powered by a single Helsingors Jernskib engine which gave her a top speed of 14.5 knots when new. This ship was first used in the international routes. She went to the fleet of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. after the break-up.

In 1966, two big sister ships came which were used in the international routes. These were war-surplus former US ships but acquired from European owners.

The Manila Bay, a sister ship of Subic Bay which acquired from from A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi in 1966 was first known in Cape Pillar in the US Navy is a Type” C1-A” cargo used used for convoy duty during World War II. She was built by Pennsylvania Shipyard in Beaumont, Texas, USA. Her measurements were 125.7 meters by 8.3 meters and her Gross Register Tonnage was 5,158 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 6,440 tons. She was powered by a single Westinghouse engine of 4,000 horsepower which was good for 14 knots when new. This ship was bigger and faster than the Type “C1-M-AV1” ships of which the other local shipping companies have in their fleet then. She was broken up in 1973.

The Subic Bay, the sister ship of Manila Bay was acquired from O. Lorentzen in 1966. She was first known as the Cape St. George in the US Navy fleet and like Manila Bay she was built by Pennsylvania Shipyard in Beaumont, USA but in the year 1942. She had the same external measurements as Manila Bay but her Gross Register Tonnage was a little lower at 5,105 tons and but her Deadweight Tonnage was the same. She had the same powerplant and top speed as the Manila Bay. She was broken up in 1973.

The Dona Rita which was acquired from Cie de Nav Mixte in 1967 was first known as the Tafna. She was built by Lorient Arsenal in Lorient, France in 1949. She measured 95.3 meters by 14.0 meters and she had a Gross Register Tonnage of 2,063 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 2,147 tons. She had just a single engine but her top speed when new was 15 knots. She went to the fleet of Lorenzo Shipping Corporation after the break-up in 1972.

1967-6-8-go-thong-ns

The Dona Helene which was acquired from Cie Generale Transatlantique in 1968 was originally known as the ship Atlas. Later she was known as the Don Alberto. She was built in 1950 by the Chantiers et Ateliers de Provence in Port de Bouc, France. She measured 95.4 meters by 14.0 meters by 8.5 meters and her Gross Register Tonnage was 2,317 tons. Her Net Register Tonnage was 957 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 2,267 tons. She also had a single engine, a 3,000-horsepower Sulzer and her top speed when knew was 13 knots. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

In that same year 1968, two sister ships were acquired from Norddeutscher Lloyd.

The Don Lorenzo which was acquired from Norddeutscher Lloyd in 1968 and was first known as the Liebenstein and was a sister ship of Don Camilo. Later she was known as the Dona Julieta. She was built in 1951 by Bremer Vulkan in Vegesack, West Germany. Her measurements were 105.1 meters by 14.2 meters by 8.7 meters. The ship’s Gross Register Tonnage was 2,353 tons, her Net Register Tonnage was 1,275 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 3,175 tons. She carried 411 passengers. The Don Lorenzo was powered by a single Bremer Vulkan engine of 3,800 horsepower and she was fast at 16 knots top speed when new. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

The Don Camilo was also acquired from Norddeutscher Lloyd in 1968 and was first known as the Liechtenstein. She was the sister ship of Don Lorenzo which was also known as Dona Julieta. She was also built in 1951 by Bremer Vulkan in Vegesack, West Germany. She had the same external measurements as her sister ship. Likewise, their dimensional measurements – GRT, NRT and DWT were also the same. She had the same 3,800-horsepower Bremer Vulkan engine which was good for a fast 16 knots when new. This speed was the same as the luxury liners then running the inter-island water. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

The second Don Sulpicio was acquired from H/f Eimskipafelag Islands in 1969. She was first known as the Dettifoss and she was a refrigerated passenger-cargo ship and hence she had refrigeration and airconditioning and was a modified version of a luxury ship. She was in effect the flagship of the company from 1969 to 1975 when the third Don Sulpicio came and she became known as the Don Carlos Gothong. She was built in 1949 by Burmeister & Wein (yes, the B&W) in Copenhagen, Denmark. She measured 94.6 meters by 14.0 meters and her Gross Register Tonnage was 2,918 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 2,700 tons. She was powered by a single B&W engine and her top speed was fast at 16 knots when new. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

In 1972, one more ship arrived from Europe which became the Dona Angelina. She was the former Touggourt from Cie de Nav Mixter like the like the Dona Rita. She was also built by Provence in Port de Bouc in 1950. Her measurements were 91.4 meters by 14.0 meters and her Gross Register Tonnage was 2,696 with a Net Register Tonnage of 1,600. Her Deadweight Tonnage is 2,269. She had a Loire engine of 3,000 horsepower that gave her a design speed of 13.5 knots. Dona Angelina went to Sulpicio Lines after the break-up in 1972.

