RORO Cargo Ships And Vehicle Carriers That Were Converted Into ROPAXes In The Philippines

RORO (Roll-on, Roll-off) Cargo Ships differ from ROPAXes (RORO-Passenger Ships) in that the former are mainly for carrying rolling cargo (vehicles mainly but could also be heavy equipment) with their drivers and crew and as such their passenger capacity and amenities like a restaurant or cafeteria are small. They are mainly designed to ferry vehicles across the sea with the least loading and unloading time. Their sizes vary depending on the distance and the traffic volume. Generally, they have higher sides.

In the Philippines, they are represented currently by the Super Shuttle RORO 7, Super Shuttle RORO 8, Super Shuttle RORO 9, Super Shuttle RORO 10, Super Shuttle RORO 11 and the Super Shuttle RORO 12 of the Asian Marine Transport Corporation (AMTC). They are also represented by the Dapitan Bay 1, Panglao Bay 1 and Batangas Bay 1 of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI). But this selection is the relatively large ones by RORO Cargo Ship standard. There were smaller versions of it in the past.

Vehicle Carriers are similar to RORO Cargo Ships but instead of acting like commuters they deliver vehicles from the factories to a destination and so they will come back without load unlike the RORO Cargo Ships.  Vehicle Carriers could be smaller or bigger than RORO Cargo Ships but lately they began growing bigger to be more efficient in bringing new cars from the likes of Japan to the United States. Those delivering cars within Japan only were considerably smaller.

In the Philippines, there were several RORO Cargo Ships and Vehicle Carriers that were converted into ROPAXes or what is commonly called as ROROs here and most became RORO Liners of the major liner companies. Per ton, a RORO Cargo Ship or a Vehicle Carrier is cheaper than a ROPAX as it doesn’t have that much equipment and amenities for passengers. Besides, for the same size, they could have smaller engine/engines and so the speed is a bit less.

In refitting, it is possible that in a RORO Cargo Ship or a Vehicle Carrier that metal has to chopped off. Meanwhile, locally, it is normal to add metal to a ROPAX from Japan to add decks for more passenger accommodation. Viewing areas were not considered in the building of RORO Cargo Ships and Vehicle Carriers and that could be one reason for chopping off metal.

I noticed that RORO Cargo or Vehicle Carrier conversion here goes by streaks by shipping lines that has a liking for them for the benefits they offer like a smaller capital cost for the same capacity and I agree with them it is a route worth taking. Maybe the first who took this route was the K&T Shipping Lines which was later known as the Maypalad Shipping Lines after their ferry Kalibo Star sank in Samar Sea in the late 1990s.

Samar Star

Many do not know that K&T Shipping was among the first in the acquisition of ROROs and maybe one reason for that is their ROROs do not look like the traditional ROROs of the other shipping lines. Their first RORO was the Samar Queen that was later renamed into Samar Star which actually became their last ship existing but not sailing. This ship was classified as a Ferry-RORO in Japan but she has the looks a cargo ship like a trio of sister ships K&T Shipping later acquired – the Leyte Star (a.k.a. Leyte Queen), the Cebu Star (a.k.a. Cebu Queen) and the Kalibo Star (a.k.a. Ocean Star). The difference is these four ships have rear-quarter ramps and a car deck and in order for them to carry passengers, K&T Shipping built a passenger deck atop the car deck. In Japan, the trio was classified as Vehicle Carriers.

Leyte Star

The Leyte Star by Edison Sy of PSSS.

The Samar Queen was smaller than the three sister ships at 56.6m x 9.0m x 5.6m and she arrived in 1980 which was just the dawn of RORO (more exactly ROPAX) shipping in the Philippines. Meanwhile, the Leyte Queen arrived in 1984 and the Cebu Queen arrived in 1986. Then the ill-fated Kalibo Star arrived in 1992. All of the three were former Toyo Maru ships in Japan but they have different owners. The external measurement of the Kalibo Star was 72.0m x 10.4m x 4.5m and the measurements of the other two sister ships hew closely to this.

The trio of sister ships were powered by a single 1,250-horsepower Hanshin engine which gave a design speed of 12.5 knots. The Samar Star has a single 1,300 Nippatsu-Fuji engine giving a speed of 13 knots. And this brings up one characteristic of small RORO Cargo ships and Vehicle Carriers. They are generally powered by a single engine only whereas ROPAXes of their size almost invariably have two engines and are faster.

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Cebu Star by Rex Nerves of PSSS.

These four K&T ships have one of the minimum conversions in this type of ships. At the start, the passengers just have to unroll cots and look for a place that they prefer.  Their main cargo here was not rolling cargo either. Nothing unusual in that as most Cebu overnight ferries carry loose and palletized cargo in the main. In loading and unloading, forklifts are used just like in the other Cebu overnight ferries.

Before I digress further, the first of this type of ships converted into ROPAX might be the Don Carlos of Sulpicio Lines Inc. which arrived in 1977 and was classified as a Vehicle Carrier in Japan. Actually, the Don Carlos could very well be our very first ROPAX that is not an LCT. This ship was formerly the Daiten Maru of the Masumoto Kisen KK in Japan. She also not carried rolling cargo except for some trucks and heavy equipment destined for the South (her route is to General Santos City) and on the return trip livestock was loaded. She suffered a piracy attack in 1978 and later she was just used as a cargo ship.

1978 0508 Hijacked Ship

Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library.

The Don Carlos measured 71.6m x 10.9m x 4.9m which is almost the same of the measurements of the K&T Shipping sistership trio. However, this Sulpicio ferry looks like a regular ROPAX after refitting. She was equipped with a single Hanshin engine of 1,300 horsepower and her design speed was 12.5 knots and that speed was her one weakness as she was sailing a long route.

The second shipping company that had a liking for this type of ship to be converted as ROPAXes was the Carlos A. Gothong Lines, Inc. (CAGLI). This happened when they were building up their fleet so that they can return to their Manila route after her break-up with Lorenzo Shipping Corporation. After the break-up Gothong Lines concentrated on the Visayas-Mindanao routes but they relied on small ROPAXes. For the Manila route, they needed bigger ships and acquiring this type I am discussing was their route.

Their first of this type converted to ROPAX might have been the Our Lady of Guadalupe which was Asaka Maru No.8 in Japan and was classified as a Ferry-RORO. But to me she has the built of a Vehicle Carrier which meant metal has to be taken off rather than added like what happens in the former ROPAXes of Japan brought here. One thing notable in the Our Lady of Guadalupe is the high sides with few viewing areas for passengers. The two traits are traits of Vehicle Carriers.

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Our Lady of Guadalupe by Toshihiko Mikami of PSSS.

The Our Lady of Guadalupe measured 89.7m x 14.4m x 4.8m with a passenger capacity of 674 persons. She was powered by two Niigata engines with a total of 5,400 horsepower and her top sustained speed when new was 16 knots. She was fielded in the Manila route in 1986 before being downgraded by Gothong Lines to the Cebu-Surigao route in the early 1990s and she had the reputation of being unreliable and that helped the new Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc. to survive in the route. Her unreliability was never resolved even when she was passed on to the Cebu Ferries Company after the “Great Merger” of 1996.

In 1990, Gothong Lines acquired a pair of sister ships classified as RORO Cargo ships in Japan. The two are the Shinsei Maru which became the Our Lady of Sacred Heart and the Shinka Maru which became first as the Sto. Nino de Cebu. The latter suffered a fire early on after fielding (how can a ship with such a magical name catch fire?) but she was repaired and she was renamed into the Our Lady of Medjugorje. The two are among the better conversions that I have seen and in the latter I love her verandas and she was among my favorite ships.

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Our Lady of Sacred Heart by Chief Ray Smith of PSSS.

The sister ships have already been lengthened in Japan and they measured an identical 123.0m x 18.0m x 12.3 meters and that size was average for many of the liners that came in 1990-92 although their passenger capacity did not reach 2,000 persons. The two were not built in the same shipyard. The Our Lady of Sacred Heart was built by Tsuneishi Shipbuilding in 1978 and the Our Lady of Medjugorje was built by the Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding in 1979. The first had a single 9,000 horsepower Mitsui engine while the latter had a single 8,000 horspower engine but both had a design speed of 17 knots which became 16.5 knots in the country. In the “Great Merger” they were transferred to WG&A and they continued to ply a route from Manila and sometimes pairing with each other as they have the same speed (sometimes with SuperFerry 3 too that also has the same speed with them).

Our Lady of Medjugorje (Aboitiz)

Our Lady of Medjugorje by Albritz Salih of PSSS.

A related company, the Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC) acquired in 2009 and 2010 two ships, the Asakaze and Esan which became the Cebu Ferry 2 and Cebu Ferry 3. In Japan they were classified as Ferry-ROROs but they do not look like the type. They might have a small passenger capacity but both featured open car decks and so plenty of metal has to be added in them to become ROPAXes. I do not consider the two part of the type I am discussing.

When Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. divested from WG&A, their first acquisition in 2001 when the divestment was not yet complete was actually a RORO Cargo ship, the Koyo Maru of Keiyo Kisen which became the Butuan Bay 1 in their fleet. At 114.8m x 19.0m x 9.6m, she was not a small ship. What are striking about her was her height and the length of her ramp. The ship was built by Iwagi Zosen in 1989 and she is powered by a single Mitsubishi-MAN engine with 9,600 horsepower that gave her a speed of 17.5 knots.

Butuan Bay 1 in Iligan City

Butuan Bay 1 by Josel Nino Bado of PSSS.

However, her refitting was not first-class (two passenger decks were just added atop her decks) and so when she was sold to Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI) in 2010 after an engine room explosion, TASLI remodeled the ship comprehensibly and she became a looker as the Trans-Asia 5. However, when MARINA took exception to her conking out and wallowing in water (the disadvantage of a single-engine design), she was reverted into a cargo ship and parts of her superstructure were removed. Still, she is a good-looking ship.

Trans Asia 5

The old Trans-Asia 5 by Michael Roger Denne of  PSSS.

Trans-Asia 5

The new Trans-Asia 5 by Mike Baylon of PSSS.

Recently, another shipping company took as liking for this type to be converted into ROPAXes. This is the Asian Marine Transport Corporation (AMTC) which also operates many RORO Cargo ships for their cargo liner operations. Their conversions started their Super Shuttle RORO series but it stopped at three as it seems they found out they were not really good in passenger liner operations.

Their first ship converted was the small RORO Cargo ship Cebu Trader which became the Super Shuttle RORO 1. This ship was built in 1978 by Trosvik Verskted in Norway and has passed into many hands already which is normal in Europe especially for this type. She measured 97.2m x 16.6m x 6.4m and she was powered by two Hedemora engines with a low total of 2,600 horsepower but still her design speed was 14.5 knots (which is a little doubtful).

Super Shuttle Roro 1

Super Shuttle RORO 1 by Fr. Bar Fabella, SVD of PSSS.

