FERRIES THAT HAD SECOND LIVES

There are lucky ships that lived two lives. Some met accidents and were properly repaired. Some simply grew old but were modified and modernized. If not for the presence of IMO Numbers which are permanent hull numbers and reflected in maritime databases tracing them would have been difficult but not impossible.
Some ships meet accidents like grounding and capsizing and this can easily happen to LCTs and barges which being flat-bottomed do not have the best stability in a heavy sea. But grounding and capsizing is not a big deal for them as they can be easily refloated, towed and repaired especially since they are equipped with watertight compartments that limit damage when the hull is breached. Having a high density of beams also helps to limit damage due to deformation of structures.
If LCTs and barges are vulnerable then more so are the tugs. They can even capsize while pulling a stuck-up ship. Just the same this type is resilient to damage and can easily be refloated and repaired. Even if they are washed ashore or beached in a typhoon they will sail again like a phoenix. No wonder tugs live very long lives although they are small.
Ferries are a different matter. They are not that resilient. Cargo ships are not much luckier too at times since it can be difficult to refloat them especially when loaded by a heavy cargo. With a cargo of cement that is next to impossible. Tankers are not that lucky too. In a fire or an explosion it is a clear goodbye.
We have a few ships that grew old that were modified after laying up idled for years in some obscure part of a shipyard. One of those is the “Star Ferry-II”of 168 Shipping which was formerly the “Ace-1” of Manila Ace Shipping. Laid up for lack of patronage and suitable route she one year appeared in the Matnog-Allen route. I interviewed a crewman and he told me the captain told them it was rebuilt from various parts thus confirming the suspicion of a PSSS moderator that somehow she has a resemblance especially at the bridge area to the “missing” “Ace-1” which formerly plied the Batangas-Mindoro route.
M/V Ace 1 ©Edison Sy
Star Ferry II ©Joe Cardenas
What is remarkable in her rebirth as “Star-Ferry-II” is she will defeat the claim of “Millennium Uno” of Millennium Shipping as the oldest conventional RORO sailing in the Philippines which means LCTs which are technically ROROs are excluded. “Ace-1” was built in 1961 while “Millennium Uno” was built in 1964, a clear lead of three years. Both are old and weak now but the debate between them will continue.
Nobody that will lay sight at “Lapu-Lapu Ferry 1” of Lapu-Lapu Shipping will ever think she is an old ship. And nobody will ever suspect she is the old second “Sweet Time” of Sweet Lines that seemed to have just disappeared in the Cebu-Bohol route. She was rebuilt in Fortune ShipWorks in Consolacion, Cebu in 2002 but what an incredible rebuild since she no longer has resemblance to her former self. She still retains, however her old Hanshin engine.
Sweet Time ©Edison Sy
Lapu-Lapu Ferry-I ©Mike Baylon

When the overnight ferry-cruiser “Honey” of Lapu-Lapu Shipping disappeared there were questions where she went. After some time a “new” “Lapu-lapu Ferry 8” appeared in the Lapu-Lapu Shipping wharf between Pier 1 and Pier 2. Later, we were able to confirm she was indeed the former “Honey” but what a change. There was also no resemblance to the old ship except for the bridge area as noted by another PSSS moderator. What is amazing is her length increased from 20.1m to 35.8m and her breadth increased too from 6.8m to 7.3m.

Lapu Lapu Ferry 8 ©Mike Baylon

It seems among shipping companies it is Lapu-Lapu Shipping which is the master of ship transformations. Their third ship, the “Rosalia 3” was converted from a former ferry sailing the Bantayan route which stopped operations when ROROs began ruling Bantayan Island. Actually as “Rosalia 3” it is already her third iteration since originally she was a single-screwed fishing vessel. Converted to a passenger ship two more engines and screws were added. At full trot she can actually do 16 knots according to her captain and competitors wonder where such a humble-looking cruiser is drawing her mojo.

Rosalia 3 ©Mike Baylon

In Zamboanga there are ships too that disappeared and then reappeared in a different guise. One of this is the “KC Beatrice” of Sing Shipping which was formerly the “Sampaguita Lei” of the defunct Sampaguita Shipping. Having her prominent features changed she does not look the dowdy old ferry she formerly was. Her engine was also changed. She disappeared for nearly a decade and she re-emerged in 2005.

Sampaguita Lei ©Mike Baylon

Another ship in Zamboanga City that was came back like magic was the long-missing “Rizma” of A. Sakaluran. There were two PSSS founders who were checking her being completed three years ago in Varadero de Recodo in Zamboanga City yet we did not suspect she was the former “Rizma”. We were just wondering then what former ship is “Magnolia Liliflora” as looking at her hull even in the dark we can make out she has an old hull. Now she proudly flies the flag and colors of Magnolia Shipping.