Now, i don’t know why the total is 11. Maybe Dona Angelina is not part of the ten-ship deal as she came three years later than that burst in 1963 to 1969. All were bigger and faster than ex-”FS” ships, even those lengthened ones and they were generally in the size of the former “C1-M-AV1” ships but faster. 

 In this period, Go Thong also acquired other ships from local sources. They took over the former Dona Aurora of the Maritime Company of the Philippines (the international line of Compania Maritima) in 1965 and she became the Sarangani Bay. She was used in the international routes like when she was under the Maritime Company of the Philippines.

In 1966, Go Thong acquired the Gov. B. Lopez from Southern Lines, the only luxury liner of their fleet and which has airconditioning and refrigeration. This became the first Dona Ana. This ship was a local-built by NASSCO in Mariveles, Bataan and she went to Lorenzo Shipping Corporation after the break-up.

Also in 1966, Go Thong acquired the Don Amando from Northern Lines. This was the former Tomokawa Maru from Japan built by Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation in Kobe, Japan. In the Go Thong fleet, she was first known as the Dona Hortencia before she became known as the Dona Paz (this is an earlier Dona Paz and not the infamous Dona Paz which was formerly the Himeyuri Maru) in the fleet of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc.

A grand total of 15 ship additions from 1963 to 1972 and actually 14 from 1963 to 1969, probably the fastest addition of liners in Philippine shipping history! Including minor ships in out-of-the-way routes, by 1972 Go Thong had already a fleet of more than 30 vessels including cargo ships with more than 20 of those being passenger-cargo ships. This was the biggest fleet then with more than the total of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and PSNC which only had over 20 vessels. Actually, even in 1970, the start of the new decade they already had the biggest fleet in the inter-island waters. Not included in the comparison was the bigger Philippine President Lines which was in ocean-going routes and its rise was fueled by something else.

In the split of 1972, 16 ships went to the new Sulpicio Lines Inc. Most of these were liners and it included 6 of those 10 ships (two, the Manila Bay and Subic Bay might have been retained by Universal Shipping until their break-up). Compania Maritima had a grand total of 19 ships in 1972.

Even with the split, Sulpicio Lines Inc. started with still one of the biggest fleet in the country at probably third rank in grand total. They did not start at the bottom (and will soon rise to Number 1 again).

That was the rise of Go Thong then which was real fast by any measure.

don-lorenzo

Photo Credits: Gorio Belen, Philippine Herald, Philippine Ship Spotters Society

The State of Philippine Shipping at the Start of 1990

The start of decades are many times an opportune way to take stock of things. Many countries do that by holding their censuses and we likewise do that. I want to focus on the year 1990 because the decade previous to that was very difficult and dangerous for the country and the economy. That decade was marked by many crises and turmoils and as a result our economy suffered tremendously. Economically and financially, the 1980’s was our second worst decade in the last century after the 1940’s in which World War II occurred. In that war decade, we were subject to invasion, occupation and devastation and our economy therefore shrank.

The crisis decade of the 1980’s was calamitous to our shipping. In terms of damage, it was even worse compared to the 1940’s. After the war, the United States of America (USA) replaced our ships that they requisitioned for the war (and which were lost). Later, Japan also paid reparations for the shipping damages they caused, in terms of new ships and soft loans, among other goods. In the 1980’s, we had none of such free replacements and we were not able to recover the wealth pillaged by the Marcos dictatorship. Our peso also lost so much value that acquiring ships became very difficult (in fact we can’t even buy new ships anymore unlike before). And that difficulty was reflected in the size and quality of our shipping fleet.