AMTC acquired this ship in 2011 and she was tastefully and even moderniscally refitted in Ouano port for ASR in Mandaue, Cebu which showed none of her age. However, she did not serve long as in 2012 she caught fire in heavy downpour while taking shelter from a tropical storm in Looc Bay in Tablas Island, Romblon on a route from Batangas to Dumaguit via Odiongan. She was never repaired.

The next in the series actually came in 2010 and was a small Vehicle Carrier. This was the former Koyo Maru No. 23 in Japan which became the Super Shuttle RORO 2 for AMTC after conversion. The ship measures 90.0m x 14.2m x 11.6m and she is powered by a single Hanshin engine of 3,200 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 14.5 knots when was still new.

Super Shuttle Roro 2

Super Shuttle RORO 2 by Raymond Lapus of PSSS.

However, even with an equal design speed it was said she was faster than the Super Shuttle RORO 1 in the same route to Dumaguit port in Aklan. Well, this ship was built later in 1987 by Imamura Shipbuilding in Japan and that could be a difference. Super Shuttle RORO 2 still sails in the same route but sometimes she takes long breaks.

The last ship in the series is the biggest of the three at 128.8m x 19.9m x 6.6m which is already not small for a liner but she was not developed well and her Tourist section was not even finished. This ship was the Vehicle Carrier Atsuta Maru in Japan that was built by Kanda Shipbuilding and she was named as the Super Shuttle RORO 3 in AMTC. Her route is Batangas-Masbate-Mandaue-Cagayan de Oro and with unfavorable arrivals and departures she never became popular with the passengers especially when her departure times became hard to divine as the company gave priority to cargo. However, her cargo load is always good.

Super Shuttle Roro 3

Super Shuttle RORO 3 by Aris Refugio of PSSS.

Recently, she no longer takes in passengers. Before she was a cheap, direct ride to Batangas but the passengers have to bear hardships. I was lucky I was able to ride her when she was still taking passengers. There were times too when she became unreliable and can’t sail for extended periods of time. She has a single 8,000 horsepower Hitachi engine which powers her to 18 knots when still new. Her unreliability seems to stem from maintenance problems.

Roble Shipping Inc. also tried this type of conversion when they acquired the Vehicle Carrier Taelim Iris from South Korea in 2015. They did not immediately do work on the ship and when work commenced it was just done in their wharf in Pier 7 in Mandaue, Cebu. A lot of metal was added but after the work was finished a beautiful Oroquieta Stars emerged which became their pride. Originally meant for Misamis Occidental, she became a regular to Baybay, Leyte where she is a favorite.

Oroquieta Stars

Oroquieta Stars by James Gabriel Verallo of PSSS.

The Oroquieta Stars measures 77.4m x 12.0m x 8.1m and she is equipped with two Akasaka engines with a total of 4,900 horsepower. Her design speed is 16 knots and that is more than enough for a Leyte overnight ship. She was built by Sanyo Shipbuilding in Japan in 1994.

Another company which tried this conversion route was the Aleson Shipping Lines of Zamboanga. They acquired the Ariake Maru No.18 in 2016, a Vehicle Carrier in Japan built by Honda Shipbuilding. This ship has high sides and to have passenger viewing areas and access, metal has to sloughed off. In the Aleson fleet, this ship became known as the Antonia 1 and named after the matriarch of the company.

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Antonia 1 by Albritz Salih of PSSS.

The Antonia 1 measures 103.6m x 15.5m x 11.5m and she is powered a single Akasaka-Mitsubishi engine of 4,000 horsepower. Her design speed is 15 knots. Presently, the ship’s route is Zamboanga-Sandakan, our only international passenger ship route.

The last company which tried this route of conversion is the Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI). They acquired the Warrior Spirit in 2016 and even earlier than the Antonia 1. While the Antonia 1 sailed in 2017, the Warrior Spirit which was renamed into the third Trans-Asia still can’t sail as a host of ailments that defied easy solutions bugged her especially in the engine department.

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Trans-Asia by C/E John Nino Malinao Borgonia of PSSS

The ship was built by Nouvelle Havre in France in 1980. Trans-Asia, the third, measures 126.2m x 21.0m and her design speed is 19 knots. With high sides and being tall, this ship is the biggest-ever of Trans-Asia Shipping Lines. And I hope that finally they will be able to solve her problems.

I am not too sure if my list is complete. But I would want to see in the future what other ships of this type will be converted into ROPAX in our country again.

 

 

 

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The Flagship and Great Liner Wars Going Into the Middle ’90s

If the deadly-for-shipping decade of the ’80s ended in 1990, in 1992 and more so in 1993 there was a palpable change of mood in the local shipping industry. There was optimism, a new outlook and the surviving shipping companies were raring to go instead of just trying to keep their heads above water. There was a new administration ruling in Malacanang under President Fidel V. Ramos which has called for shipping modernization (it was not just modernization but also to address our lack of ferries then). It rolled out incentives for shipping including a program to acquire new ships. The power crisis and the coup d’etat attempts against the previous administration were over and business was picking up. An uptick in business is also a call for shipping expansion, so it was thought then.

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I remember that 1992 and 1993 were signal years for Philippine shipping. That was when great liners (Frank Heine and Frank Lose defined this as liners of over 10,000 gross tons) started arriving in local shores and the flagship wars of the local shipping companies began in earnest. It took the competitors of Sulpicio Lines four or five years before they were able to respond to the knock-out punch delivered by Sulpicio Lines in 1988 when they acquired the trio of Filipina Princess, Cotabato Princess and Nasipit Princess. William Lines, then the closest competitor of Sulpicio Lines for the bragging rights of which is Numero Uno rolled out the splendid-looking with impressive interiors, the tall Maynilad in 1992. However, she had an Achilles heel which cannot be remedied – she severely lacked speed, a requirement for great liners and she was just in the 140-meter class, no matter how much superstructure they tried to build into her.

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Maynilad by Britz Salih

Aboitiz Shipping Corporation fielded the SuperFerry 2 in 1992. She was much like in the interiors and size of the SuperFerry 1 at being in the 130-meter class also but her passenger capacity was maxed. However, she was not in the 20-knot class unlike the SuperFerry 1 and Filipina Princess. Twenty knots was already the speed considered necessary then for great liners locally, if they wanted bragging rights. Negros Navigation fielded the San Paolo in 1992 and the Princess of Negros, their new flagship, in 1993. But both were just in the 110-meter class and their speeds were just about equal to SuperFerry 2 at most. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation also fielded the SuperFerry 3 in 1993 but she was also in the 110-meter class like the San Paolo and the Princess of Negros. Moreover, her speed was a little inferior to the two.

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Mabuhay 1 by Britz Salih

In 1993, William Lines and Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) showed two great liners that were a direct challenge to Sulpicio Lines. William Lines fielded the great Mabuhay 1 which was also in the 180-meter class like the Filipina Princess but was more modern-looking. The Our Lady of Akita of Gothong Lines was not as sleek-looking but she was also big being in the 160-meter class. When the two arrived, it was only Filipina Princess which was breaching the 150-meter mark among local liners in length.

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Our Lady of Akita by Britz Salih

News of incoming liners to the Philippines usually become rumors in Japan shipping circles even before the ships prepare to leave Japan waters and that could even be months in advance. After all, it is just a small, close-knit circle and news of a newbuilding of a ship that will replace a sailing one on the same route are also known by the time the keels are laid. And that is about half a year or more before they are even delivered. So speculations are always rife as to where the ships that will be replaced will be headed (in terms of country) and who is the agent and the buyer.

In Japan, a company bet big on the “Highways of the Sea”, the big, fast overnight ROROs which connected the northern and southern parts of Japan to its central part and metropolises. The Terukuni group and its shipping company Nihon Kosoku Ferry built the all-big (only one is less than 180-meters length in a series of seven) Sun Flower series of luxury liners successively between 1972 and 1974. Not only all were grand but all were very well-appointed and tops in comfort. Like floating “hotels of the sea”, they were the Japan equivalent of the legendary Stena series of luxury ferries in Sweden and in Europe.

Terukuni and its shipping company did not earn money from the series and became financially distressed and so changes in the ownership structure came about. Even so, the Sun Flower series became highly regarded. At times, the more important thing was the impact, the lasting impression and the regard created in the public’s mind. The Sun Flower series was well-remembered in Japan to almost the equivalent to being able to lay down a template.

The Philippines was lucky we had Japan connections and so a few of these great and grand liners of Japan came to our shores. Some will notice that the great liners that came later like SuperFerry 20 and SuperFerry 21 (the two were also Sun Flowers) and St. Michael The Archangel and St. Francis Xavier (which are sister ships of the first pair) are no longer as luxurious. Tastes and conditions have changed. In the 1990’s, the new “Highways of the Sea” were just functional ferries and no longer offered First Class. They might rival their 1970’s predecessors in size and speed but they were no match in the arena of appointments and luxury.

Two of these 1970’s beautiful Sun Flower ships came at the same year in the Philippines – amazingly to compete with each other! Sun Flower 5 came to William Lines and became her Mabuhay 1, the progenitor of the highest class of William Lines liners. At 185 meters, she was of the same size as the former reigning queen of Philippine shipping, the Filipina Princess of Sulpicio Lines. But Mabuhay 1 was more-modern looking and she had better appointments. Both were 20-knot class in speed but Filipina Princess was still speedier. After all, she still has an edge of nearly 6,000 horsepower in power output.

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Princess of the Orient by Toshihiko Mikami thru Britz Salih

But Sulpicio Lines was not to be denied. The biggest of the Sun Flower series which was the Sun Flower 11 came to Sulpicio Lines and became the Princess of the Orient in 1993. This ship had that distinctive two funnels in one line in the center of the ship, a feature not present in the other Sun Flowers. She was also in the 195-meter class. As such, she will hold the title of being the biggest liner in the Philippines at that time. However, she might have been bigger and taller but she cannot do 20 knots unlike the Mabuhay 1. [As a footnote to this class, another one of the Sun Flowers came in 1999, a true sister of Mabuhay 1. That was the Princess of New Unity of Sulpicio Lines which was the Sun Flower 8 in Japan].

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Princess of Paradise by Aris Refugio

And it was not only the Princess of the Orient that came for Sulpicio Lines in 1993. That year she also acquired the big, fast, tall and well-appointed Princess of Paradise from China (but she was originally sailing in Japan). With her fielding, she will be the next holder of the title “Speed Queen” among the liners, the successor to the Filipina Princess in this category.

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St. Francis of Assisi (saved from the net by ‘rrd80’)

The Princess of Paradise was also in the 160-meter class like the Our Lady of Akita but the former was more modern-looking. The two will battle not only in the Cagayan de Oro route and also the Cebu and Nasipit routes. Meanwhile, the Mabuhay 1 and Princess of the Orient will battle in the premier Cebu route (with Filipina Princess still calling in Cebu on the way to Davao). Mabuhay 1 will also show her colors once a week in Iloilo. It is to this challenge to their home port that Negros Navigation responded in 1994 with the equally-impressive and fast St. Francis of Assisi, their next flagship. She was not that big at 140-meter class but she can also do 20 knots and she was very well-appointed, too.

