The Unique Nasipit Port and Bay

Nasipit is the main port of Agusan after the Butuan ports (Butuan and Lumbocon) lost that status because the ships no longer came. That was because of the siltation of Agusan River and the general increase in the size and depths of the ships. Nasipit port is unique in topographic sense. It is located in a nearly enclosed bay which looks like a pond. Two enclosing spits of land nearly closes the outlet of the bay. As such Nasipit port is probably the most protected port in the Philippines. But it is deep enough that 160-meter ferries used to dock before in Nasipit. Those were great liners Princess of Paradise of Sulpicio Lines Inc. and the Our Lady of Akita of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. which later became the SuperFerry 6 of WG&A.

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Photo by Janjan Salas

The very small Nasipit Bay was once the home of the famed Nasipit Lumber Inc. which used to produce veneer, plywood and other types of processed wood products. The plant of the company was once the original user of that bay and the bay also served as the stocking pond of their logs and their wharf inside the bay was where the cargo ships loading their products once docked. Nasipit port was built adjacent to Nasipit Lumber with the latter nearer the entrance of the bay. Nasipit Lumber has closed long ago when logs and lumber became scarce and new rules protecting the ancestral domain were drawn. Now that plant is even gone now including the buildings. What remained are some the concrete floors and just parts of their old wharf.

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The former location of Nasipit Lumber

Now the permanent resident of the bay is the power barge of Therma Marine Inc., an Aboitiz Power Corporation subsidiary and this is located in the inner part of the nearly-enclosed bay. Also in Nasipit Bay, inside the port is the Port Maritime Office (PMO) of the Philippine Ports Authority (PPA) which is in charge of all the ports in the Caraga Region. The manager of it and the employees wants it transferred to Butuan, however, because it is there that where most of them live. I don’t know if that will push through. Nasipit Bay is also home to swirling rains I have not observed anywhere else and maybe that is due to the peculiar topography of the Nasipit inlet which are surrounded by high hills in a particular way.

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The power barge of Therma South

Nasipit port is a straight quay where the middle it was broken by a slanted RORO ramp which is just a recent alteration. In the inner end smaller ships like tugs and Philippine Coast Guard (PCG) patrol boats are docked. There is a transit shed for cargo and a passenger waiting area in the port terminal building. Docking for big ships is a precise maneuver inside the Nasipit inlet as the bay is very small and there are shallow portions and it is especially dangerous when it is low tide. However, there are not s to contend unlike in the exposed ports.

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Nasipit port has been the port of passenger ships for a long time now not because it is convenient or near the city (it is actually out of the way and relatively far from the town and highway). The change happened in the 1970’s when the ports of Butuan became shallower because of siltation and there was lack of dredging (the results of which are often just undone by raging annual floods of the great Agusan River). By the 1980’s, Nasipit port has already supplanted the Butuan ports especially since the shallow-draft ex-”FS” ships were already dying from old age and the replacements of that type were already bigger. However, even though the ports have changed many passenger shipping companies still used the name “Butuan Port” when actually they were already docking and using Nasipit port and this entailed confusion to the uninitiated including land-bound researchers doing shipping studies.

There were passenger vessels which did both the Butuan and Nasipit ports. They just gave up on Butuan port when docking there became much dependent on high tide (and risk waiting until noon at times when this would already jeopardize departure time because loading and unloading using booms and porters is slow). One example of this were the former “FS” ships of the Bisaya Land Transport Company of the Cuencos of Cebu (no typo there, that is the actual name of a shipping company which is a division of their land transport). When they find it impossible to dock in Butuan, they then proceed to Nasipit port (to the complain of many passengers).

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The MV Samar of Compania Maritima (Credits to Philippine Herald and Gorio Belen)

Compania Maritima, the leading shipping company after the Pacific War was one of the earliest to use Nasipit port. Their passenger-cargo ship Samar which is the bigger type of US war-surplus ship used to dock in Nasipit port. That was also true for their passenger-cargo ship Mactan which was in the 80-meter class and whose depth is two meters over the depth of an ex-”FS” ship, the last type of passenger ship that can be shoehorned in the shallow Butuan ports. Their Mindoro and Romblon, both converted ex-”FS” ship docked at both Butuan and Nasipit ports (and maybe that is to increase the passengers and cargo). Their Panay, a bigger ship docked at Nasipit when it can’t in Butuan. Later, even their ex-”FS” ship Leyte was calling exclusively in Nasipit port. Compania Maritima was the first to dominate Nasipit port when the Chinoy shipping companies were just on their way up and not calling on Nasipit port. In the main they came to Nasipit port when Compania Maritima was already gone.

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The MV Panay of Compania Maritima (Credits to Philippine Herald and Gorio Belen)

Some actually just gave up on the Agusan trade when their ships can no longer dock in Butuan and they did not really try to earnestly use Nasipit port like Escano Lines which used to be strong in Butuan. Well, it must have been frustrating for them when the ship can’t dock after a few hours of waiting and then would have to go to Nasipit port anyway to load and unload. Moreover, the floods of Agusan River that happen many months of the year with its floating logs and other debris which can damage the ship propellers and rudders also added to the vagaries in docking in Butuan.

By the 1980’s the passenger ship calls on Nasipit, Butuan and Surigao which are all connected ports went down considerably. There was a big, general downturn in the economy because of economic crisis and container ships began supplanting the passenger-cargo ships in carrying cargo (where before this type carried a lot of the express cargo that are not in bulk or liquid). These new container ships cannot fit in the Butuan ports. However, few of them are coming in Butuan anyway. Another thing, the cargo ace of Nasipit before which were the forest products began slumping as the forest cover was fast going down and it raised a howl and therefore restrictions on logging were placed by the new Aquino administration.