At the start of 1990, our biggest shipping company in the previous three decades, the Philippine President Lines or PPL (they also used the company United President Lines or UPL) was practically dead already. They were just acting as shipping agents and they were no longer sailing ships. And then their main rival in size, the Galleon Shipping Corporation which was a crony company was already bankrupt even before the end of the 1980’s. Another company of similar size, the Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Company Overseas, the ocean-going company of Compania Maritima quit shipping at the middle of the 1980’s. These three companies, our biggest, were all in the foreign trade. The ships of these three companies which were mainly chartered from the National Development Corporation or NDC (a government-owned and controlled corporation) were all seized by or returned to the Philippine Government. Those were then sold one by one to international buyers at bargain prices. These three ocean-going companies all had well over 100,000 gross tons of ships in their fleet, a size only a very few reached in all our decades of shipping.

Another shipping company that was once big, notable and well-connected, the American-owned but Philippine-based Luzon Stevedoring Company (LUSTEVECO) also went under. But this has a myriad of reasons aside from the crisis of the early 1980’s and that included the end of the so-called “Parity Rights” (where Americans were given business and commercial rights in the Philippines as if they were Philippine nationals and they can repatriate profits to the USA 100%). This was due to the Laurel-Langley Agreement taking effect in 1974. This company was practically broken up (under pressure, some said) and its assets and ships went to different companies including the Philippine Government which then passed on its assets to its government-owned shipping companies like the Philippine National Oil Company or PNOC.

Our biggest inter-island shipping company for nearly 90 years, the Compania Maritima which has Spanish origins and which started when Spain was still ruling the Philippines was also gone by the mid-1980’s. They quit at the height of the political and financial crisis then when everybody was panicking and many companies were going bankrupt or otherwise illiquid. The owners, the Fernandez brothers who were dual citizens packed up their bags and headed back to Spain (and to think one of them was a former Senator of the Republic!). Compania Maritima was so big – aside from local ahipping they also had an international shipping line (the Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Overseas Company as mentioned before) plus they owned ports and they had stevedoring and forwarding operations.

A host of our smaller shipping lines with foreign routes also went belly up or quit in the 1980’s. These included General Shipping Corporation, Northern Lines Inc., Transocean Transport Corporation, Philippine Ace Shipping Lines, Philippine Transmarine Carriers, Triton Pacific Maritime Corporation, etc. Actually, so many (as in about three dozens) of our big freighters, refrigerated cargo ships and bulk carriers owned by the National Development Corporation that were chartered to Philippine shipping companies doing overseas routes (especially Galleon Shipping Corporation, Philippine President Lines/United President Lines and Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Company Overseas) were broken up in the 1980’s because they were no longer sailing. About the same number were also sold to foreign shipping companies and usually at bargain prices. The decade of the 1980’s witnessed the practical end of our ocean-going fleet and after that we only had half a dozen ships remaining doing foreign routes and those were mainly below 100 meters in length.

Along with Compania Maritima, the graveyard list of our inter-island shipping companies is really long and so I will just enumerate the them. These companies did not even make it out of that horrendous decade for Philippine shipping:

Galaxy Lines (an offspring of Philippine President Lines)
Northern Lines (referring to their inter-island operation)
North Camarines Lumber Company/NCL/NORCAMCO (they changed names)
N & S Lines
Bisayan Land Transport
Newport Shipping
Cardinal Shipping
Rodrigueza Shipping
May-Nilad Shipping
Javellana Shipping
Visayan Transportation
Corominas, Richards Navigation
Royal Line
Veloso Shipping
Visayas Lines
MD Shipping
Tomas del Rio & Co. (formerly Rio y Olabarrieta)
Balabac Navigation

This is far from a complete list as there were many regional shipping companies which went down quietly and it is hard to enumerate them all for many are indistinct.

In the liner front, two old liner companies were no longer carrying passengers at the start of 1990. These were the Escano Lines, a pre-World War II shipping company and Lorenzo Shipping, a spin-off of the old Carlos A. Go Thong & Company. Both decided to just stick to cargo and container shipping. Maybe refleeting for passenger service with liner ships was already too much for them after that crisis decade of the 1980’s.