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Princess of the Pacific by Britz Salih

The third ship that came to Sulpicio Lines in 1993 for its wars for the Number 1 position among our shipping companies was the Princess of the Pacific. She was made tall but she was only 137 meters in length, about the length of the new Aboitiz liners. She had the same speed of 18.5 knots like the Princess of the Orient (and better than SuperFerry 2) but she was not that well-appointed. She also docked in Iloilo on her way to Zamboanga and General Santos City. It seems that like in 1988, to fend off competition Sulpicio Lines acquires a bunch of impressive, new liners.

When Mabuhay 1 came to take over flagship duties for William Lines in the premier route to Cebu, in a short time their former flagship Sugbu previously holding that route quietly disappeared. She headed to Singapore for reincarnation as the third ship of the Mabuhay series in 1994, the Mabuhay 3. When she came back, few were able to recognize her as she was lengthened and the superstructure changed and with modifications she was now capable of 20 knots.

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Mabuhay 3 as Super by Vincent Paul Sanchez

Suddenly, in 1993 we truly had great liners in size and in appointments. They all breached 160 meters in length and they were all in the 10,000-gross ton class. In amenities, luxury and passenger service they were a step ahead of the previous big liners. With their more modern design, even the great Filipina Princess suddenly looked old (but not in speed!).

In this year, we were beginning to reach the pinnacle of local passenger liner shipping. More liners will then come together with a “Great Merger” that produced WG&A. From a lack of bottoms at the start of 1990, it seemed to me that before the decade was out we already had a surplus of liners. This can be shown when older liners especially the cruiser liners were sent to the breakers. Some, however, were acquired by regional shipping companies like the Sampaguita Shipping of Zamboanga. This was also apparent in sending old RORO liners to the overnight routes of Cebu Ferries Corporation.

It was not a one-alley fight, however. Intermodal buses were beginning to muscle in especially in the eastern seaboard and a new budget airline, the Cebu Pacific Air was born. On the cargo side, forwarding and trucking companies were mushrooming powered by the arrival of fast surplus trucks in the Subic free port. And this included the wing van trucks which will soon be the bane of the container vans.

From the pinnacle, where is one headed especially if blind to parallel competition?

The San Lorenzo Ruiz of Negros Navigation

This article is about the liner San Lorenzo Ruiz of Negros Navigation and not the short-distance ferry-RORO of Viva Shipping Lines of Batangas. It was just a wonder from me how come MARINA allowed the use of the same name for two different ROROs when that is not normally allowed. And so because of that some people became confused especially if they have not seen the two liners. Actually one won’t see them at the same time because they have different ports of calls and routes. The nearest the two will be near each other was if they were at the same time in Verde Island Passage between Batangas and Mindoro when they are crossing each other’s path as the Viva Shipping Lines vessel is a Batangas to Mindoro ferry and the Negros Navigation ferry uses the strait on the way to the Visayas and Mindanao.

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The San Lorenzo Ruiz by Marlon Griego and Nowell Alcancia

The San Lorenzo Ruiz is one liner I like for its economical design because it is much like the SuperFerry 2, SuperFerry 5, Mabuhay 2, Princess of the Pacific, Princess of the South, Our Lady of Banneux and Cagayan Bay 1. The class they are in have the length of between 128 to 143 meters (or roughly the 130-meter class) with engines between 15,000 to 16,000 horsepower and with a design speed of about 20 knots and a local speed here of about 18 knots after the addition of metal in the superstructure and the passing of nearly two decades of service. This class has the capacity of some 100 TEUs of container vans which is about enough for the local routes. The class’ speed, capacity and amenities are adequate too for a liner and passenger accommodations don’t have to be so maximized unlike the 110-meter liners. This class has definitely more speed too than that class although they don’t have the 20 knots here of the 150-meter liners with 20,000 horsepower engines but their fuel consumption is definitely less. This class is actually what is perfect for the routes that are not serving Cebu, the country’s premier city and port south of Manila.

The speed differential between an 18-knot liner and a 20-knot liner is really not that great. Going to Cebu and rounding the eastern side of Mactan island, the latter will have a transit time of 21 hours and the former will have a transit time of about 22 hours. At 17.5 knots, the SuperFerry 2 and SuperFerry 5 also can do it in 22 hours because they need not use the eastern seaboard of Mactan for the reason that they can pass under the two Mactan bridges because they have folding stern masts. To me it was even a puzzle why so many of our liners were in the 150-meter class with 20,000 or so horsepower and 20 knots. In terms of container capacity the difference is not great since their breadth is just about the same of the 130-140 meter lines. But 15,000 to 16,000 horsepower is much less than 20,000 to 22,000 horsepower in terms of fuel consumption. Well, actually at the height of fuel prices a few years ago the 2GO itself downgraded the engine speeds and consequently the ferries’ speed to save on fuel. Few really run at 20 knots nowadays and that just proves that 20 knots was really never necessary.

The ROPAX ship San Lorenzo Ruiz of Negros Navigation was built by Nipponkai Heavy Industries Co. in Toyama, Japan in 1973 as the Al Nasl of the Taiheiyo Enkai Ferry KK of Nagoya, Japan with the IMO Number 7302093. The ship was 132.1 meters in length over-all with a length between perpendiculars of 124.0 meters. Her breadth was 22.7 meters with an original gross register tonnage (GRT) of 6,844 tons and an original deadweight tonnage (DWT) of 2,480 tons. The ferry was powered by two IHI (Ishikawa Heavy Industries)-built Pielstick engines developing 8,000 horsepower each for a total of 16,000 horsepower and that gave the ship a design speed of 19.5 knots. Her specifications wer actually very near that of the sister ships SuperFerry 2 and SuperFerry 5 which measured 138.6 meters by 22.1 meters and was powered by two MAN diesels built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries with a total of 15,200 horsepower and a design speed of 19 knots.

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Ebino of Nippon Car Ferry by ‘hunterdosaemon’

Although twin-engined, the ferry was equipped by a single, center funnel with the stern mast atop it and she had a distinctive bridge that is slanted forward from the top to have a better lower view. She had one full passenger deck plus two passenger-half decks at the front. Al Nasl has a sister ship, the Argo and they sailed the Nagoya-Nachikitsuura-Oita route of Taiheiyo Enkai Ferry, a route from the main island of Honshu to the Kyushu island in the south. In 1976, however, the ship was sold to Nippon Car Ferry and she held the route to Ebino city in Kyushu island and thus she was named as the Ebino. As the ferry to Ebino this ship had a passenger capacity of 695 and about 500 lane-meters in rolling cargo space.

In 1996, the Ebino came to the Philippines to be the San Lorenzo Ruiz with the Mary Queen of Peace, another former Nippon Car Ferry ship. Maybe the connection started with the San Paolo which arrived for Negros Navigation three year earlier and which was another ship from Nippon Car Ferry. In the Philippines, a partial scantling up to the funnel was added in the navigation deck to hold the Economy class. The passenger capacity of the ship in the Philippines was 1,426 persons only as Negros Navigation chose to not massively change the superstructure of the ship anymore. Because many of the Japan features were retained she had the reputation of having good interiors. Of course with 3,911 in net tons she had plenty of space for passengers. However, although scantlings were added the gross tonnage of the ship went down to 6,051 but her deadweight tonnage rose to 2,995 tons. For cargo handling, the ship only had a stern ramp. Many however, said the lines of the ship was beautiful and I agree with that.

The San Lorenzo Ruiz was used by Negros Navigation in opening their Manila-Iloilo-General Santos City-Davao route. In this route she was in competition with the SuperFerry 1/SuperFerry 8/SuperFerry 10 team-up of WG&A which was a mean line-up of former flagships and gives up nothing to her in amenities and facilities but were a little superior to her in speed. They actually share the same route exactly but where the WG&A line-up can do 20 knots the San Lorenzo Ruiz can only do 19 knots at most. But I wonder why in a Negros Navigation advertisement she was declared sailing at 19.5 knots, her design speed. It might have been possible but that means running at 100% engine speed and that is a killer for a 23-year old ship (later she developed a reputation for being “slow”). She had only a declared passenger capacity of 920 passengers in the advertisement (versus the declared 1,426 in MARINA files and a later 1,850 from another source) but her declared cargo capacity was 140 TEU, higher than the normal 130 to 140-meter ROPAX. That means she retained the partial cargo deck at the “B” level supporting the observation that her conversion here was really not much. Probably, the passenger capacity was only right as they were new in the General Santos City and Davao route. On the other, being new the container capacity might have been high. Just the same, her size might have been just perfect in a newly-developed route.

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San Lorenzo Ruiz by Britz Salih

On the Sulpicio Lines side, she was competing with the Princess of the Pacific in the General Santos City route, a ship with almost the same size as her and almost the same horsepower and powered by twin Pielstick engines also. In the Davao route she was up versus the super-big and fast Filipina Princess whose amenities might not as impressive as her being an older ship in terms of fielding here. Like other Negros Navigation ships her higher accommodations have many variations from Suite to Single Suite to Admiral Suite, Deluxe Cabin, Business Class to Tourist Class, Travelers Class and Tatami Class. I like the Tatami Class because I like to sleep on the floor (with mattress) and I can lie with my shoes on and use my knapsack as mattress and not worry about them getting stolen. I hate sleeping in upper bunks and good that the Tatami Class don’t have them.

After two years Negros Navigation withdrew from the Davao route and just used one ship and modified the route of the San Ezekiel Moreno to Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-General Santos City-Davao (that ship had a Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-General Santos City route before). The San Lorenzo Ruiz then did the Manila-Iloilo-Ozamis-Iligan-Manila route and Manila-Dumaguete-Tagbilaran-Manila route within the same week. I thought this were very good routes for the San Lorenzo Ruiz as it combines near ports without backtracking and two complete voyages are completed in week which means a high efficiency in the use of the ship. But of course, the giant WG&A have heavy presence in those ports of call and Sulpicio Lines is also serving those ports also but the exact routes of the ships of Sulpicio Lines and WG&A varies with that of the San Lorenzo Ruiz. In Iligan and Ozamis, the San Lorenzo Ruiz was up against the SuperFerry 2/SuperFerry 5/SuperFerry 9 team-up of WG&A and all three of those were about the same dimensional size and engine size of her and so it was probably an even match even in amenities. She was also against that team-up in Dumaguete. In the Tagbilaran and Dumaguete combined route she was up against the SuperFerry 3 and she has a big advantage over this ship in speed, in paper as that ship only has 9,300 horsepower in total. In Tagbilaran she was also up against the Our Lady of Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Medjugorje pairing of WG&A and again she had great advantage in speed and even in amenities aside from the space. She was also superior in everything over the Princess of the Caribbean of Sulpicio Lines in Dumaguete and Ozamis (or the Iloilo Princess which subbed in 1998) and much more superior over the old cruiser Dipolog Princess in the Tagbilaran and Iligan route of Sulpicio Lines.