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The pocket liner Surigao Princess (Photo by Edison Sy)

At the tail end of the Compania Maritima dominance a new liner was calling in Nasipit, the Surigao Princess of Sulpicio Lines which was a pocket liner. In the post-martial law period the Our Lady of Guadalupe of Carlos A. Gothong Lines, Inc. (CAGLI) came. And so these two liners succeeded Compania Maritima were gone as the company went out of business at the height of the political and economic crisis of the mid-1980’s. Soon, the better Our Lady of Lourdes of CAGLI replaced the Our Lady of Guadalupe in that route. In 1988, the big Nasipit Princess of Sulpicio Lines began calling in Nasipit port. But her route was mainly Cebu only as it was still Surigao Princess that was the liner there of Sulpicio Lines Inc. And, the Dona Lili of Gothong was also sailing from Nasipit to Cebu.

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The Nasipit Princess by Suro Yan

William Lines, Lorenzo Shipping Corporation and Negros Navigation Company, among the great survivors of the crisis of the 1980’s did not have Nasipit among their ports of call when the 1990’s started. Escano Lines will soon be leaving passenger shipping as well as Bisaya Land Transport. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation is also much-weakened in passenger shipping then as they did not buy liners for 15 long years (however, the will be back with a flash with their SuperFerry series and the were strong in container shipping)

It was Carlos A. Gothong Lines and Sulpicio Lines which were competing in Nasipit port in the 1990’s both in the liner route to Manila and the overnight route to Cebu. Although Nasipit was no longer as grand a destination like when Butuan still had a lot of ships calling, the two companies brought some great liners in Nasipit port like the Our Lady of Akita and the Princess of Paradise and what a show of confidence it was for Nasipit port. That was the heyday of competition when there was much optimism in business and the shipping liberalization and modernization policies of the administration of Fidel V. Ramos (FVR) took effect. A little before the “Great Merger” William Lines will also enter Nasipit port with their liner Mabuhay 2.

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The Our Lady of Akita (Credits to Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen)

When the Great Merger that produced the giant shipping company WG&A came there was a plethora of ever-changing ships that got assigned to Nasipit port unlike in the past when a ferry will hold a route for a decade or even longer. In WG&A, routes and route assignments happen at least once a year and so tracking of ships that served a port became difficult. However, Nasipit was a regular route of the company. That liberalization of FVR also brought the expanding Negros Navigation Company (NENACO) to Nasipit where they used their beautiful St. Francis of Assisi. Unfortunately, that liner burned right in Nasipit quay not long after in 1999 which resulted in the destruction of the ship. The revived Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) also tried the Manila to Nasipit liner route before it just became a Cargo RORO route when they got suspended from passenger shipping. Nasipit still has lots of load, no longer forest products but bananas.

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The Our Lady of Lourdes by Chief Ray Smith

With the “Great Merger” and the creation of Visayas-Mindanao subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC), that company also paraded a succession of ships in Nasipit port that is bound to Cebu on an overnight route. It began from the old Our Lady of Lourdes and it ended with Cebu Ferry 2 when CFC was already under the Aboitiz Transport System (ATS), the successor company of WG&A. Sulpicio Lines, their only competitor in the overnight route brought the Cagayan Princess in Nasipit when the Nasipit Princess can no longer sail. This was later followed by the much-better Princess of the Earth. And for a while, the Gothong Southern Shipping Lines Inc. (GSSLI) brought their Dona Rita Sr. to Nasipit port after they acquired the Our Lady of Good Voyage of Cebu Ferries.

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Filipinas Butuan in Nasipit port

The port has also a link to Jagna port in Bohol as service to the Bol-anons residing in Mindanao. Usually the Cebu-Nasipit ship of a company will do a once a week call to Jagna on their seventh day and the ship will go back to Nasipit within that seventh day and then resume their route to Cebu.

This decade saw a great downturn for Nasipit in sailing ships. There was only one liner left doing a once a week voyage to Manila and this was usually the St. Leo The Great of 2GO. Sulpicio Lines quit passenger sailing and Gothong Southern also gave up that segment. Even Cebu Ferries quit the Nasipit overnight route to Cebu when they transferred their ships to Batangas.

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The St. Leo The Great

Now, a completely new cast is in Nasipit port headed by Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc. (CSLI) which use either their Filipinas Butuan or Filipinas Iligan in the Cebu to Nasipit overnight route with an off day diversion to Jagna. Lite Ferries also has a Nasipit to Jagna ship on the stronger months for sailing but there is no permanently assigned ship. 2GO still has that once a week liner from Manila. Nasipit is not a favorite of container ships except for Carlos A. Gothong Lines.

Passenger shipping which is down already ia affected by the intermodal buses and the budget airlines, both of which offer competitive fares compared to ships and with the advantage of daily departures. Nasipit is also not helped by it being out of the way from the city and the municipality’s policy of barring the buses and commuter vans from the port doesn’t help the case of Nasipit port either in attracting passengers who are turned off the expensive and very cramped tricycle ride which is also vulnerable from the rains driven by the swirling winds of Nasipit inlet.

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The legendary white-out of Nasipit port

I wonder when and how Nasipit port will have a renaissance. Somehow, some day, I just hope that it will come.

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The Merged Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. and Lorenzo Shipping Corporation Was Still a Great Shipping Combine Before Their Break-up in 1979

In 1972, the first great break-up in Philippine liner shipping after World War II happened. The then No. 1 shipping company in the Philippines, Carlos A. Go Thong & Co. broke when its general manager Sulpicio Go decided to go it all alone. The old company then just exceeded the old No.1, the Compania Maritima which was already in a death spiral but nobody realized it then considering that as late as 1968 and 1970 Compania Maritima still purchased great liners with the one purchased in 1968 a brand-new one from West Germany (the Filipinas which became their flagship).

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The Sulpicio Lines schedule in 1974 (Gorio Belen research in the Nat’l Library)

Sulpicio Go then founded Sulpicio Lines Inc. with 16 ships coming from the old company. Of the 16, twelve were liners and the others were regional ships. Still with that size, Sulpicio Lines started with a Top 5 ranking in the local totem pole of shipping companies. Not bad for a start especially their fleet had many liners that came from Europe.