Magnolia Liliflora ©Mike Baylon

There are ships that went through worse fates before being resurrected — they sank, were salvaged and were refitted. One was the “Mindoro Express” which sank in Palawan after being pulled-out from the Matnog-Allen route where she was known as “Christ The King” and “Luzvimin Primo”. She was raised up, repaired and refitted in Keppel Batangas, superstructure was chopped and she re-emerged as the “Maharlika Cinco” of Archipelago Ferries/Philharbor in Liloan-Lipata route. She is now missing again and last report was she was seen laid up in a shipyard in General Santos City.

Mindoro Express ©Edison Sy
Maharlika Cinco ©Joel Bado

It was the same situation for “Joy-Ruby” of Atienza Shipping which was the former “Viva Sto. Nino” of Viva Shipping Lines. She sank stern first nearing the port of Coron and she was stuck up with the bow jutting from sea. She was salvaged and repaired and she reappeared as the “Super Shuttle Ferry 15” of Asian Marine Transport in 2008 and plying the Mandaue-Ormoc route.

Super Shuttle Ferry 15 ©Mike Baylon

More than a decade ago, “Melrivic Three” of Aznar Shipping sank right after leaving the port of Pingag in Isabel, Leyte on the way to Danao. One of the passengers was to later become a PSSS moderator. He says the ferry did not completely sink and was later retrieved from the sea and repaired. This ship is still sailing in the same route.

Melrivic Three ©Jonathan Bordon

If you can’t put a good man down, as they say, that could also be true for ships. “Our Lady of Mediatrix” of Daima Shipping became the unfortunate collateral damage of the bombing of two Super Five buses aboard her while she was about to dock in Ozamis port one day in February 2000. White phosphorus bombs were used and the two buses completely burned along with other vehicles on board. The bridge of the double-ended ferry got toasted along with the car deck but the engine room was intact. Laid up for some time she was towed to the shipyard in Jasaan, Misamis Oriental where she was lovingly restored and she emerged again as the “Swallow-2” of the same company. Her bridge was altered, people know her story but they don’t mind and they still patronize her although about 50 people died in the carnage she went through.

Our Lady of Mediatrix ©BBC News Asia
Swallow-2 ©Mark Ocul
Compared to the tales of “Mindoro Express”, “Joy-Ruby”, “Melrivic Three” and “Our Lady of Mediatrix” ,the story of some LCTs of Asian Marine Transport and Jomalia Shipping that partially capsized near port sounds tame. There is actually not much difficulty in raising them up. Practically, those cases are not really stories of ships living second lives.

There were also other lengthening or renewing of lives of ships. Siquijor-I is supposedly a former fishing vessel and training ship of Siquijor State College that was already laid up. How she ended as a property of the Governor then is another matter. And then there is the SuperFerry 1 which within one year of sailing was hit by engine fire. She was towed to Singapore where she was re-engined and repaired. She came out then much faster.

Siquijor Island 1 ©Jonathan Bordon
SuperFerry 1 ©Aristotle Refugio

A special case was the partially capsized “Ocean King II” which was hit by a rogue wave in Surigao Strait. She was able to make it to Benit port where the Coast Guard made a big but wrong show of rescue (using rapelling ropes instead of just getting bancas nearly and urging all to evacuate at once when the ship would no longer sink as she is touching bottom). She lain there for some time until she was towed to Navotas. We all thought she will be cut up there until one day she emerged as a cargo ship and now named as “Golden Warrior”.

Ocean King II ©rrd5580/flickr
Dragon Warrior ©Aristotle Refugio

There are others that merit attention here. “Gloria Two” and “Gloria Three” of Gabisan Shipping were supposedly rebuilt from fishing vessel hulls and done in Leyte. That is also the case of “April Rose” of Rose Shipping which is now with Atienza Shipping. And the “Bounty Ferry”of Evenesser Shipping is supposedly built from a launch from the US Navy if tales are to be believed.

Bounty Ferry ©Britz Salih

Whatever the case may be, there are many ways of giving ships second lives. There is not much technical difficulties involved unless it is fully submerged and far from land. If near land what it needs is just some concern, a dash of love and of course, cash.

The BASIC, SHORT-DISTANCE FERRY-ROROs

The Basic, Short-distance Ferry-RORO is one of the most ubiquitous ship types in the Philippines. Where before Motor Boats (MBs), the old designation and Motor Bancas (MBcas) use to connect our nearer islands, now it is this type that do that role, aside from the less-developed or small islands where vehicle and cargo traffic is not sufficient to sustain operations of steel-hulled ferries. In that case, therefore, it will still be the Motor Bancas that will do the connection as Motor Boats are already on the way out as short-distance route connections.