Since the San Lorenzo Ruiz was not competing here versus liners with 20,000 horsepower she then just tried to match the speed of the competition which was about 17.5 knots for the Dumaguete route and 17 knots for the Tagbilaran route and that was probably a wise decision. Versus the smaller ROPAXes of 2GO which has small engines, the SuperFerry 3, Our Lady of Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Medjugorje there was no chance that she can be outsped. I thought then she had a chance in the old Dumaguete-Ozamis-Iligan-Tagbilaran quadrant, a favorite of many ships in the past from the time of ex-”FS” ships and even before. In those routes she was also the local connection of the near islands there.

But then she lost over time. In shipping, it is not just the edge or the parity of the ship that matters. Even more important is the cargo which is the bread and butter of shipping. Now, the old ones also have advantage even in the passengers because of the familiarity including in the schedule. When the new millennium arrived it was already the whole company that was in trouble. They simply had too many ships from loans and there were not enough revenues and the dancing porters and free porterage plus bus links were not enough to do the trick. Soon, Negros Navigation was dropping routes and ports of calls as they found it unprofitable. The time they entered those new routes and ports was the time the country had too many liners, the product of over-expansion during the time of President Fidel V. Ramos who gave incentives for the acquisition of new ship including loans from the then government-owned Philippine National Bank. It was also the time that the true intermodal system, the combination of the long-distance trucks and buses plus the short-distance ferry-ROROs were making great advances and taking away passengers and cargo from the liners. And then there was also the budget airlines which was sucking passengers from the liners as they were already offering fares in parity with the liners.

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The San Lorenzo Ruiz by Rodney Orca

Soon, the liners of Negros Navigation was being garnished by creditors including the Tsuneishi shipyard in Cebu. Manny V. Pangilinan of Metro Pacific and Smart Telecommunications entered as a white knight and infused money and talked to the creditors and a court-mandated rehabilitation program was put in place. One result of the reorganization that ensued was that Negros Navigation was forced to hold on only to routes that were making money for them and these were basically their old routes before their big expansion from the mid-1990’s. With such a decision, liners have to be sold and many were then subsequently offered for sale by ads. However, here were no local takers and when this happened only shipbreakers from other countries are interested and in the end many of the liners of Negros Navigation ended up with the breakers including those ships transferred to Jensen Shipping. San Lorenzo Ruiz was acquired by Bangladesh breakers and in 2008 she was broken up in Chittagong.

And that was the sad end of one liner I admire.

When the RORO Liners Came to Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao

The ROROs (Roll-on, Roll-off ships) first came to the Philippines at the end of the 1970’s and in the 1980’s it began to multiply in Luzon and the Visayas. From the moment the ROROs arrived it was already obvious that they were superior to the cruiser ships and that a new paradigm has arrived and the cruiser ships were already headed to obsolescence. However, the ROROs did not multiply fast in general in the 1980’s because it was a decade of great economic and political crises when the value of the peso plunged and inflation was unchecked. At the height of the crisis of the 1980’s almost no loans were available, few foreign currency was available (that it even lead to the creation of the “Binondo central bank) and the interest rates were skyhigh that it was almost suicide to take a loan especially at foreign-denominated one.

That difficulty was reflected in that the first RORO liners and overnight ferries in the country acquired at the peak of this crisis up to 1986 were small and were generally just in the 60 to 70-meter length class only and barely over 1,000 gross tons. Among the examples of those were the Surigao Princess, Cagayan Princess, Boholana Princess, Sta. Maria (of Nenaco and not Viva Shipping Lines), the Viva Sta. Maria and Marian Queen of Viva Shipping Lines and the many ROROs acquired by Carlos A. Gothong Lines like the Dona Lili, Don Calvino, Dona Josefina, Don Benjamin, Dona Casandra, Dona Cristina and the third Sweet Home of Sweet Lines. The notable exceptions in this period were the Sweet RORO and Sweet RORO 2 of Sweet Lines and the Sta. Florentina of Negros Navigation but the three were not really that big (as in 110 to 120 meters LOA). Many liners shipping companies did not bother to purchase a RORO ship in this period like William Lines, Aboitiz Shipping, Lorenzo Shipping, Escano Lines and the moribund Compania Maritima, the erstwhile biggest passenger shipping company.

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Cotabato Princess c. 1988 by Britz Salih

However, if Luzon, the Visayas and Northern Mindanao already had RORO ships in this period described, Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao did not see a RORO liner until 1988 when Sulpicio Lines fielded the Cotabato Princess in the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-Cotabato route and Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. fielded the Asia Korea (the latter Asia Hongkong and the Reina del Rosario of Montenegro Shipping Lines) on the Cebu-Iloilo-Zamboanga-General Santos City route and that RORO ship is actually 82.8 meters in length which is about the size of small liners then like the Our Lady of Guadalupe which arrived in 1986 for Carlos A. Gothong Lines and was 89.7 meters in length. With the overthrow of the dictatorship in 1986 and the general bettering of the economic conditions starting in 1987 the RORO ships being purchased were beginning to get bigger and more many as the difficulty of lending from banks and the interest rates eased and there was new economic optimism.

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Asia Korea (TASLI photo)

The fielding of RORO liners in Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao was not fast at first. In 1989, the Zamboanga City of William Lines came when it did the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga route before replacing their burned (in the shipyard) Manila City in the Manila-Zamboanga-Davao route. In 1992, the big but slow Maynilad of the William Lines came and replaced the Zamboanga City in that route and the Zamboanga City was given the Manila-Iloilo-Cotabato-General Santos City route instead to battle the Cotabato Princess (with she bypassing Zamboanga port her travel time to Cotabato was shorter).

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Maynilad (Photo credits: William Lines and Britz Salih)

Sulpicio Lines only fielded their second RORO liner in Southern Mindanao when the Manila Princess came in 1992 to replace their cruiser Davao Princess in the Manila-Cebu-Davao route. Actually during that time the only shipping companies with passenger service still remaining to Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao were Sulpicio Lines, William Lines and Sweet Lines. Such was the effect of the political and economic crises of the 1980’s and the coming of the container ships. Among those who quit Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao then in passenger shipping were Compania Maritima, Aboitiz Shipping and Lorenzo Shipping.

The slowness of the coming of the RORO liners in Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao can be counted this way. In 1992, four years after the first coming of the RORO liners, the southernmost portion of the country only had 4 RORO liners, the Manila Princess and Cotabato Princess of Sulpicio Lines and the Maynilad and Zamboanga City of William Lines (Sweet Lines only had the cruiser Sweet Glory in the route). Well, actually there were not that many liners here compared to the Visayas and Northern Mindanao as most cargo in the region was actually carried by the container ships which outnumber the RORO liners. However, Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao RORO liners were generally bigger than the Visayas and Northern Mindanao RORO liners, on the average.

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Princess of the Pacific (Photo credits: Sulpicio Lines and Britz Salih)

It was starting in 1993 that fielding of RORO liners to the southernmost part of the country accelerated. More RORO liners were actually coming in the country because of the incentives laid by President Fidel V. Ramos. The Princess of the Pacific of Sulpicio Lines came and did the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-Dadiangas route. Aboitiz Shipping came back to Southern Mindanao when they fielded the SuperFerry 1 in the Manila-Iloilo-General Santos-Davao route and their SuperFerry 3 did the Manila-Zamboanga-Cotabato route to the protest of William Lines in the latter which when not resolved resulted in the withdrawal of the liner Zamboanga City and subsequent reassignment of that ship to the Puerto Princesa route. Meanwhile, the super-big former flagship of Sulpicio Lines, the Filipina Princess replaced the Manila Princess in its route and this ship was subsequently assigned to the Manila-Zamboanga-Davao route to compete with the slow but bigger Maynilad.

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Photo credits: Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen

In 1994, the lengthened and rebuilt Sugbu which became the Mabuhay 3 of William Lines did the Manila-Davao-Dadiangas route. In 1995, just before the merger that produced WG&A no more further RORO liners came but Manila Princess was plagued by unreliability and was just being used as a reserve ship.

When WG&A started sailing in 1996 there were heavy changes to the schedules and routes. Early in the merger, the Maynilad was doing the Manila-Dumaguete-Cotabato route and SuperFerry 3 was assigned her old Manila-Zamboanga-Cotabato route. The Dona Virginia was fielded to the Manila-Zamboanga-General Santos City route and competing head-on with the Princess of the Pacific but she was only a half-RORO, half-cruiser. The SuperFerry 6 was doing the Manila-Surigao-Davao route in contest with the Filipina Princess. And the SuperFerry 1 was doing her old Manila-Iloilo-General Santos City-Davao route. There were more RORO liners now and RORO liners that have not been previously assigned to Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao reached ports here like the Our Lady of Akita of Gothong Lines which became SuperFerry 6 and the old flagship Dona Virginia of William Lines. It was exciting because new ships coming are exciting and because it is a new experience for the passengers.

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SuperFerry 3 by Chief Ray Smith

Along the years there were constant adjustments in the routes and fielding of ships of WG&A as more RORO liners came to their fleet and some liners were disposed off or were lost. Later, WG&A also turned into pairing of ships to do the same route. But it would be hard to mention here all the WG&A routes and schedules as it often changed and I will just risk accusations of inaccuracies and listing many by month will be too tedious.

There was one more change in the area when Negros Navigation invaded Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao in their desire to become a national liner company and compete toe-to-toe with WG&A and Sulpicio Lines. The San Ezekiel Moreno was assigned the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-General Santos route and competing against the Princess of the Pacific. And the San Lorenzo Ruiz (theirs and not the Viva Shipping Lines ship) was fielded to the Manila-Iloilo-General Santos-Davao route in competition then with the SuperFerry 1/SuperFerry 8/SuperFerry 10 pairing.

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San Lorenzo Ruiz by Britz Salih

In the new millennium the RORO liners slowly disappeared from Southern Mindanao and almost too in Zamboanga. Passenger shipping slowly but continuously weakened with the onslaught of the budget airlines (and the intermodal bus too from Davao) whose fares were already in parity with the liners. Soon, even the hoi polloi were also taking the planes and a new generation of passengers deemed the liners as too slow and wouldn’t want to spend two-and-a-half days of their lives cocooned in a liner although they are fed free. The RORO liners soon became for the ship lovers only and for those who feared taking a plane.

In the second decade of the new millennium the Aboitiz Transport System RORO liners to Southern Mindanao disappeared. That was preceded years earlier by the withdrawal of Negros Navigation. Now there are no more liners in Southern Mindanao and in Zamboanga only one liner is left.

Soon RORO liners will just be distant memories in Southern Mindanao.

