The Disproportionality of the Ferry Losses in the Philippines

Many times the question of if our ferries are safe is asked. This is especially true when a ferry has an accident or is lost especially when the casualty count is high. Rather than answering the question straight, if I am asked, I might answer it “it depends” because that is probably the most exact answer to the question anyway but then many will be puzzled by that answer (pilosopo ba?). Read on and you will be enlightened further and maybe your views about the safety our ferries might change.

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Even if a car is new it doesn’t mean it won’t take a dip into the water. Same principle applies with ships. Photo by Zed Garett (happened just today — what a timely photo for my article). Thanks a lot to the photo owner.

But first a clarification. I am purposely limiting this topic to ferries because tackling all the ship types at once will be very heavy and tedious as we have more freighters than ferries and add to that the other types like the tugs, tankers, etc. The ferry losses is the segment that actually raises the hackles of the people of the country who are mainly uneducated on the topic of maritime losses. This relative ignorance is further fanned by our also-uneducated media whose writers and editors cannot even seem to get the ferries’ names right (it seems they are too lazy to verify with MARINA, the maritime authority). Of course, it is well-known that our media is on the sensationalistic side and so oftentimes accuracy, objectivity and balance are lost with that (do these sell anyway?).

Another limitation I also pose here is I won’t include our wooden-hulled passenger crafts in the discussion. Those crafts are really flimsy especially those equipped with outriggers, the motor bancas. This ship type (those are ships because any sea craft having a passenger capacity of 12 is not a boat) lacks the basic safety equipment that even without a storm they can sink like when an outrigger breaks or when the hull develops a leak big enough that water can’t be bailed fast enough. But I would rather not comment on their seamanship or lack of formal maritime education because in my decades of traveling at sea I found that many of them are actually very good in reading the wind and the waves, a nautical skill that is not taught in maritime schools anymore. Also excluded in the discussion are the wooden-hulled lanchas and batels which were formerly called as motor boats which are not called as motor launches.

My topic here is about the disproportionality (or lack of proportionality) of our maritime losses to clarify that our ferry losses are not proportional with regards to the area and to the ship type (the implication is not all sink). Like what I just mentioned earlier, our wooden-hulled crafts especially the motor bancas are prone to losses especially in areas notorious for its dangerous waves like in Surigao. But these sea crafts continue to exist because in many cases these are the most practical crafts for certain routes like the routes to our small islands and islets or the coastal barrios that have no roads (or if taking the roundabout road will take too long). Motor bancas can land even on bare shores which the other crafts can’t do and moreover these can operate profitably on the barest minimum of passengers and cargo something which is impossible in steel-hulled vessels which have engines that are much, much bigger and are heavier.

The liners, our multi-day ships, among our class of ferries are also very vulnerable to losses (a surprise?) and much more than others classes pro rata to their small number. Relative to their small number, we have lost a lot of liners in the past for a variety of reasons – capsizing, foundering, beaching, wrecking, collision, fire, bombing and explosion. And this might come as a surprise to many because in the main it is our liners that are the biggest, these hold the highest of the certificates (and in insurance many have the comprehensive P & I or “Protection and Indemnity”), these have our most experienced and best crewmen supposedly (unlike in smaller ferries where a Second Mate can serve as Captain of the ship) and much pride of its shipping company is riding on them (well, not all, as we had liners that were no more than the average overnight ferry).

But this vulnerability is actually completely true. We lost the SuperFerry 3 (fire in a shipyard in 2000), SuperFerry 6 (fire while sailing in 2000 too), the SuperFerry 7 (fire in port in 1997), SuperFerry 9 (capsizing in 2009), the SuperFerry 14 (firebombing in 2000 but the official report says otherwise). A total of five SuperFerries when only a total of 20 ships ever carried the name “SuperFerry” (it seems it is not a good name?). The St. Thomas Aquinas, the former SuperFerry 2 was lost in a collision in 2013 and the St. Gregory The Great, the former SuperFerry 20 was also lost (taking a shortcut and hitting the reefs and she was no longer repaired and just sold after equipment was taken out). These two ferries were already under 2GO when they were lost. Not included here were the groundings of the Dona Virginia and the Our Lady of Banneux (technically under Cebu Ferries Corporation then but an actual liner) from which they were never repaired and ending their sailing careers).

Sulpicio Lines is much-lambasted and derided by most of our people but actually they have less losses from their “Princess” and “Don/Dona” series of ships in the comparative period as the existence of the “SuperFerries” of WG&A (William, Gothong & Aboitiz and its successor company Aboitiz Transport System (ATS). However, it is true that in passenger casualties the total of Sulpicio Lines is much, much higher because they have the tendency to sail straight into storms like the revered Compania Maritima before them (in terms of ship losses and not in casualties) and that historical company took a lot of losses from those risk-takings too (and more than even Sulpicio Lines).