The remnant of Carlos A. Go Thong & Co. became the Carlos A. Gothong Lines, Inc. (CAGLI) which still bears the name of the founder and the other one was Lorenzo Shipping Corporation (LSC) which were owned by the siblings of the owner of CAGLI. For strength, of course, and to better withstand the tremors of the splintering, the two pooled operations but they retained different names. From the billing one can surmise that CAGLI was at the helm of the combine. But if one analyzes the fleet holdings, it would look like Lorenzo Shipping Corporation was the stronger one with more ships but this was not apparent to the public.

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The CAGLI + LSC schedule in 1974 (Gorio Belen research in the Nat’l Library)

One of the weakness of the CAGLI+Lorenzo Shipping combine was their lack of good liners. Out of the 10 liners from Europe that arrived for Go Thong in 1963 to 1969, only four went to the combine. 6 of the 10 went to Sulpicio Lines and 3 went to CAGLI but 2 of those were graying ex-“C1-A” ships which were World War II surplus ships that were broken up anyway in 1973. Only one of the 10 liners from Europe went to Lorenzo Shipping Corporation. Well, even the liner Dona Angelina (the former Touggourt) that came in 1972 also went to Sulpicio Lines.

Another retained ship of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc., the Sarangani Bay which came from the National Development Corporation (NDC) and was a former ship of the Maritime Company of the Philippines (the international line of Compania Maritima) was also broken up and even earlier, in 1972. Another retained ship, the Dona Paz (the former Dona Hortencia; this was a different and earlier ship than the infamous one which sank off Mindoro in a collision with the tanker Vector), Go Thong’s only liner from Japan was disposed off in 1974.

With those disposals Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. began buying small cruiser liners from Japan which were just in the 50-meter class, in the main, which were mainly good for the secondary lines as it were no bigger than the ex-”FS” ships. Lorenzo Shipping Corporation did not dispose much but it also began buying small liners from Japan and those were slightly bigger than what CAGLI was buying. Well, it seems the two companies were affected then by the fast devaluing peso which made ship acquisitions more expensive. Together the combined CAGLI+LSC fielded those and their few retained ex-”FS” ships against the competition.

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1977 CAGLI + LSC schedule (Gorio Belen research in the Nat’l Library)

The combine was not shabby as some might think. They just don’t have the glitz and the glitter and they used cargo ships to augment their fleets. The biggest shipping companies then can field 15 passenger-cargo ships from the mid-1970’s and the list is short: Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (including subsidiary Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company), William Lines Inc. and Sulpicio Lines Inc. The combined CAGLI+LSC was able to match that! Compania Maritima has less ships but their ships were bigger.

In reckoning, that meant CAGLI+LSC combine was in the Top 5 of the national liner shipping field and maybe even higher just before the break-up when in 1979 they had a total of 24 ships. Well, that is not bad and it is even surprising for a remnant of a big shipping company. But that will also show how big Go Thong will then be if they did not break up! If they did not then they will have over 30 liners, the same number as WG&A at its peak although admittedly the latter’s ships were bigger and better.

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1979 schedule of CAGLI + LSC (Gorio Belen research in the Nat’l Library)

What changed in the combine, however, was they were no longer challenging for the prime Manila-Cebu route as they didn’t have good liners for that. The primary liners of competition were simply better than theirs and they don’t have the fast cruiser liners (like Sweet Faith, Sweet Home and Cebu City) that were already dominating the Manila-Cebu route then. However, they were making a spirited fight in the Southern Mindanao and Northern Mindanao ports and routes. They were still not beaten.

In 1979, a new paradigm began to appear and appear fast in the local shipping scene, the container ships. Before, it was the passenger-cargo ships including the passenger-cargo liners which were carrying the cargo. If liner companies have cargo ships, it was very few and some didn’t even possess one. Now with the shift, it seems it was already de rigeur to acquire one including the associated container vans. It looked it is the only modern and safe way after all the headaches and complaints in the damages and pilferage of loose cargo loading (LCL).

If one studies the following course of events, it seems Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. and Lorenzo Shipping Corporation had a difference of opinion in how to handle the completely new and threatening paradigm, that of container shipping. CAGLI voted to leapfrog to ROROs while LSC voted to play in the container trade and even withdrawing from passenger shipping eventually. And this might have provoked the split between them.

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This later became the Dona Anita in the CAGLI + LSC fleet (Gorio Belen research)

The two then played not only different paradigms but also two different areas of concentration. Carlos A. Gothong Lines withdrew from the Southern Mindanao ports and routes while Lorenzo Shipping Corporation concentrated there.

But how they went from 1980 and on will definitely require a different article as the paths of the two companies diverged already.

Abangan!

The Start and Impact of Containerization on Local Shipping

Containerization or the use of container vans to transport goods began in the Philippines in 1976, a decade after containerization began to take hold internationally. The new method was started by Aboitiz Shipping Corporation when they converted their 1,992-gross ton general cargo ship “P. Aboitiz” into a container carrier. This was followed by the conversion of their general cargo ship “Sipalay” in 1978. These first two container ships had limited capacity in terms of TEU (Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit) which is the common measure of container capacity that can be carried by container ships but it more than showed the direction of cargo loading in the future. And it also showed that general cargo ships can be converted container carriers.

By 1978 and 1979, containerization was already in full swing in the Philippines when major competitor shipping companies William Lines Inc., Sulpicio Lines Inc. and Lorenzo Shipping Company also embraced the new paradigm and competed. This new wave was also joined at the same time by two other small and new shipping companies, the Sea Transport Company and Solid Shipping Lines. Except for these two, our pioneers in container shipping were passenger liner (which means there are fixed schedules and routes) shipping companies.

The leading liner shipping company then which was Compania Maritima declined to follow suit into containerization along with Gothong Lines while the others like Sweet Lines, Negros Navigation and Hijos de F. Escano followed a little later in the early 1980’s. Gothong Lines, however, was into small ROROs early and these can also load container vans. Sweet Lines later founded a separate cargo-container company, the Central Shipping Company.

Like Compania Maritima, Madrigal Shipping, another old shipping company also did not follow into containerization. The smaller passenger liner companies also did not or were not capable into going to containerization. Among them were Galaxy Lines, N & S Lines, Northern Lines, Bisayan Land Transport, Newport Shipping, Cardinal Shipping, Dacema Lines, Rodrigueza Shipping, etc. Soon all of them were gone from Philippine waters and one reason was that they failed to adapt to the new paradigm and shippers were already demanding for container vans.