When Polloc Port Lost

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Photo from REZA-ARMM

Many times a reader will read “Cotabato Port” when it comes to shipping and many of them will think of the great but now conflict-ridden city of Cotabato. They will not realize that the “Cotabato Port” referred to is actually the Polloc port in Parang town in Maguindanao province which is about kilometers from the city. The true Cotabato Port is actually a river port near the mouth of Cotabato River hence it is shallow and can just accommodate small and shallow-draft vessels.

So when ships became bigger, the government decided to develop a new port for Cotabato City but this was not located in the city but in the nearby town of Parang. Actually the port was between Cotabato City and Parang and its name is Polloc port and the national government promoted and supported it well.

1980 0921 Port of Polloc

Credits to Philippine Daily Express and Gorio Belen

In the past, Polloc was a viable port when the roads in the region were still terrible. Sulpicio Lines and Aboitiz Shipping made good sailing there and they even had dedicated passenger-cargo ships and container ships to Polloc port. Sulpicio Lines used the Dona Marilyn (the former Dona Ana) which was a good fast cruiser liner then. They then fielded the RORO liner Cotabato Princess when it arrived and she served the route here well.

Aboitiz Shipping tried this route with a newly-fielded ship here, the SuperFerry 3, smaller that her fleetmates but more fit for this route. When the merged shipping company WG&A was formed a slew of ships served the route including the former William Lines flagship Dona Virginia and a host of ROPAXes including the very well-regarded SuperFerry 1 and SuperFerry 8. The respected sisters SuperFerry 2 and SuperFerry 5 also served Parang port along with the Maynilad. Doesn’t that line-up tells one that Parang port and the Cotabato route was once good then?

1980 1022 Polloc Port

Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

Of course Parang will not be as strong a port like Dadiangas or what is later known as Gensan. South Cotabato was able to develop agribusiness (think Dole) and a hog industry and that was what supported the port. Cotabato and Parang had no such equivalent especially since the area became conflict-ridden at the approach of the 1970’s and in the aftermath the area sank into a certain degree of lawlessness which is a deterrent for trade, investment and tourism.

When the conflict and lawlessness abated a little, Cotabato and Parang did not rise even though the government tried to pour in money and promoted Parang port especially when the SPDA (Southern Philippines Development Authority) was created. And the support continued under the banner of the ARMM (Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao) and it tried to attract Malaysian businessmen and other businesses and promoted Polloc as a free port and ecozone.

Ironically, what doomed Polloc was actually the opening of two new highways, the Narciso Ramos Highway which connected to Malabang, Pagadian and a route to Marawi and Iligan or Ozamis and the paving of the old Sayre Highway which connected the area to Cagayan de Oro via Bukidnon. Where before a shipper will have to wait for the weekly ship, now he can truck his goods to Cagayan de Oro, Iligan or Ozamis and the combination of the three means the availability of daily ships plus a shorter sailing time with a lower shipping cost. And for passengers there are many direct commuter vans now from Cotabato to Iligan and Cagayan de Oro. They can just take the ship there and travel time and costs will be less. Conversely, when they arrive in those ports there will commuter vans waiting for them.

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Now there is no more liner to Parang and cargo ships and container ships are few although the regional government tries to promote it mightily. However, it does not rise because there are simply better alternatives in shipping out cargo or bringing it in. Long-distance cargo trucks from even Cebu already penetrate the area and the main point of departure is Cagayan de Oro. Davao or General Santos City can also be the entry point especially if the goods are from abroad and there is no problem in trucking in the goods to the Cotabato area (talking of the city and not the old province).

The experience is actually what some say that the left hand does not know what the right hand is doing. It is okay and good to open the Narciso Ramos Highway and the Sayre Highway to connect Central Mindanao to Western and Northern Mindanao but then the unintended consequence is the sinking of Cotabato and Parang port.

I just hope the oil facility invested in by the Malaysians in Parang will somewhat make up for the fall. Hopefully they will allow goods from Singapore to be brought in tariff free under the ASEAN Free Trade Zone (which in Philippine bureaucratic definition means a lot of restrictions since they never care to read the dictionary and there are vested interests hiding behind those restrictions and bureaucrats and politicians protecting them). But then the local Nestle operation will balk because Nestle products from Singapore actually lands cheaper in Zamboanga (and that is even with grease money).

Wither Parang? No, actually I don’t have a good idea. It will be another locality whose fate is dependent on decision makers in Manila even though they don’t know much of local or regional realities.

Federalism, anyone?

The RORO Cargo Ships of Sulpicio Lines Are All Gone Now

When Sulpicio Lines acquired big (by local standards) RORO Cargo ships in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, I thought they were hoarding some ships that can be later converted in ROPAX (RORO-Passenger) ships in the mold of what Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) did when they were able to come up with the beautiful Our Lady of Sacred Heart and the Our Lady of Medjugorje which were former RORO Cargo ships in Japan (and none would have thought that were their origins) and sister ships. I do not know what truly were their plans but if that was their intention then events soon overtook them when in the new millennium the bottom fell out of passenger liner shipping when budget airlines and the intermodal buses and trucks drew away passengers and cargo from the liners. This was shown when passenger capacities of the newly-fielded liners went down in the new millennium to 2,000 from 3,000 plus before and “carferries” that came had their two cargo decks just retained.

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The Our Lady of Sacred Heart by Britz Salih

The RORO Cargo ships of Sulpicio Lines I am talking about were the ships known as Sulpicio Express Uno, Sulpicio Express Dos and Sulpicio Express Tres. The three, if compared to the sister ships of CAGLI which went to WG&A were a little bigger and a little faster although all were single-engined which is the mark of cargo ships including RORO Cargo ships. If they have been converted into ROPAX ships they would have been as big as SuperFerry 1, SuperFerry 2 and SuperFerry 5 although a little slower.

The first of the three to come here was the Sulpicio Express Uno which arrived in 1997. This ship was the former Hokuto in Japan and she was built by Shin Yamamoto Shipbuilding in Kochi yard, Japan in 1980 with the ID IMO 8005733. Hokuto measured 129.9 meters by 20.0 meters with an original gross register tonnage of 4,176 tons and she had a service speed of 17 knots. This RORO Cargo ship has a bridge at the front and cargo ramps at the quarter-bow and at the quarter-stern, all features that will be very good had she been converted into a ROPAX ship.

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Sulpicio Express Uno by Aris Refugio

The second of the three to come here was the Sulpicio Express Dos which arrived here five years later in 2002. This ship was known as the Hokuo Maru in Japan and she was built by Shin Kurushima Hiroshima Dockyard Company in Akitsu, Japan in 1988 with the ID IMO 8817265. Her external measurements were 136.0 meters by 20.0 meters with a gross tonnage of 4,433 with a service speed too of 17 knots. She too had a bridge at the front with a cargo ramps at the quarter-bow and at the stern. She looks much like the Sulpicio Express Uno in the superstructure. With the same breadth I even wonder if she and Sulpicio Express Uno were actually sister ships. Even the placements of their ramps were the same.

The last of the three RORO Cargo ships of Sulpicio Lines to come was the Sulpicio Express Tres which also came in 2002. This ship was known as the Honshu Maru in Japan and she was built by Imabari Zosen in Imabari yard, Japan in 1989 with the ID IMO 8817071. She measured 128.5 meters by 20.4 meters and her gross tonnage was 4,695 and she had a service speed of 17 knots too. The ship also had a quarter-bow ramp and a stern ramp. Her difference though from the other two RORO Cargo ships of Sulpicio Lines was in having the bridge amidship. A position of the bridge amidship was not really a disqualification if she was intended for conversion into a ROPAX ship as shown by some local examples here like the Butuan Bay 1 of CAGLI although it might look a little ungainly.

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Sulpicio Express Tres by Aris Refugio

The three were almost of the same size and they had the same service speeds coming from single engines that average 10,000 horsepower which is a little bigger than the engines of the CAGLI sister ships. As built, all had two car decks. If converted all could have had one single cargo deck and three passenger decks with probably a passenger capacity of about 1,500. Like the CAGLI sister ships they might have had a service speed here of 16 knots or maybe a little better. They will be little slower than most big liners then but still acceptable and comparable to some of the newer but slower liners like the SuperFerry 3 of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and the San Paolo of Negros Navigation Company. Well, the service speed here of Our Lady of Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Medjugorje was also 16 knots so that was acceptable.

One intriguing comparison I saw was with the Ozamis Bay 1, also of CAGLI. This former RORO Cargo ship that was converted into a ROPAX ship has external measurements of 130.3 meters by 20.0 meters with an original gross register tonnage of 4,545 tons which are almost the same as the three Sulpicio Expresses. I even wonder if she was a sister ship of Sulpicio Express Uno and Sulpicio Express Dos. However, her bridge was amidship and she was not converted beautifully. Hence, she did not look good and her passenger capacity was small at 601 persons. However, since she had 13,400 horsepower on tap she had a higher design speed at 19.5 knots.

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Ozamis Bay 1 by James Gabriel Verallo

The three Sulpicio Express ships were not converted into ROPAX ships and so they just served as RORO Cargo ships and doing what a container is doing except that she takes in container vans RORO (Roll on, Roll Off) in trailers compared to the LOLO (Lift On, Lift Off) method of the regular container ships. The three were in the container van trade and were never used to take in vehicles that were crossing the islands. But being faster the three really deserved a new series in Sulpicio Lines that is apart from the old Sulpicio Container (Sulcon) series of cargo ships.

In such method of carrying container vans, the three RORO Cargo ships became inefficient compared to the regular container ships. One, using trailers which are called “chassis” in the trade is additional investment and expense (and that also includes the trailer caddies). Second, unlike the regular container ships the RORO Cargo system of stowage takes more space as the container vans can’t be stacked one atop the other with no space in between the container vans. The loading and unloading might have been faster but all types of container ships here don’t really rush from port to port. Moreover, the engine sizes of the RORO Cargo ships are significantly larger than the regular container ships for the same length. They might have been faster but as mentioned before they don’t really rush as having enough cargo really takes time because there are simply too many bottoms. So the speed advantage is just negated.

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Sulpicio Express Dos as Span Asia 15 by Mike Baylon

When they were not converted into ROPAX ships, I was even wondering what was the reason Sulpicio Lines kept them for too long, in my view. Well, of course, Sulpicio Lines has no penchant for selling ships and especially to the breakers for as long as it still has economic value. Their only consolation then was they had the fastest cargo ships hereabouts (before the arrival of the faster RORO Cargo ships of Asian Marine Transport Corporation or AMTC).

Two of the three still passed to the new name of Sulpicio Lines, the Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation (PSACC) where the Sulpicio Express Dos became the Span Asia 15 and the Sulpicio Express Tres became the Span Asia 16 in 2013.

The three was a good view when they are in port or near the port. They were bigger than the regular container ships, they were taller and they look different and even their long cargo ramps seem to be an attraction. Maybe a few even had in their minds that the superstructure is near that of a ROPAX ship (and they were not wrong).