From 1996 when the WG&A was formed, Sulpicio Lines only lost the Philippine Princess (fire while under refitting in 1997), the Princess of the Orient (capsizing in a storm in 1998), the Iloilo Princess (fire and capsizing while under refitting in 2003), the Princess of the World (fire while sailing in 2005) and the Princess of the Stars (capsizing in a storm in 2008) and the Princess of the Pacific (serious grounding incident resulting in complete total loss in 2004). That is until they were suspended in 2008 when only one liner was left sailing for them, the Princess of the South which did not sink.

In the comparative period, WG&A and ATS employed a total of 24 liners (the overnight ferries of Cebu Ferries Corporation was obviously not included here are they are not multiday liners). Sulpicio Lines had a total of 22 liners in the parallel period so their numbers are about even. But the ship loss total of WG&A, ATS and 2GO is clearly higher and the public was never made aware of this. Maybe some good PR works while it seems Sulpicio Lines never took care of that and all they knew was feeding their passengers well (unli rice or smorgasbord, anyone?). But then however those liner losses are scandalous in number, by whatever measure. Imagine losing more than one liner per year on the average.

Some of the liners of WG&A and ATS were not SuperFerries in name but but the Our Ladies, the two Cities and a Dona from William Lines had perfect safety records as none of them was ever lost. Now, does the choice of name matter in safety? Or the “lesser” ferries do try harder and are more careful? That discrepancy certainly made me think and it might be worth a study.

Negros Navigation was far safer than the WG&A and Sulpicio Lines losing only the St. Francis Xavier in 1999. Do naming of liners after saints enhance their safety? Conversely, do naming of liners with the qualifier “Super” means the ship will sink faster? Questions, questions. But the lightly-regarded and revived Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (CAGLI) tops them all with absolutely no losses. Now for a company that sometimes have difficulty painting their ships that is something (while the spic-and-span WG&A and ATS which repaints their liners while sailing tops the losses department). Does it mean it is better not to repaint liners well? I observed in the eastern seaboard that the ships that are not painted well have no losses (until the dumb Archipelago Ferries let its stalled Maharlika II sank into the waves in 2014 without rescuing it and thereby breaking the record – that ship was newly painted when it went under so the repainting might have doomed her?). Well, in my earlier thesis and later in this article I find it funny that the ships which are more rusty does not sink as long as it is not a Batangas ship (ah, the disproportionality again). While those that can always afford new paint like WG&A and successor ATS sink. Is a new coat of paint a sign of danger for the ship? Or is it the P & I insurance that did them in? Funny, funny. Negros Navigation when it was already in trouble and lacks the money already did not have one ship sinking. So the illiquidity which Negros Navigation suffered means more safety? Har, har! Whatever, I want to commend them and top honcho Sulficio Tagud for taking the high road and not just let the ships sink just to collect insurance. And last note, in multi-day liner operations before, Aleson Shipping Lines never lost a ship.

Liners sink at a faster rate pro rata compared to overnight ferries (if the wooden-hulled ferries of the past are not counted) and that is a big puzzle to me. And of course nobody will know for sure because nobody studied that as we don’t have the equivalent of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) of the USA which call in true experts and go in depth why the transportation accidents happened. Is it because while on a voyage the liners are practically running 24 hours a days and systems, equipment and personnel are stressed more? Is it because the ships reach their reliability/cycles earlier in terms of hours of usage like the electrical lines which is a cause of fire? Or are their crew simply more tired and believes that their ships with high certifications are less vulnerable to sinking (as if those certificates will keep the ship afloat)?

In the earlier decades and even recently it is known that liners take more chances with storms and maybe because they think they can battle the waves better because they are bigger. There are shipping companies who were known to be more brave (or foolhardy?) in sailing ships when there are storms about and among them the old Compania Maritima and Sulpicio Lines almost surely top the list. Now, however, the field is more level as all Philippine ships are barred from sailing when the center wind of the storm reaches 60kph. And for the smaller ships less than 250gt they are not permitted to sail when the center wind is already 45kph or when the local weather agency PAGASA declares a “gale warning” even though there is no a gale. When the suspensions are in effect better just watch the foreign ships still continue sailing for they are not covered by the suspension and most actually use INMARSAT or equivalent which is just a curiosity in the local maritime world until now when that is already well-established outside of the Philippines (the lousy PAGASA which can’t do localized forecasts seems to be already good for them since it is free while they have to pay for INMARSAT).