Before the advent of container vans, dry cargo were handled bulk or break-bulk. Bulk is when the whole ship is loaded with grains or copra. But bulk shipment is not possible in the passenger-cargo ships then as major parts of the ship is devoted to passengers and its requirements. Along with passengers, the passenger-cargo ships then carried various merchandise as in finished goods from the city like canned goods, “sin” products and construction materials. On the return trip, it would carry farm products like copra, abaca, rice, corn or dried fish. Since it was mixed, it was called break-bulk. It was mainly handled by cargo booms and porters and stowed in the ships’ cargo holds. Since it was mixed and has no containers aside from boxes the handling was long and tedious and it was vulnerable to pilferage and damage by handling and by the weather.

With the coming of container vans the weaknesses of the old way of loading that led to damage and pilferage were minimized by a big degree. Actually, the arranging of the goods was even passed on to the shipper or trader and all the container shipping company had to do was haul aboard the container. The new system needed much less labor (who can be balky at times and disputes with them can lead to delays or intentional damage) than before and the loading is faster because containers can simply be stacked one atop the other. This was difficult with breakbulk because of possible contamination and because the cargo had no containers it was difficulty to simply stack them and this even led to lost cargo spaces.

One initial result of containerization was the need for dedicated container ships as the passenger-cargo ships of that era, the cruisers were not meant for the loading of container vans (although they can carry a few and loaded LOLO). Since our local volume was low, our shipping companies preferred not to order purpose-built container ships. Instead, the discovered path was just to convert general cargo ships into container ships. The needed conversion was actually minimal and since these ships were already equipped with cargo booms then it was easier for everything. Only, the booms needed to be more stout as in it has to have more lifting capacity because of the added weight of the steel of the container van. Container vans were handled LOLO or Lift-On, Lift Off.

With the coming of ROROs with its ramps and car decks starting in 1980, cargo handling became easier. Break-bulk cargo especially the heavier ones can now be handled by the forklifts and transferred to the car decks (which then became cargo decks also but not as cargo holds). Shipping companies have used forklifts before but mainly just in the ports. Now, the first ROROs also carried forklifts in the car decks and the stowing of container vans in the car decks of the ROROs began. These were mainly XEUs (Ten-Foot container vans) which can easily be handled by medium-sized forklifts. Still many of cargoes in the first ROROs were break-bulk.

Some liners of the 1980’s had cargo booms at the front of the ship while having RORO ramps at the stern like the “Zamboanga City” and the “Dona Virginia” of William Lines. It carried container vans at the front of the ship and those were handled LOLO while at the stern they loaded container vans. Actually, some big cruiser liners of the late 1970’s can carry container vans on their upper decks at the stern like the “Don Enrique” and “Don Eusebio” of Sulpicio Lines, the “Cagayan de Oro City” of William Lines and the “Don Claudio” of Negros Navigation”. It was handled LOLO by the cargo booms of those ships.

At the tail end of the 1970’s and at the start of the 1980’s what was prominent was the race of the leading liner shipping companies to acquire general cargo ships and convert it to container ships. Aboitiz Shipping Company was the early leader and they fielded thirteen container ships between 1976 and 1989. Their series was called the “Aboitiz Concarrier” and latter additions were called the “Aboitiz Superconcarrier” and “Aboitiz Megaconcarrier”. William Lines rolled out in the same period eight container ship plus two Cargo RORO ships which can also carry passengers. They named their series as the “Wilcon”. Sulpicio Lines was not to be outdone and they fielded fourteen and these were dubbed as “Sulpicio Container” or “Sulcon”.

In the same period, Lorenzo Shipping, a former major, also rolled out eleven container ship in a series called “Lorenzo Container” or “Lorcon”. Some of these were former general cargo ships of theirs. Sea Transport Company were also able to field eight with place name of their ports of call followed by “Transport” like “Davao Transport”. None of the other liner shipping companies which followed into containerization like Sweet Lines and Negros Navigation had half a dozen container ships. Instead, they began relying on their new RORO ship acquisitions but that was also done by Sulpicio Lines, William Lines, Aboitiz Shipping and Gothong Lines.

The main effect of the rush to acquire container ships was the slowing down of the acquisition of passenger ships. Actually, this might even had an effect on their purchase of RORO passenger OR ROPAX ships. With the collapse of many shipping companies in the crisis decade of the 1980’s, this resulted in a lack of passenger ships at the end of that decade. But there were many container ships as in about sixty and that fleet pushed many shipping companies in the cargo trade out of business in the 1980’s. Two main factors pushed them into the precipice – the economic crisis which made it hard to acquire ships and the loss of patronage because the paradigm in cargo handling had changed. Break-bulk was now already marginalized and frowned upon. Shippers and traders have had enough of pilferage and goods damaged in transit.

With marginalization, the other cargo liner companies had more difficulty filling up their cargo holds. Voyages became fewer and sailing times ballooned. They became dead duck for the container vans loaded into the fast RORO liners which had fixed schedules. Soon they were on the way out or they had to move to tramper shipping where there are no fixed routes and schedules. During this period cargo liners were even included in the schedule boards of the passenger liners. Their only deficit compared to passenger liners was as cargo ships they had less speed. And since cargo is handled LOLO they also spent more time in the ports.

Now, long-distance break-bulk shipping is almost gone. It is only lively now in the regional routes like the routes originating from Cebu and Zamboanga. In many cases, places and routes they have already evolved into intermodal shipping – the use of trucks which are loaded into short-distance ROROs. In this mode the trucks are the new “containers” or “vessels”. Since that is in competition with container shipping, it is now container shipping which is beginning to be marginalized by the intermodal truck especially if it is supported by the cheap Cargo RORO LCT.

Things change. Always.