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Sulpicio Express Uno not sailing before her sale

When Sulpicio Lines began selling their passenger ships in the aftermath of the sinking of their Princess of the Stars and began buying container ships in their place, I somehow felt that the three RORO Cargo ship will also go somewhere down the line. With the size of the new container ships of Sulpicio Lines, it was obvious they were going for efficiency. They were no longer competing for the biggest or the fastest like before. Some container ships of Oceanic Container Lines were even bigger than theirs.

In October of 2013, the oldest of the three, which had already reports of engine trouble, the Sulpicio Express Uno was beached and broken up in in the ship-breaking capital of the world which is Alang, India. Then, in November of 2015, the Sulpicio Express Dos and Sulpicio Express Tres were broken up in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The two did not even reach 30 years of age and there were not yet reports of engine troubles from them. Sulpicio Lines just wanted to change ships for more efficiency and they had to go, sadly.

Now, the new Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corporation (PSACC), the new name of Sulpicio Lines doesn’t have a RORO Cargo ship anymore. All they operate and all they have now are smaller container ships that are just fit for the container demand on them.

Sad to see the three go.

GT Comparisons of Liners in the Past Below 10,000GT

Here is a listing of liners that were less than 10,000 gross tons. It follows the standard of the book, “The Great Passenger Ships of the World” by Frank Heine and Frank Lose that only list ferries that are over 10,000 gross tons.

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The 2nd Edition of the book

I tried a lower cut-off of just below 3,000 gross tons to include some notable examples. I also included some overnight ships so one can compare them to the smaller liners (and this has bearing on the argument that some overnight ferries are actually fit to be small liners). In this range there is more comparability as the sample is bigger compared to the 10,000 plus GT range. Below 3,000 GT the ships are sometimes too indistinguishable in size.

I did not seek to include all the liners in the past as the list will only be cluttered. The list concentrated on liners of the recent past (which many still have memory of) plus some examples like the flagship Filipinas of Compania Maritima to show how they stack up to more recent liners.

The list is not complete as there were older liners that are in the 3,000 to 10,000 range but I did not include them like the former “C1-M-AV1” ships because the period of comparison will then be too extended in terms of period.

Of course, many a ridiculousness will be noted by the readers who have knowledge of liner shipping. But that is the penalty of not declaring the gross tonnages properly. The penalty also includes not being included in the books “The Great Passenger Ships of the World” (as in Negros Navigation does not have a single entry in the First Edition of that book).

The measurements in the third column are that of Length x Breadth x Depth, a standard description and comparison of size. Gross Tonnage (GT) is the cubic volume of the ship which is the accepted measurement of the size of a ship. The figures are all based on officially declared and accepted GTs by MARINA.

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SuperFerry 3 by Ray Smith

I used the names and the specs when they were first registered here because any misdeclaration starts from there. In ship transfers, the former declared measurements are just carried over into the new owner.

SuperFerry 3

Aboitiz Shipping Corp.

118.0m x 20.4m x 12.7m

9,847 GT

5,885 GT

St. Michael The Archangel

Negros Navigation Co.

150.9m x 25.0m x 13.3m

9,654 GT

9,447 GT

Princess of the World

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

166.0m x 24.0m x 9.7m

9,623 GT

9,235 GT

SuperFerry 1

Aboitiz Shipping Corp.

132.4m x 20.0m x 13.0m

9,184 GT

4,886 GT

Virgin Mary

MBRS Lines

127.7m x 18.3m x 11.0m

9,035 GT

9,035 GT

Cotabato Princess

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

149.1m x 22.8m x 7.3m

7,977 GT

6,521 GT

Sta. Ana

Negros Navigation Co.

107.3m x 20.4m x 8.0m

7,909 GT

6,000 GT

Mabuhay 3

William Lines Inc.

157.1m x 20.2m x 7.4m

7.878 GT

lengthened

Mary Queen of Peace

Negros Navigation Co.

159.5m x 21.5m x 9.0m

7,610 GT

9,551 GT

Mary The Queen (2)

Romblon Shpg Lines

138.3m x 20.5m x 13.7m

7,504 GT

7,053 GT

Princess of the Ocean

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

126.1m x 22,0m x 8.1m

7,297 GT

6,150 GT

Mabuhay 5

William Lines Inc.

141.5m x 23.0m x 7.4m

7,268 GT

5,439 GT

Super Shuttle RORO 3

AMTC

128.8m x 19.9m x 6.8m

7,023 GT

7,023 GT

Our Lady of Akita

CAGLI

162.1m x 26.4m x 7.3m

7,019 GT

8,194 GT

Our Lady of Lipa

CAGLI

124.2m x 16.8m x 6.4m

6,911 GT

4,973 GT

Maynilad

William Lines Inc.

140.5m x 20.5m x 11.9m

6,835 GT

4,997 GT

Princess of the South

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

141.3m x 22.7m x 12.7m

6,773 GT

6,773 GT

Sugbu

William Lines Inc.

137.5m x 20.2m x 6.8m

6,624 GT

4,999 GT

SuperFerry 11

WG&A

143.4m x 16.8m, 9.6m

6,528 GT

4,929 GT

St. Peter The Apostle

Negros Navigation Co.

151.5m x 22.8m, 7.3m

6,090 GT

6,950 GT

St. Joseph The Worker

Negros Navigation Co.

151.5m x 22.8m, 7.3m

6,090 GT

6.939 GT

San Lorenzo Ruiz

Negros Navigation Co.

132.1m x 22.7m, 12.8m

6,051 GT

6,844 GT

San Paolo

Negros Navigation Co.

118.0m x 20.4m, 8.0m

5,908 GT

5,956 GT

St. Francis of Assisi

Negros Navigation Co.

140.1m x 18.5m, 7.0m

5,873 GT

6,801 GT

Zamboanga City

William Lines Inc.

117.1m x 19.0m, 7.1m

5,747 GT

4,188 GT

Mabuhay 6

William Lines Inc.

109.2m x 17.8m x 6.3m

5,463 GT

2,823 GT

St. Ezekiel Moreno

Negros Navigation Co.

140.9m x 22.4m x 8.0m

5,342 GT

7,041 GT

Filipinas

Compania Maritima

121.0m x 18.1m x 9.7m

4,997 GT

4,997 GT

Trans-Asia 5

TASLI

114.8m x 19.0m x 9.6m

4,790 GT

3,864 GT

Philippine Princess

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

130.9m x 16.8m x 5.2m

4,717 GT

4,957 GT

Sweet RORO

Sweet Lines Inc.

117.5m x 20.6m x 6.1m

4,700 GT

4,619 GT

Sweet RORO 2

Sweet Lines Inc.

120.8m x 20.3m x 5.4m

4,693 GT

4,634 GT

Sweet Baby

Sweet Lines Inc.

125.6m x 19.6m x 6.1m

4,545 GT

4,362 GT

Princess of Negros

Negros Navigation Co.

118.9m x 20.6m x 11.2m

4,494 GT

4,700 GT

Our Lady of Medjugorje

CAGLI

123.0m x 18.0m x 12.3m

4,435 GT

3,764 GT

Masbate I

William Lines Inc.

104.6m x 20.0m, 5.4m

4,412 GT

3,350 GT

Dona Virginia

William Lines Inc.

143.5m x 16.8m, 6.5m

4,395 GT

4,990 GT

Our Lady of Sacred Heart

CAGLI

123.0m x 18.0m, 12.3m

4,388 GT

3,511 GT

Sta. Florentina

Negros Navigation Co.

118.9m x 20.6m x 4.8m

4,343 GT

4,445 GT

The Blessed Mother

MBRS Lines

94.7m x 16.2m x 6.3m

4,311 GT

2,399 GT

Manila Princess

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

123.0m x 19.6m x 5.3m

4,149 GT

4.149 GT

Our Lady of Naju

CAGLI

111.4m x 13.9m x 6.2m

4,067 GT

3,123 GT

Butuan Bay 1

CAGLI

114.8m x 19.0m x 9.6m

7,320 GT

3,864 GT

Princess of the Earth

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

110.0m x 19.0m x 11.7m

3,998 GT

3,686 GT

Asia China

TASLI

100.0m x 17.3m x 5.8m

3,991 GT

3,512 GT

Iloilo Princess

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

111.5m x 15.2m x 8.9m

3,935 GT

3,800 GT

Sampaguita Ferry 2

Sampaguita Shipping

100.0m x 16.2m x 7.0m

3,924 GT

3,941 GT

Ozamis Bay 1

CAGLI

130.3m x 20.0m x 13.7m

3,872 GT

4,545 GT

Trans-Asia

TASLI

94.0m x 17.7m x 4.2m

3,797 GT

3,025 GT

Dipolog Princess

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

112.2m x 15.2m x 4.8m

3,786 GT

3,510 GT

Princess of the Caribbean

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

110.5m x 15.2m x 6.2m

3,767 GT

3,553 GT

Dona Marilyn (1)

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

104.0m x 15.0m

3,503 GT

3,265 GT

Tacloban Princess

Sulpicio Lines Inc.

98.3m x 19.2m x 5.9m

3,351 GT

2,664 GT

Lady Mary Joy 2

Aleson Shipping Lines

122.0m x 19.6m x 6.5m

3,330 GT

3,330 GT

Love – 1

Moreta Shipping Lines

93.m x 15.3m x 6.0m

3,184 GT

2,584 GT

Filipinas Butuan

CAGLI

79.8m x 14.3m x 4.8m

3,086 GT

1,867 GT

Filipinas Iligan

CAGLI

79.6m x 14.3m x 4.8m

3,084 GT

1,867 GT

Mary The Queen (1)

MBRS Lines

104.5m x 15.9m x 4.4m

2,998 GT

2,998 GT

Manila City

William Lines Inc.

106.3m x 14.0m x 6.2m

2,961 GT

2,998 GT

Trans-Asia 3

TASLI

110.0m x 16.0m x 0.6m

2,908 GT

2,182 GT

St. Ignatius of Loyola

Cebu Ferries Corp.

104. 6m x 16.2m x 11.5m

2,825 GT

1,887 GT

Officially, of all our liners of the past that are under 10,000gt, the “biggest”, bar none, was the small liner SuperFerry 3 of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation. She “beats” the big liners St. Michael The Archangel, the biggest ever ship of Negros Navigation before the arrival of St. Francis Xavier. She also beats in size the big liners Princess of the World, Mabuhay 3, Mary Queen of Peace, the Our Lady of Akita and the sisters ships St. Peter The Apostle and St. Joseph The Worker. All of this liners she beat measures over 150 meters in length. What a feat for a liner of just 118 meters length! A candidate for “Ripley’s Believe It Or Not”.

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Photo credits: AeroEye Asia, Jojo Mariano and James Gabriel Verallo

The second surprise here is St. Michael The Archangel just measuring only half of the GTs of her sister ships St. Leo The Great, St. Gregory The Great and St. Francis Xavier at 9,654gt. However, under 2GO that has been remedied already and the newly declared GT is 17,781 and that is already within the range of her sister ships.