William Lines and Sulpicio Lines seem to have been the healthiest and definitely the biggest strongest at the start of 1990. Among the shipping companies they were in the best position to take advantage of the fall of erstwhile leader Compania Maritima and the retreat of Lorenzo Shipping and Escano Lines from passenger shipping along with the withdrawal and dissolution of many other various shipping companies in the 1980’s because the two truly had national routes unlike the other liner shipping companies.

William Lines Inc. had nine liners at the start of 1990 and that included two old former FS ships still surviving. Their liners were the Dona Virginia, Manila City, Ozamis City, Cebu City, Tacloban City, Misamis Occidental, Masbate I, Don Jose I and Edward. The last two were ex-FS ships on their last legs. Their overnight ferry was the Iligan City, a former liner then just doing the Cebu-Iligan route. They also had two RORO Cargo ships that can take in passengers and these were the Wilcon I and Wilcon IV. Their other container ships were the Wilcon II, Wilcon III, Wilcon V, Wilcon X and Wilcon XI.

Sulpicio Lines Inc. had eight liners and these were the Filipina Princess, Philippine Princess, Davao Princess, Don Eusebio, Cotabato Princess, Surigao Princess, Cebu Princess and Dona Susana. Their overnight ferries were the Nasipit Princess, Cagayan Princess and Butuan Princess. Their container ships were the Sulpicio Container II, Sulpicio Container III, Sulpicio Container IV, Sulpicio Container V, Sulpicio Container VI, Sulpicio Container VII, Sulpicio Container VIII, Sulpicio Container IX, Sulpicio Container XI, Sulpicio Container XII and Sulpicio Container XIV. Aside from liners, Sulpicio Lines had more ships than William Lines in the other categories (overnight ferries and container ships).

Sweet Lines Inc. had six liners at the start of 1990, the Sweet Baby, Sweet RORO 2, Sweet Glory, the second Sweet Sail and Sweet Hope. Their liner Sweet RORO I was no longer running reliably then and would soon be broken up. Their overnight ships were Sweet Pearl, Sweet Hope, Sweet Marine, Sweet Heart, Sweet Home and the second Sweet Time which sailed Visayas-Mindanao routes. They had a separate cargo-container liner company then which was the Central Shipping Company with the ships Central Mindoro, Central Visayas, Central Cebu and Central Bohol. Another cargo shipping company they had was the Casas Navigation Corporation with the ship Casas Victoria.

Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had three old liners then, the Legazpi, Ormoc and Legaspi 1 (the former Katipunan of Escano Lines) and these were just sailing their two remaining liner routes to Capiz and Leyte. They had four overnight ships, the Elcano, Ramon Aboitiz, the first Aklan, and the ex-FS ship Picket II, which were all old, former liners in their last legs. They also had the Marcelino, an ex-FS ship and Guillermo in the subsidiary Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had the most container ships locally with twelve: the Aboitiz Superconcarrier I, Aboitiz Superconcarrier II, Aboitiz Superconcarrier III, Aboitiz Megaconcarrier I, Aboitiz Concarrier I, Aboitiz Concarrier II, Aboitiz Concarrier IV, Aboitiz Concarrier VI, Aboitiz Concarrier VIII, Aboitiz Concarrier X, Aboitiz Concarrier XI and Aboitiz Concarrier XII. Container shipping was the strength of Aboitiz Shipping because they concentrated on this when for 14 years they did not buy any liners, the reason their liner fleet wilted.

Negros Navigation Company had five liners sailing then, the Sta. Florentina, Sta. Ana, Don Julio, Don Claudio and Sta. Maria. These were just sailing five routes then – Romblon, Roxas City, Iloilo, Bacolod and Cagayan de Oro. They also had two Iloilo-Bacolod ferries, the cruisers Don Vicente and the Princess of Panay which was a former liner. This shipping company also had four cargo/container ships, the San Sebastian, Connie II, Aphrodite J and Athena J. The last two were local-built cargo ships.

Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) had three liners then, the Our Lady of Fatima, Our Lady of Lourdes and the Our Lady of Guadalupe. Their overnight ships on Visayas-Mindanao routes were the Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, Dona Cristina, Don Calvino, Dona Lili, Don Benjamin and the RORO Cargo ship Our Lady of Hope, their only cargo ship. Together with Sweet Lines and Trans-Asia Shipping Lines, CAGLI was the dominant Visayas-Mindanao regional shipping company at the start of 1990.