The Flagship Wars in the Manila-Cebu Route

In the first 15 years after World War II there was not much of what was later called “the flagship wars”. How can there be flagship wars when it was an ex-”FS” ship battling another ex-”FS” ship? The ex-“FS” ship were just small World War II surplus ships from the US Navy that were slow and lumbering just like the freighters. And with the basicness of the ex-”FS” ships, there was really no “luxury” to talk about when there was no airconditioning, no real amenities, no entertainment (unless one brings out a guitar and croons), no true lounges or even enough space to walk about. There were bigger ships like the Type C1-M-AV1 which were also war surplus ships from the US Navy but they were also basic ships and also lack speed (both the two mentioned types only sail at about 11 knots which was also the sailing speed of the general cargo ships). As general rule, cargo ships converted for passenger use do not produce luxury liners. If ever, it would be the former refrigerated cargo ships that can be made into luxury liners or else the best is to buy former luxury liners from Europe.

The Manila-Cebu route was and is still the premier shipping route in the Philippines. This route connects the primary metropolis and manufacturing center to the secondary metropolis and manufacturing center of the country. Hence, the movement of people and goods would be highest in this route. If there is a next premier route it would be the Manila-Iloilo route. The Manila-Cebu route is also the gateway to the routes to Northern Mindanao while the Manila-Iloilo route is the gateway to the routes to Western Mindanao and Southern Mindanao.

The early postwar liners calling on Cebu did not have an exclusive route to Cebu much like the prewar liners. From Cebu they will still go to Northern Mindanao ports or even sail to Southern Mindanao ports via Zamboanga. It was not unusual then for liners to have five ports of call in a voyage. That was why complete voyages then to Cebu and Northern Mindanao took one week and complete voyages to Cebu and Southern Mindanao took two weeks. In the latter a liner might have seven ports of call. As they say, “the better to pack ’em in.”

When luxury liners first came they funnily have the code “airconditioned” (airconditioning was rare then). And the word “luxury” also began to be bandied about. In terms of speed they were significantly better than the basic ex-”FS” ships and ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships. Some of the earliest local liners were the trio from Everett Steamship being sailed by Philippine Steamship and Navigation Company (PSNC), the Elcano, Legaspi and Cagayan de Oro which all came in 1955, the Luzon (1959) and Visayas (1963) of Compania Maritima which were doing dual local and foreign routes, the General Roxas (1960) and General del Pilar (1961) of General Shipping Corp., the President Quezon (1960) of Philippine President Lines (which became the Quezon of Philippine Pioneer Lines in 1963 and later the Pioneer Iloilo of the same company in 1965), the Governor B. Lopez (1961) of Southern Lines Inc., the Fatima of Escano Lines (1964).

If one will notice, there is no mention here of a ship of Go Thong & Co. or William Lines and definitely there is no error in the list. In that roost, the President Quezon ruled in speed department at 18 knots and the next fastest to her sailed at only 16 knots with the tailender at 12 knots which was just about the same as the ex-”FS” ships and the ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships. That was the picture of the luxury ship sector of the Philippines two decades after World War II.

In that era, there was no “flagship wars” as understood a decade later. Maybe if the better ships were all doing long routes it will be a wonder where and how they will compete. This is especially true for the luxury liners sailing to Cebu and then proceeding to many southern ports up to Davao. I noticed the tight “flagship wars” started only when there were already true fast cruisers and when the route was exclusively limited to Manila-Cebu.

It was Sweet Faith of Sweet Lines, a newcomer in liner shipping which started the true “flagship wars” in 1970. They were able to acquire that ship which was a luxury liner even in Europe and she was really fast. When she came she became the new postwar benchmark in speed at 20 knots and beating handsomely all the other contenders by at least 2 knots. Maybe she only did the Manila-Cebu route because she had to stress the capture of passengers because she can’t take in a significant amount of cargo. And with her accommodations all-airconditioned that was really more fit for the Manila-Cebu route which not only had more sector passengers and the better-off passengers were also there including the Cebu and Central Visayas rich who were afraid to take planes then. With such a kind of ship Sweet Lines really had to stress in ads her speed, her amenities and her brand of passenger service to capture more passengers.

She was very successful in that strategy and her repute spread far and wide and she earned many praises. It was really a paradigm change in how to do sailing and maybe that was a little too much for the older shipping companies to swallow the noise and swagger of the newcomer. William Lines had a brand-new ship, the Misamis Occidental in the same year she was fielded but she was clearly outmatched by the Sweet Faith because maybe when they finalized the design of the ship they did not see Sweet Faith coming to upset the chart.

The biggest shipping company then, the Compania Maritima, which had the resources to compete did not react and continued their stress on the route passing through Cebu before sailing for Western and Southern Mindanao up to Davao. That was also the response (or lack of response) and strategy of the Philippine Steamship and Navigation Co. which would be later known as Aboitiz Shipping Corp. and besides their luxury trio were already 15 years and outmatched and so maybe they thought they really have no option at all except to not really compete. Meanwhile, Escano Line’s priority was not really Cebu at all, its ships cannot really compete as they did not stress speed when they ordered their brand-new ships. Go Thong & Co. might have been too busy in their European expansion through Universal Shipping and maybe they thought getting all the copra in all the ports possible made more sense (they had lots of small ships for that purpose). General Shipping Corp. and Southern Lines Inc. were also gone and Galaxy Lines, the successor to the Philippine Pioneer Lines was also near to floundering already. Negros Navigation Company, meanwhile, was not competing in the Cebu route and it is in the Manila-Iloilo route where they were flexing the muscles of their brand-new liners.

For two years until 1972 Sweet Faith ruled the Manila-Cebu route. It will be up to a shipping company which long relied solely on ex-”FS” ships (until 1966) to challenge Sweet Faith with their upcoming newbuilding which will turn out to be the liner Cebu City. A sister ship of the liner Don Juan, the flagship of Negros Navigation Company, she was fitted with bigger engines. Since Don Juan can only do 19 knots maybe they decided on bigger engines to be able to compete with the 20 knots of Sweet Faith. Cebu City came in 1972 that began the battle royale of the two flagships whose intensity passed the two ships to shipping folklore long after both ships were gone (only the millennials would not have heard of their battles).