At 150+ meters length it seems the GT of a liner can be around 15,000. That can be gleaned in the following examples: St. Pope John Paul II, St. Therese of the Child Jesus, SuperFerry 17, SuperFerry 18, Princess of the Universe, Princess of Paradise, Princess of New Unity, Princess of the Orient, Manila Bay 1, Subic Bay 1 and Filipina Princess. Well, if a liner in the 130 meter class can already exceed 10,000gt that might be correct. Like SuperFerry 2, SuperFerry 5, Cagayan Bay 1 which exceeded that and SuperFerry 1 which nearly so.

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Earlier known as Sta. Ana (Photo by Rodney Orca)

Before St. Michael The Archangel came, the biggest ship ever in the history of Negros Navigation was the small liner Sta. Ana which was just 107 meters in length. How can that be when the sister ships St. Peter The Apostle and St. Joseph The Worker were both over 40 meters longer than her and the Mary The Queen was even longer? And to think Sta. Ana was never a flagship in Negros Navigation. Was there anybody that raised within MARINA the seeming incongruity?

The two Mary’s, Mary Queen of Peace and Mary The Queen were next to each other in the list. But their length difference is over 20 meters and the breadth of the Romblon Shipping Lines vessel was even shorter.

There are some surprises for me as regards to rank like Princess of the Ocean and Super Shuttle RORO 3. At 120 meters plus the two are already 7,000 plus GT (and this is consistent with liners over 130 meters that were over 10,000 GT) and well ahead of other established liners. The Princess of the Ocean basically functioned as an overnight ferry-RORO. That also goes true for the Our Lady of Lipa which is nearly 7,000gt at that same length range.

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Princess of the Ocean by Mike Baylon

San Paolo and Zamboanga City at 118 and 117 meters, respectively at nearly 6,000gt were remarkable. They are right there in size than many Negros Navigation liners that are bigger than them in reality. That is also true for Mabuhay 6 at 109 meters. It seems their GT’s were correct.

Who can believe that at 114 meters Trans-Asia 5 is “bigger” than many established liners that are longer than her? I can say the same for Masbate I which is right there with many established liners at just 104 meters length. Ditto for the very “thin” Our Lady of Naju with a breadth of only 13.9 meters.

The sister ships Filipinas Butuan and Filipinas Iligan are also surprises for me. At just 70 meters each imagine joining this list and even ahead of the much longer Trans-Asia 3. Meanwhile the new series of Cebu Ferries are dubious in GT. At their lengths, imagine all three are all below 3,000gt. Well, for the sub-100 meters in length the GT of The Blessed Mother is the highest at 4,311.

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The Blessed Mother by Nat Pagayonan

Peruse all you can the list. And see the other measurements that are clearly incongruent if one remembers their differing sizes. And also see the GT decreases while structures were added. Maybe they were sent to the MARINA “drying kiln” and so they “shrunk”.

Then tell me if GT measurements make sense here in the Philippines. And if MARINA knows how to compute GTs.

In the Philippines, No-Name, Shoddy Ferries Have a Better Safety Record Than Internationally-Certificated Ferries

A candidate for Ripley’s “Believe It or Not”? That’s true and so better read on.

Yesterday, it was in the news that Christopher Pastrana, The Boastful is hosting the 41st Interferry Conference that will be held in Manila starting today, October 15. There will be many sponsors for that and it is usually attended by shipping owners, shipbuilders, marine engine makers, various suppliers and other entities connected to shipping to exchange notes and learn about the latest trends and products. By the way, Interferry is not the sole organizer of maritime conferences.

A news item said the FastCats of Pastrana can provide safe ferries as do the ferries of Starlite and the implication is because those are new. Well, not so fast as it is not just the newness of the ship that is a factor in safety. May I remind too that Pastrana lost the Maharlika Dos to capsizing and sinking near Panaon island in 2014 after its engines failed and his Maharlika Cuatro, though just nearby, did not come to its rescue. And Starlite Voyager grounded and reached BER status when it was on the way to a shipyard in 2011. Are they blaming now the oldness of their vessels that sank?

I was angry when Maharlika Dos capsized and sank in 2014 because Pastrana broke the 35-year record of Bicol steel-hulled ferries not sinking while sailing ever since the RORO Cardinal Ferry 2 of Cardinal Shipping came in 1979. The Northern Samar sank in 2006 in a storm but she was not sailing and was just moored in Tabaco port. This perfect record extends to Surigao Strait because no steel-hulled ferries ever sank there since Cardinal Ferry 2 came in 1980, a record that Maharlika Dos broke infamously.

And to think the eastern seaboard short-distance ferry routes are home to the some of the most shoddy ROROs in Philippine waters led by the Maharlika ships of Christopher Pastrana and the Millennium Uno of Millennium Shipping. Well, the ships of Bicolandia Shipping then were also not topnotch and are old. But no matter what these ferries don’t sink even though the eastern seaboard straits are among the most dangerous in the country. As I have said in an earlier article it is seamanship that carried them through. The seamen there would not let their ships sink because they know that among their passengers might be their kins, their friends, their school mates or somebody known to them. But Maharlika Cuatro‘s captain didn’t know that and so he let Maharlika Dos wallow in the ever-strengthening swells until it capsized. And now since he got new FastCats, Pastrana always boasts now about safety and misses no chance to deride the “lack of safety” of his rivals. What gall!

Before Pastrana or even Cusi of Starlite Ferries, another boastful owner, gets carried away let me state that going by the records and empirically there are a lot of ferry companies which are their rivals which have a perfect safety record, i.e. they did not lose ships to sinking. In Bicol, Sta. Clara Shipping, Penafrancia Shipping, Regina Shipping Lines and 168 Shipping Lines have never lost a ferry of theirs. That goes true to the defunct ferry companies that served Bicol like Cardinal Shipping, Newport Shipping, Badjao Navigation and the short-serving Luzvimin Ferry Services. Well, even Denica Lines have not lost a steel-hulled ferry so far.

Going to Quezon, the safety record of the decrepit-looking ships of Kalayaan Shipping have a perfect safety record as do the defunct Sta. Cruz Shipping. Alabat Shipping also has a perfect safety record as do Phil-Nippon Kyoei when they were still existing. Noting these ferry companies, I purposely omitted those that have short service records like Starhorse Shipping.

In Western Visayas, Milagrosa-J Shipping and Tri-Star Megalink both have perfect safety records even though Milagrosa-J Shipping regularly crosses the Sulu Sea which has rough seas and strong winds many months of the year. And to think their sea crafts are small and are already old. It is really in the seamanship.

Batangas shipping companies have no great safety record especially Besta Shipping. But I would like to point out that for a ferry company which has a fleet of over 30, Montenegro Shipping Lines lost only one ferry in 20 years even though they can be found almost anywhere in the Philippines including those that have rough seas. They only lost the Maria Carmela when somebody threw a cigarette butt into a copra truck and thereby igniting a conflagration which was rather unfortunate. And Montenegro Lines have some of the oldest ships hereabouts.

Zamboanga is home to some of ferries that will not look so clean internally and many are also old. But two sailing companies there, Ever Lines and Magnolia Shipping, probably the Number 2 and Number 3 there have perfect safety records as they have not lost a ship even in their freighters. And Sulu, Tawi-tawi and Celebes Sea have strong seas when there is a storm somewhere in eastern Philippines or when the monsoons are blowing hard. Minor shipping companies of Zamboanga like Sing Shipping and Ibnerizam Shipping also have perfect records. The defunct Basilan Lines/Basilan Shipping of the Alanos also did not lose a ship although their Dona Ramona was bombed in Lamitan City.

Mae Wess of Davao has not also lost a ship as do the KSJ Shipping of Surigao. And as far as I know, the currently operating ferry companies of Camiguin – Philstone Shipping, Davemyr Shipping, and Hijos de Juan Corrales have not lost a ship too and it seems that also goes true for the defunct P.N. Roa and and Jade Sea Express. In Panguil Bay, Daima Shipping has not also lost a ship even though their Our Lady of Mediatrix was burned because of the firebombing of two Super 5 buses aboard her in 2000.

In Cebu, for all the size of their fleet Lite Ferries may not lost a vessel (was the Sta. Lucia de Bohol lost at sea?). FJP Lines/Palacio Shipping, defunct now, also has a perfect safety record. There are other defunct shipping companies of Cebu which has not lost a ship through accident and that includes VG Shipping, Roly Shipping/Godspeed, Kinswell Shipping, Jadestar Shipping, Goldenbridge Shipping, Maayo Shipping, Cuadro Alas Navigation, PAR Transport plus many smaller ferry companies. In the recent era, Gabisan Shipping are known for safety and the ability to “read” the waves and have not yet lost one.

If I go by routes, there was not a ferry lost in Roxas-Caticlan and Dapitan-Dumaguete even though their seas can sometimes be rough. No steel-hulled ferry was ever lost in any route in Bicol too except for the Blue Water Princess 2 which is a Quezon ferry going to Masbate and the Rosalia 2, a Cebu craft going to Cataingan, Masbate. There are many, many other routes in the country which has not seen a ship sink even though they are not using a new ship. It is all in the seamanship really. To say a new ships is “safer” is just like claiming a new car will not be involved in a collision.

Some of our HSC companies too are very safe. Oceanjet, the Number 1 now in HSCs, has not lost a ship ever and they did not always use new crafts. Weesam Express also has a perfect record. Even the defunct Bullet Express, the fastcrafts of the Viva Shipping Lines combine and the fastcrafts of A. Sakaluran have perfect safety records. The are a lot of other HSC companies which had perfect records but their service record was short like Star Crafts. Not included here is SuperCat which has lost one.

And which brings me to our liners which in the recent years are internationally-certificated, have P&I insurance and are mostly spic-and-span but unfortunately have a bad safety record. In the last 20 years, WG&A/CFC lost SuperFerry 3, SuperFerry 6 and SuperFerry 7, all to fire and Dona Virginia and Our Lady of Banneux due to grounding. Aboitiz Transport System (ATS) also lost the SuperFerry 14 to a terrorist act and the St. Gregory The Great to grounding. Sulpicio Lines lost the Princess of the Stars and Princess of the Orient to capsizing and lost the Princess of the World, Philippine Princess and the Iloilo Princess to fire and the Princess of the Pacific to grounding. Negros Navigation also lost the St. Francis of Assisi to fire.

Between the end of the World War II and 1995 I know of 75 (that is seventy-five) liners which were lost and mainly at sea. That is 75 in only 30 years! Can anybody believe that? So how can I be impressed by liners and international certificates in safety? Or in their being spic and span? The records say otherwise. And believe me I can easily name the 75 as I have my own database about maritime hull losses. This 75 does not even include regional ships like the Boholana Princess which was an overnight ship when she was lost.