Madrigal Shipping Corporation, a very old shipping company with pre-World War II origins was then attempting a comeback in liner shipping with the cruiser liners Madrigal Surigao and Madrigal Tacloban (but these were registered with the Cortes Shipping Company of Zamboanga which I never heard of). With the routes they were sailing they were, in effect, the partial replacement of the abandoned passenger routes of Escano Lines because they sailed the same routes. By this time, Madrigal Shipping had already shorn off their old liners, cargo ships and routes. They, however, had one big cargo ship sailing an overseas route, the Madrigal Integrity.

For brevity, I shall no longer mention all the cargo shipping companies for they are long because they are many. I will just enumerate and describe the cargo companies which were in the more advanced and more important container liner operations (as distinguished from the general cargo ships and those that were in tramper operations). Only three companies without passenger operations were into cargo-container operations at the start of 1990 – Lorenzo Shipping, Escano Lines and Solid Shipping. Among these three, it was Lorenzo Shipping Corporation which was the biggest with a cargo-container fleet that can match the biggest cargo-container shipping companies that had passenger operations. In their fleet they had the Lorcon I, Lorcon IV, Lorcon V, Lorcon VI, Lorcon IX, Lorcon XI, Lorcon XII (the former liner Sweet Grace which was converted into a container ship), Dona Anita, Euney, Dadiangas Express and Cagayan de Oro Express.

Escano Lines had in their fleet the Virgen de la Paz, Foxbat, Kiowa, La Lealtad, Greyhound, Harpoon, Squirrel, Terrier, Wolverine and two or three other freighters. However, only the first four were container liners (liners have fixed routes and schedules) while the rest were general cargo ships in tramping duties (let it be clarified they can substitute for the first four since practically speaking any general cargo ship can also carry container vans). Moreover, Escano Lines normally carry a mixed breakbulk cargo and container vans in their ships. Meanwhile, the Solid Shipping Lines only had the Solid Uno, Solid Dos and Solid Tres in their fleet. I am not sure if their Maligaya was still with them then. They were small because they were just a new shipping company then. However, one which was bigger than Solid Shipping and had container operations before, the Sea Transport Company, also did not make it to the 1980’s. They quit just before the end of the decade and sold their ships to other shipping companies.

From about two dozen passenger liner companies at the start of 1980, we just had a total of seven passenger liner companies left at the start of 1990 and the seventh was the comebacking Madrigal Shipping Company. Because of the fall in the number of shipping operators and with a fast growing population and the economy reviving, the Philippines at the start of 1990 had a severe lack of inter-island passenger ships. In the international front, there was almost no longer ocean-going ships to speak of. Aboitiz Shipping Company and Eastern Shipping Company were practically the only Philippine shipping companies still trying to do foreign routes then but their number of ships might just add to half a dozen and those were much smaller than the ships of Philippine President Lines, Galleon Shipping Company and Maritime Company of the Philippines. That was how precipitous was our drop in shipping in a span of just ten years because of the crisis decade of the 1980’s.

To think conditions in the other fronts were favorable for shipping as there were no budget airlines yet and so air fares were still high. There were also just a few intermodal buses then and there was a general dearth of bus units too. Because of such factors cited there were a lot of passengers for the ships. Maybe this is what some remember that liners then were full to to the brim and there were many well-wishers in ports during departures (and of course many fetchers too during arrivals). There were always tales of passengers being left behind because there were no more tickets left (I have seen that myself). And there were tales of overloading too, of course. The decade of the 1990’s was actually characterized by new great liners having a passenger capacity of over 2,000. Probably, that was the response to our lack of liners and liner shipping companies then.

And that is the story of our shipping in the 1980’s which was reflected at the start of 1990. In a future article, I will discuss in detail our failure in cargo shipping in the same period. Abangan!

[Image Credit: Gorio Belen and Business World]                                                                                     [Research Support: Gorio Belen]                                                                                                                   [Database Support: Jun Marquez/Mike Baylon/PSSS]