Ciara Joie 2 ©Britz Salih

These small, simple ROROs are basically from sub-30 meters in length (in LBP or LR) to sub-40 meters with a beam of 7 to 10 meters, all rounded off, with a GT (Gross Tonnage) of generally less than 300 tons and an NT (Net Tonnage) of less than 200. The design consists of a car/cargo deck below and a single passenger deck above with the bridge generally located at the same upper level and in the forward (abaft) location. Commonly, there is only one, non-articulated cargo ramp located at the bow. Since they are short-distance ferries passenger accommodation will consist just of benches (the hallmark of a short-distance ferry) with the most basic amenities like TV sets for viewing, a snack bar which is locally called as canteen and maybe a videoke or some video games. A very few will have an air conditioned Tourist section. Passenger capacity of this type is usually between 200 and 300.

Maria Yasmina and Maria Sophia of Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. ©Mike Baylon

This type of ferry is typically equipped with just one marine engine with the output usually in the 600 to 1,000 horsepower range and the most common installed is the Daihatsu marine engine. The cruising speed is usually 11 knots at most with some older or underpowered ones barely making 9 knots. Most of this type will carry only six long trucks but more if the the vehicles are sedans or pick-up trucks. Motorcycles will be slotted where there is some free space and this will usually be in the bow near the ramp. In loading the biggest and heaviest is usually loaded first in some sort of a choreographed “dance”. Putting a heavy truck at the stern without a counterbalance at the bow can capsize this type stern-first. Cargo or load masters sequence this “dance” unless most of the vehicles to be loaded are small so it will just be a matter of balancing it starboard and port.

Super Shuttle Ferry 3 ©John Carlos Cabanillas

Most of this ferry type in the Philippines came from Japan. They will not look much different in design because many of them are actually sister ships which means they share the same hull-form. This is so because they were based on one of the designs commissioned by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan. That was meant to simplify research and development to lessen cost and help the small ship builders of Japan. In Japan this type is usually limited to secluded seas and bays but in the Philippines they are used even in seas with reputation for high swells and strong winds.

[VIDEO of a BSDF in rough seas-Click Here]

Starlite Nautica ©Mike Baylon

The routes of the Basic, Short-distance Ferry-RORO are usually from 2 to 40 nautical miles distance with transit times of from a quarter of an hour to four hours or so if the route is a bit long and the ferry is really slow (and in that case a Large Motor Banca will overtake the basic, short-distance RORO). As of this writing (January 2015) there are more than 45 routes served in the country by the Basic, Short-distance Ferry-ROROs but that total includes those served by Ropax and Hybrid LCTs and by the bigger short-distance ROROs.

Kalinaw ©Adrian Pletosu

Most of our Basic, Short-distance Ferry-ROROs are already old with many built in the 1970s. However, they are still reliable since Daihatsu marine engine parts are easy to source and they are easy to maintain. Should an engine be at the end of its economic life, many replacement engines are easily available in the surplus market. That is also true for the other machinery and bridge equipment. With a robust design and many replacement parts available this type is not anywhere near retirement. If there is a threat to this type it comes from the arrival of bigger short-distance ferriy ROROs which are newer and faster. This can load more and so when it is peak season or there are a lot of buses on board passengers need not use the stairs or deck for sitting. Many of these bigger short-distance ROROs have airconditioned accommodations and they roll less in heavy seas.

Regina Calixta II ©Masahiro Homma
By ownership, the following shipping companies operate this type of vessel:
Montenegro Shipping Lines
Asian Marine Transport Corporation
Starlite Shipping
Besta Shipping
Alabat Shipping
Regina Shipping Lines
Denica Lines
Medallion Transport
Island Shipping
Aznar Shipping
Jomalia Shipping
Aleson Shipping
Philstone Shipping
Davemyr Shipping
The first four are headquartered in Batangas while Regina and Denica are Bicol lines. The next four are Visayas-based and the last three are Mindanao-based. Together they operate some 40+ Basic, Short-distance ROROs. Not included in the count are the Ropax LCTs, Hybrid LCTs and the Double-ended ROROs.
Odyssey ©Mike Baylon
Though they might look vulnerable but only a few hull losses resulted in the three decades of operation of this type of ferry and among them are the “Lady of Carmel”, “Baleno Nine”, “Wonderful Star”, “Ciara Joy” and “Princess Camille”. No two of those were lost in the same route. There were others which capsized in port or near land but they were salvaged and are still in service.
Vulnerable or not this type is among those that ushered the intermodal era in the country. And up to now they still bridge the near islands and serve our transport and trade needs. This type will still be around our straits and channels for a long, long time to come.