The Don Juan and Cebu City were brand-new ships when they were fielded in the Philippines. But they sank in collisions at night. So Pastrana and Cusi be better warned by their boastfulness of their new ships. They better be more humble before shipping companies which have not ever lost a ship.

Newness of a ship is not a guarantee of anything except in shininess.

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Photo credit: Masahiro Homma

Some Musings on Ship Sinkings

Lately, there have been rumors that ferries of over 35 years old will be phased out and supposedly one of those pushing that is the current Secretary of Transportation which is Arthur Tugade and also supposedly involved is Alfonso Cusi, Secretary of Energy who is a shipping owner (Starlite Ferries). I do not know what Tugade knows about ships. He is a lawyer. Cusi, meanwhile has vested interest in the issue. Shipping owners got so alarmed that a meeting between them was called and attended by different shipping companies and they voiced opposition to such move which is also supported by the regional director of MARINA Central Visayas.

The proposal to phase out ferries is rooted in the belief that it is old age that sinks ships. Unfortunately, that is simply not true, that is just an assumption by those who have no true knowledge of shipping and empirical evidence do not support that. As one knowledgeable Captain said, it is human error that is the most common cause of sinking and I agree to that.

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Photo Credit: Dr. Normand Fernandez

I just wish when media and government officials discuss ship sinking that they be more specific and don’t use the term generically. Sometimes a ship is simply wrecked as in it lies on the shore incapable of sailing but it is not under water. Some of these can still be refloated and still sail later. This happened to many ships caught by the storm surges of super-typhoons like the Typhoon “Ruping” of 1990 and Typhoon “Yolanda” of 2008. Old age was not the cause of the capsizing or wrecking of those caught in those typhoons as most were actually in shelter and not navigating. In maritime databases they call these events “wrecking”. They will even indicate if it was refloated and indicate “broken up” when that was the subsequent fate of the wrecked ship.

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Photo Credit: Philippine Star and Gorio Belen

Sometimes a ship loses buoyancy and capsize but not all of them sink to the bottom of the sea. Those on their side or even upside down but located in ports or in shallow waters can still be righted and salvaged and maybe it will still be capable of sailing after repairs if it is not Beyond Economic Repair (BER). Most of these cases are results of accidents like errors in unloading cargo (like Ocean Legacy or Danica Joy 2) or even ramming like Dingalan Bay and not from the age of the ship. Some had their rolling cargo shift due to rogue waves but reach port, and subsequently capsize like what happened in Ocean King II in Benit port. Some capsize in port due to action of other ships like what happened to Ma. Angelica Grace in Cabahug wharf. In maritime databases these are simply called “capsizing”. They contrast it when ships lose buoyancy while sailing which they call “capsizing and sinking”.

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Photo Credit: James Gabriel Verallo

The most terrible and most straightforward sinking is when ships are caught in storms and sink. Maritime database call these “foundering” and that means more than enough water filled the ship making it lose buoyancy. There could be many causes of that. One is the pumps simply failed for several possible reasons and that is a possibility in smaller ships in stormy seas. The motor might have died in a storm and so the ship cannot maneuver and list. Foundering is the most terrible fate of a ship like the hull breaking in half (but this is rare and there is no local case like this here in recent memory) as casualties in a ship that failed to beat the storm is terrifying (remember Princess of the Stars). Holes in the hull might even afford a ship enough time to seek the coast and beach the ship like what happened to Wilcon IX. If the ship was beached, maritime databases call it “beached” and such an act avert loss of lives.

If it is a collision and the hull was breached, maritime databases are specific. They indicate “collision” or “collision and sinking” if that was the case. It might even be “collision and beached”. Collision and sinking was the case of St. Thomas Aquinas and that sank not because she was old (she was 39 years old when she sank). Cebu City was rammed too and sank and she was only 22 years old then. Her sister ship Don Juan was only 9 years old when she sank after a collision. Dona Paz was 24 years old when she was rammed then burned and sank. Collision and sinking are usually navigation errors which means human errors and the age of the ships is not a factor. The ramming hull of the other ship won’t ask first if the hull it is ramming is old or young or what is the age.

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Photo Credit: Philippine Air Force and Jethro Cagasan

When a ship catches fire, hull losses are sometime inevitable. It will not be certain if the cause of that is age and sometimes that does not in outright sinking because the ship can still head for the nearest land and beach itself like what Don Sulpicio did. SuperFerry 6 when it caught fire did not sink and was towed to Batangas. SuperFerry 14′s fire was not contained early too but she was towed and just keeled over when she was already in shallow waters and the fire out. Some caught fire in shipyards or in the docks and some of them were SuperFerry 3, SuperFerry 7, Philippine Princess, Iloilo Princess, St. Francis of Assisi, Manila City, Cagayan de Oro City and Asia Thailand. Again, it cannot be assumed that happened because of old age as some burned due to the sparks of welding. None of that four were over 35 years of age when they were destroyed by fire. Some others assume more morbid intentions that can’t be proved anyway.

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Photo Credit: Britz Salih

Ferry sinking is not common on short-distance ferries maybe because its routes are short and their transit times are not long. The only exception to this is Besta Shipping Lines which lost half of its fleet (four out of eight) to accidents. However, only their Baleno Nine sank outright. Baleno Six was wrecked by a typhoon (that wrecked other ships too like the Sta. Penafrancia 7), Baleno Tres grounded in rocks and was wrecked (a clear case of human error) and Baleno 168 capsized near the port because of water ingress due to a broken propeller shaft but she did not sink (and maybe this was because of old age; but then it is also possibly because of its propellers repeated hitting bottom in the shallow San Jose, Occidental Mindoro port when she was with her previous shipping).

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Photo Credit: Mike Anthony Arceno

In the past, I remembered two shipping companies notorious for being dirty and rusty. The Viva Shipping Lines combine had some 36 ships two decades ago and some of those were wooden-hulled. Only two of those sank, the Viva Penafrancia 2 which hit the wharf or a fish corral and was holed (which is navigation error and not old age) and the San Miguel Ilijan which was hulked by fire but did not sink. The feared owner of the shipping company had supposedly told his ship captains he will bury them if their ship sink and his reputation is good enough it will be believed. Well, those two ships did not sink outright and maybe the captains’ lives were spared.

In more recent years it was the Maharlika ships which was notorious for being dirty and rusty (but not as rusty as Viva). Yet for many years their ships do not sink even though it can’t sail because both engines failed or the ramp fell off. Maharlika Dos only sank because after four hours of wallowing dead in the water and with Maharlika Cuatro failing to come to the rescue she finally capsized and sank. It was a disservice to the original Maharlika ships which were fielded brand-new. However, the government is notorious for not taking care well of things and that continued under Christopher Pastrana who is infamous for making still relatively new ships look old and worn like the Maharlika Uno, Maharlika Dos, Maharlika Tres and Maharlika Cuatro. He also made the Grandstar ROROs look aged fast. And he will wail against the old ships (with crossed fingers) to promote his FastCats. What gall!

However the ship loss percentage of the two companies is low. As I have said before, the looks and lack of maintenance of the ships is not an automatic ticket to the bottom of the sea and Maharlika is the clear proof of that. And to think their ships are in the more notorious waters of the Philippines. Seamanship is actually probably more important. In Lucio Lim’s version (he of Lite Ferries Ferries), it is manning that is most important.

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Photo Credit: Mike Baylon

Overnight ships are also not wont to sink if one looks at their record. Uh, maybe not Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. which has lost 4 ferries, the first Asia Singapore (capsized and sank), the Asia Thailand (hulked by fire while not sailing), the Asia South Korea (grounded, capsized and sank but they claimed terrorist action) and the Asia Malaysia (holed and sank). But over-all, not many overnight ferries were lost in the previous decades. It is actually liners which are more prone to sink and it is funny because these are our biggest ferries and many of them carry international certifications. Many will bet that Sulpicio Lines leads in this infamous category. Well, not too fast because their rate of sinking is just about the same as William, Gothong & Aboitiz (WG&A) and Aboitiz Transport System (ATS). In a comparative period from 1996 to 2007 before the incident that forced out Sulpicio Lines from passenger shipping, WG&A lost SuperFerry 3 (fire in shipyard), SuperFerry 6 (fire while sailing) and SuperFerry 7 (fire while docked in North Harbor). And they had serious grounding incidents. Dona Virginia quit sailing after a grounding incident off Siquijor and Our Lady of Banneux also quit sailing after a grounding in Canigao Channel.

In the same period Sulpicio Lines lost the Philippine Princess (fire while refitting), Princess of the Orient (foundered in a storm), Princess of the Pacific (grounding leading to wrecking) and Princess of the World (fire while sailing, did not sink). Pro rata, the two biggest shipping companies were even in hull loss (my preferred term) rate until 2007. But with the so-infamous wrecking of Princess of the Stars in a storm, pro rata Sulpicio Lines exceeded WG&A/ATS in maritime hull losses. Then later for a much-reduced liner fleet losing St. Thomas Aquinas (collision and sinking) and St. Gregory The Great (grounding leading to BER) is also a high percentage for 2GO. Few in these cases of liners lost can be attributed to the age of the ships.one-way-bike-club

Photo Credit: ONE WAY BIKE CLUB

It is actually our wooden-hulled motor boats or batel which might have the second highest rate of sinking. And maybe that is the reason why MARINA is pressuring San Nicholas Shipping Lines to retire their batel fleet and convert to steel-hulled ships. But the Moro boats are not well-known for that. Bar none, it is actually the passenger motor bancas which have the highest loss rate. Every year a passenger motor banca will be lost to storms especially in the Surigao area. But this is due to rough waters and not to old age.

So, why cull ships after 35 years of age when it is still seaworthy? The examples of maritime hull losses I mentioned shows it was not old age which made them sink. I have a database of over 300 Philippine maritime hull losses dating back to the end of World War II (while the government authorities can barely list 50). The list of mine does not include motor bancas and fishing vessels. It will be more if that is included. I can show it is not old age which was the primary factor in the sinking of the 300+.

All sinking are investigated by the Board of Marine Inquiry (BMI). But after some time maybe they donate the investigation papers to the termites or throw them away to Pasig River. That is why they can’t complete the list and argue against abogados like Maria Elena Bautista or Arthur Tugade when they are the true mariners. Talo talaga ng abogado ang marino kahit pa commodore o admiral at kahit maritime issues pa ang pinag-uusapan.

If the Supreme Court will be asked, their definition of seaworthiness is simply the ships having relevant certificates. To them it does not matter if the ship gets holed in deep seas while sailing. This is the gist of their most recent decision on a cargo ship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation that sank in the late 1970’s. See how idiotic? The dumbies want to rewrite maritime concepts, that’s why.

If I will be asked maybe the culling of Tugade which should be raised first. The reason is old age.

It is in the Philippines where I noticed that the decision-makers are often those who don’t know a thing about the issues they are deciding on.

Experts do not matter in this land.

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Photo Credit: Lindsay Bridge