In 1973, the liner Sweet Home of Sweet Lines arrived to form a “tag team” to battle Cebu City. She was not as fast as the two at 18 knots but she was bigger and as luxurious as the Sweet Faith because she was already a luxury ship in Europe when she was still the known as the Caralis.

In 1975, Sulpicio Lines joined the Manila-Cebu “flagship wars” when they acquired the second Don Sulpicio from RKK in Japan. Unlike their previous ships this liner had no cargo ship origins. A fast cruiser at 18 knots and with accommodations much like the Cebu City she was also a legit contender. In this wars it is not only speed that was advertised but also punctuality of departures. That is aside from the food, the amenities and the passenger service.

In 1976, the newly-arrived Dona Ana also joined this fray. She was a sister ship of Don Sulpicio but faster at 19 knots and newer. However, she was a Manila-Cebu-Davao ship and she only competed in the Manila-Cebu leg as a “tag team” too with the second Don Sulpicio. Dona Ana also started a new paradigm on her own, the fast cruiser to Davao which she can do in only three days compared to nearly a week of the others. The flagship of Compania Maritima, the liner Filipinas was forced to respond by cutting ports of call and announcing they will sail the Davao route in only 4 days. In a sense this was also a “flagship war”. Later, the Dona Ana became a replacement flagship in the Manila-Cebu route when Don Sulpicio was hit by a bad fire in 1979 and her repairs took two years. By that time, it was another new fast cruiser of Sulpicio Lines, the Don Enrique (later the Davao Princess) that was battling the flagship Filipinas of Compania Maritima in the Davao route along with the liner Manila City of William Lines [there will be a future article on these Manila-Davao fast cruiser battles].

Sweet Faith and Sweet Home lasted just less than a decade in the Manila-Cebu “flagship wars” because they were already old ships when they first came here. Sweet Home quit earlier about 1978 and Sweet Faith quit in 1980. However, even before she quit, the new flagship of William Lines, the Dona Virginia has already arrived. She will be linked in an epic battle not with a flagship of Sweet Lines but with a flagship of Sulpicio Lines. This liner is the Philippine Princess which came in 1981. Dona Virginia had the upperhand as she was faster, bigger and more beautiful-looking and she ruled the Manila-Cebu route. Both were exclusively Manila-Cebu ferries and like those that came in the 1970s they had no cargo ship origins. In this decade Compania Maritima was no longer in the running as they no longer had new ship acquisitions and in fact they quit when the financial and political crises spawned by the Ninoy Aquino assassination broke out.

After an interregnum of two years without a dedicated Manila-Cebu liner, Sweet Lines brought out their new challenger, the luxurious Sweet RORO but she was smaller and her speed was slightly inferior to the flagships of William Lines and Sulpicio Lines. However, she was as luxurious if not more so and she trumpeted an all-airconditioned accommodations and she was a true RORO which was the new type and paradigm that was gaining already. Meanwhile, Aboitiz Shipping Corp. gave up all semblance of a fight and just concentrated in container shipping. The Carlos A. Gothong Lines and Lorenzo Shipping Corp. also withdrew from the Cebu route for practical purposes. Escano Lines were also not buying ships like Aboitiz Shipping and also were not contenders. Negros Navigation Company, like before was not competing in the Manila-Cebu route.

Suddenly, in 1988, Sulpicio Lines did what was equivalent to exploding a grenade in the competition. They were able to acquire the Filipina Princess which broke all local records in size and speed. It was far bigger and far faster than the Dona Virginia of William Lines and was a true RORO. Even though William Lines was able to acquire the RORO liner Sugbu in 1990, she was not a bigger or a faster ship than the Dona Virginia she was replacing as flagship. To rub salt on wound, in the same year Sulpicio Lines also acquired the Cotabato Princess and the Nasipit Princess which were also bigger than the Dona Virginia (and Sugbu) though not as fast. So for few years, in terms of size, Sulpicio Lines possessed the No. 1, 2 and 3 position in terms of ship size.

As to the others, in 1987, Sweet Lines was able to acquire the Sweet Baby but she was not as big as the William Lines and Sulpicio flagships nor can she match them really in speed. Soon, Escano Lines would be quitting liner shipping. There was really a big “consolidation” in the liner shipping industry, a euphemism to cover the fact that a lot of liner shipping companies sank in that horrendous decade for shipping that was the 1980’s. Again, Negros Navigation Company was not competing in the Manila-Cebu route.

With this “consolidation” it just became a mano-a-mano between Sulpicio Lines and William Lines in the Manila-Cebu route with the others reduced more or less to bystanders….

[There is a sequel to this describing the “flagship wars” of the 1990’s.]

The State of Philippine Shipping at the Start of 1990

The start of decades are many times an opportune way to take stock of things. Many countries do that by holding their censuses and we likewise do that. I want to focus on the year 1990 because the decade previous to that was very difficult and dangerous for the country and the economy. That decade was marked by many crises and turmoils and as a result our economy suffered tremendously. Economically and financially, the 1980’s was our second worst decade in the last century after the 1940’s in which World War II occurred. In that war decade, we were subject to invasion, occupation and devastation and our economy therefore shrank.

The crisis decade of the 1980’s was calamitous to our shipping. In terms of damage, it was even worse compared to the 1940’s. After the war, the United States of America (USA) replaced our ships that they requisitioned for the war (and which were lost). Later, Japan also paid reparations for the shipping damages they caused, in terms of new ships and soft loans, among other goods. In the 1980’s, we had none of such free replacements and we were not able to recover the wealth pillaged by the Marcos dictatorship. Our peso also lost so much value that acquiring ships became very difficult (in fact we can’t even buy new ships anymore unlike before). And that difficulty was reflected in the size and quality of our shipping fleet.

At the start of 1990, our biggest shipping company in the previous three decades, the Philippine President Lines or PPL (they also used the company United President Lines or UPL) was practically dead already. They were just acting as shipping agents and they were no longer sailing ships. And then their main rival in size, the Galleon Shipping Corporation which was a crony company was already bankrupt even before the end of the 1980’s. Another company of similar size, the Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Company Overseas, the ocean-going company of Compania Maritima quit shipping at the middle of the 1980’s. These three companies, our biggest, were all in the foreign trade. The ships of these three companies which were mainly chartered from the National Development Corporation or NDC (a government-owned and controlled corporation) were all seized by or returned to the Philippine Government. Those were then sold one by one to international buyers at bargain prices. These three ocean-going companies all had well over 100,000 gross tons of ships in their fleet, a size only a very few reached in all our decades of shipping.

Another shipping company that was once big, notable and well-connected, the American-owned but Philippine-based Luzon Stevedoring Company (LUSTEVECO) also went under. But this has a myriad of reasons aside from the crisis of the early 1980’s and that included the end of the so-called “Parity Rights” (where Americans were given business and commercial rights in the Philippines as if they were Philippine nationals and they can repatriate profits to the USA 100%). This was due to the Laurel-Langley Agreement taking effect in 1974. This company was practically broken up (under pressure, some said) and its assets and ships went to different companies including the Philippine Government which then passed on its assets to its government-owned shipping companies like the Philippine National Oil Company or PNOC.

Our biggest inter-island shipping company for nearly 90 years, the Compania Maritima which has Spanish origins and which started when Spain was still ruling the Philippines was also gone by the mid-1980’s. They quit at the height of the political and financial crisis then when everybody was panicking and many companies were going bankrupt or otherwise illiquid. The owners, the Fernandez brothers who were dual citizens packed up their bags and headed back to Spain (and to think one of them was a former Senator of the Republic!). Compania Maritima was so big – aside from local ahipping they also had an international shipping line (the Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Overseas Company as mentioned before) plus they owned ports and they had stevedoring and forwarding operations.

A host of our smaller shipping lines with foreign routes also went belly up or quit in the 1980’s. These included General Shipping Corporation, Northern Lines Inc., Transocean Transport Corporation, Philippine Ace Shipping Lines, Philippine Transmarine Carriers, Triton Pacific Maritime Corporation, etc. Actually, so many (as in about three dozens) of our big freighters, refrigerated cargo ships and bulk carriers owned by the National Development Corporation that were chartered to Philippine shipping companies doing overseas routes (especially Galleon Shipping Corporation, Philippine President Lines/United President Lines and Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Company Overseas) were broken up in the 1980’s because they were no longer sailing. About the same number were also sold to foreign shipping companies and usually at bargain prices. The decade of the 1980’s witnessed the practical end of our ocean-going fleet and after that we only had half a dozen ships remaining doing foreign routes and those were mainly below 100 meters in length.

Along with Compania Maritima, the graveyard list of our inter-island shipping companies is really long and so I will just enumerate the them. These companies did not even make it out of that horrendous decade for Philippine shipping:

Galaxy Lines (an offspring of Philippine President Lines)
Northern Lines (referring to their inter-island operation)
North Camarines Lumber Company/NCL/NORCAMCO (they changed names)
N & S Lines
Bisayan Land Transport
Newport Shipping
Cardinal Shipping
Rodrigueza Shipping
May-Nilad Shipping
Javellana Shipping
Visayan Transportation
Corominas, Richards Navigation
Royal Line
Veloso Shipping
Visayas Lines
MD Shipping
Tomas del Rio & Co. (formerly Rio y Olabarrieta)
Balabac Navigation

This is far from a complete list as there were many regional shipping companies which went down quietly and it is hard to enumerate them all for many are indistinct.

In the liner front, two old liner companies were no longer carrying passengers at the start of 1990. These were the Escano Lines, a pre-World War II shipping company and Lorenzo Shipping, a spin-off of the old Carlos A. Go Thong & Company. Both decided to just stick to cargo and container shipping. Maybe refleeting for passenger service with liner ships was already too much for them after that crisis decade of the 1980’s.

William Lines and Sulpicio Lines seem to have been the healthiest and definitely the biggest strongest at the start of 1990. Among the shipping companies they were in the best position to take advantage of the fall of erstwhile leader Compania Maritima and the retreat of Lorenzo Shipping and Escano Lines from passenger shipping along with the withdrawal and dissolution of many other various shipping companies in the 1980’s because the two truly had national routes unlike the other liner shipping companies.

William Lines Inc. had nine liners at the start of 1990 and that included two old former FS ships still surviving. Their liners were the Dona Virginia, Manila City, Ozamis City, Cebu City, Tacloban City, Misamis Occidental, Masbate I, Don Jose I and Edward. The last two were ex-FS ships on their last legs. Their overnight ferry was the Iligan City, a former liner then just doing the Cebu-Iligan route. They also had two RORO Cargo ships that can take in passengers and these were the Wilcon I and Wilcon IV. Their other container ships were the Wilcon II, Wilcon III, Wilcon V, Wilcon X and Wilcon XI.

Sulpicio Lines Inc. had eight liners and these were the Filipina Princess, Philippine Princess, Davao Princess, Don Eusebio, Cotabato Princess, Surigao Princess, Cebu Princess and Dona Susana. Their overnight ferries were the Nasipit Princess, Cagayan Princess and Butuan Princess. Their container ships were the Sulpicio Container II, Sulpicio Container III, Sulpicio Container IV, Sulpicio Container V, Sulpicio Container VI, Sulpicio Container VII, Sulpicio Container VIII, Sulpicio Container IX, Sulpicio Container XI, Sulpicio Container XII and Sulpicio Container XIV. Aside from liners, Sulpicio Lines had more ships than William Lines in the other categories (overnight ferries and container ships).

Sweet Lines Inc. had six liners at the start of 1990, the Sweet Baby, Sweet RORO 2, Sweet Glory, the second Sweet Sail and Sweet Hope. Their liner Sweet RORO I was no longer running reliably then and would soon be broken up. Their overnight ships were Sweet Pearl, Sweet Hope, Sweet Marine, Sweet Heart, Sweet Home and the second Sweet Time which sailed Visayas-Mindanao routes. They had a separate cargo-container liner company then which was the Central Shipping Company with the ships Central Mindoro, Central Visayas, Central Cebu and Central Bohol. Another cargo shipping company they had was the Casas Navigation Corporation with the ship Casas Victoria.

Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had three old liners then, the Legazpi, Ormoc and Legaspi 1 (the former Katipunan of Escano Lines) and these were just sailing their two remaining liner routes to Capiz and Leyte. They had four overnight ships, the Elcano, Ramon Aboitiz, the first Aklan, and the ex-FS ship Picket II, which were all old, former liners in their last legs. They also had the Marcelino, an ex-FS ship and Guillermo in the subsidiary Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had the most container ships locally with twelve: the Aboitiz Superconcarrier I, Aboitiz Superconcarrier II, Aboitiz Superconcarrier III, Aboitiz Megaconcarrier I, Aboitiz Concarrier I, Aboitiz Concarrier II, Aboitiz Concarrier IV, Aboitiz Concarrier VI, Aboitiz Concarrier VIII, Aboitiz Concarrier X, Aboitiz Concarrier XI and Aboitiz Concarrier XII. Container shipping was the strength of Aboitiz Shipping because they concentrated on this when for 14 years they did not buy any liners, the reason their liner fleet wilted.

Negros Navigation Company had five liners sailing then, the Sta. Florentina, Sta. Ana, Don Julio, Don Claudio and Sta. Maria. These were just sailing five routes then – Romblon, Roxas City, Iloilo, Bacolod and Cagayan de Oro. They also had two Iloilo-Bacolod ferries, the cruisers Don Vicente and the Princess of Panay which was a former liner. This shipping company also had four cargo/container ships, the San Sebastian, Connie II, Aphrodite J and Athena J. The last two were local-built cargo ships.

Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) had three liners then, the Our Lady of Fatima, Our Lady of Lourdes and the Our Lady of Guadalupe. Their overnight ships on Visayas-Mindanao routes were the Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, Dona Cristina, Don Calvino, Dona Lili, Don Benjamin and the RORO Cargo ship Our Lady of Hope, their only cargo ship. Together with Sweet Lines and Trans-Asia Shipping Lines, CAGLI was the dominant Visayas-Mindanao regional shipping company at the start of 1990.

Madrigal Shipping Corporation, a very old shipping company with pre-World War II origins was then attempting a comeback in liner shipping with the cruiser liners Madrigal Surigao and Madrigal Tacloban (but these were registered with the Cortes Shipping Company of Zamboanga which I never heard of). With the routes they were sailing they were, in effect, the partial replacement of the abandoned passenger routes of Escano Lines because they sailed the same routes. By this time, Madrigal Shipping had already shorn off their old liners, cargo ships and routes. They, however, had one big cargo ship sailing an overseas route, the Madrigal Integrity.

For brevity, I shall no longer mention all the cargo shipping companies for they are long because they are many. I will just enumerate and describe the cargo companies which were in the more advanced and more important container liner operations (as distinguished from the general cargo ships and those that were in tramper operations). Only three companies without passenger operations were into cargo-container operations at the start of 1990 – Lorenzo Shipping, Escano Lines and Solid Shipping. Among these three, it was Lorenzo Shipping Corporation which was the biggest with a cargo-container fleet that can match the biggest cargo-container shipping companies that had passenger operations. In their fleet they had the Lorcon I, Lorcon IV, Lorcon V, Lorcon VI, Lorcon IX, Lorcon XI, Lorcon XII (the former liner Sweet Grace which was converted into a container ship), Dona Anita, Euney, Dadiangas Express and Cagayan de Oro Express.

Escano Lines had in their fleet the Virgen de la Paz, Foxbat, Kiowa, La Lealtad, Greyhound, Harpoon, Squirrel, Terrier, Wolverine and two or three other freighters. However, only the first four were container liners (liners have fixed routes and schedules) while the rest were general cargo ships in tramping duties (let it be clarified they can substitute for the first four since practically speaking any general cargo ship can also carry container vans). Moreover, Escano Lines normally carry a mixed breakbulk cargo and container vans in their ships. Meanwhile, the Solid Shipping Lines only had the Solid Uno, Solid Dos and Solid Tres in their fleet. I am not sure if their Maligaya was still with them then. They were small because they were just a new shipping company then. However, one which was bigger than Solid Shipping and had container operations before, the Sea Transport Company, also did not make it to the 1980’s. They quit just before the end of the decade and sold their ships to other shipping companies.

From about two dozen passenger liner companies at the start of 1980, we just had a total of seven passenger liner companies left at the start of 1990 and the seventh was the comebacking Madrigal Shipping Company. Because of the fall in the number of shipping operators and with a fast growing population and the economy reviving, the Philippines at the start of 1990 had a severe lack of inter-island passenger ships. In the international front, there was almost no longer ocean-going ships to speak of. Aboitiz Shipping Company and Eastern Shipping Company were practically the only Philippine shipping companies still trying to do foreign routes then but their number of ships might just add to half a dozen and those were much smaller than the ships of Philippine President Lines, Galleon Shipping Company and Maritime Company of the Philippines. That was how precipitous was our drop in shipping in a span of just ten years because of the crisis decade of the 1980’s.

To think conditions in the other fronts were favorable for shipping as there were no budget airlines yet and so air fares were still high. There were also just a few intermodal buses then and there was a general dearth of bus units too. Because of such factors cited there were a lot of passengers for the ships. Maybe this is what some remember that liners then were full to to the brim and there were many well-wishers in ports during departures (and of course many fetchers too during arrivals). There were always tales of passengers being left behind because there were no more tickets left (I have seen that myself). And there were tales of overloading too, of course. The decade of the 1990’s was actually characterized by new great liners having a passenger capacity of over 2,000. Probably, that was the response to our lack of liners and liner shipping companies then.

And that is the story of our shipping in the 1980’s which was reflected at the start of 1990. In a future article, I will discuss in detail our failure in cargo shipping in the same period. Abangan!

[Image Credit: Gorio Belen and Business World]                                                                                     [Research Support: Gorio Belen]                                                                                                                   [Database Support: Jun Marquez/Mike Baylon/PSSS]