Liners also sink faster than short-distance ferries whose sailing durations are all short and whose crews probably know their particular seas and routes more. When to think most short-distance ferries which are always small are captained in the main by Second or Third Mates and whose engine department are headed by Second or sometimes by just Marine Diesel Mechanics who have not even finished college but passed an exam just the same (well, competence in running and maintaining a machine well is not necessarily dictated by diplomas, trust me). Even though liners might be using ECDIS don’t be too sure they will reach their destination better than the lowly short-distance ferry using just what is called as dead reckoning. In truth, ECDIS or whatever better bridge equipment does not guarantee better seamanship or navigation. After all it will not show the wind and wave which only something like INMARSAT can.

So in liners disproportionality already exist. And their international certifications don’t even save them from disasters. So, I advise those who take liners, don’t be very sure and make the necessary precautions like memorizing the different alarms and making sure where your life vests are. And don’t jump to the water too early. Liners are tall and that plunge could hurt you. And when in the water at night tie yourselves together so as not to drift (a whistle is a big help in calling attention if you are drifting). Note the water can be cold at night and hypothermia can set in. Take a selfie too before jumping and upload it. Who knows if it will be your last photo. Your loved ones will sure prize it. Ah, don’t take all I said in this paragraph too seriously.

In overnight ferries there seems to be disproportionality with regards to companies and not to home port (if analyzed pro rata to the size of the fleet which means the size of the fleets are taken into consideration) and to the routes. Well, for practical purposes there are only a few home ports for overnight ferries – Cebu, Zamboanga, Batangas, Manila, Lucena and Iloilo, in that order maybe in terms of sailings (a clarification, there are overnight ships originating from say northern Mindanao but all of those ferries are actually based in Cebu). Analyzing, some overnight ferry companies deserve the Gold Award while some should be suspended from service, maybe.

It must be noted that one of the biggest overnight ferries two decades ago and which dominated the Visayas-Mindanao waters for nearly a decade, the Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC), a subsidiary of WG&A and successor Aboitiz Transport System (ATS) did not lose a single ship ever until it they left Cebu for Batangas and became the “Batangas Ferries” and even there their perfect streak continued. Maybe some of their people need to be recruited by other companies or sent there by MARINA to share the experience. They can lecture on the topic, “On How Not To Sink”. Maybe it is not just with the choice of name that they were safe? Or was it in the livery? The only problem it seems is they did not send their Captains to their liners like the St. Thomas Aquinas who made a dumb mistake trying to test the hardness of the ice-classed bow of the Sulpicio Express Siete.

In the Cebu-based regional shipping companies which are operators of overnight ferries it is probably Lite Ferries who is the Valedictorian having lost no ships even though their fleet is already big. Maybe that will come as a surprise to many but whatever they deserve a big round of applause. Another company whose Captains might need to be recruited by other shipping companies or pry open their secret if there is any. Are they better readers of SOLAS? One thing I am sure though is its owner does not belong to the same fraternity as one former Batangas shipping company owner who threatens mayhem if his ship sinks.

There are other overnight ferry companies in Cebu that could have shared First Honors with Lite Ferries but in a tie-breaker Lite Ferries wins because they have the most ships and not by a small margin at that. Others with perfect records are the defunct Palacio Lines (well, some might argue that that is a Samar shipping company but I digress). Now I can’t understand why an overnight ferry company with a perfect safety record will go under as a company. Seems something is not right. Aside from Palacio Lines there are a lot of there Cebu-based overnight ferry companies that have perfect safety records in terms of having no ship losses. Some of these are still extant and sailing and some have already quit the business (it’s a waste, isn’t it, for them to just go away like that).

Among these is the legendary Gabisan Shipping Lines, VG Shipping, Kinswell Shipping, Roly Shipping, Jadestar Shipping, South Pacific Transport and many other smaller shipping lines with just one or two ships (most of these are already gone now but still their perfect records remain). I just don’t know why they can’t catch a break from MARINA as in they are not given special citations and handed more privileges in sailing because after all they have proven they know their stuff in shipping. But no, when MARINA goes headhunting in safety they are lambasted in the same vein as those which had sunk ships as if they are just as guilty. Actually, to set the record straight about half of the overnight ferry companies in the whole Philippines never had any ship losses. This is true even in Zamboanga where Magnolia Shipping Lines, Ever Lines and a lot of other operators with just one or two steel-hulled ferries have perfect safety records. Now, can’t MARINA even for once credit them properly and publish their names because the way I feel at times with media reports and with MARINA statements it is as if all our shipping companies already had sunk ships which is simply not the case. In the liner sector that is true but in the overnight ferry and short-distance sector, combined, most shipping companies never had any ship losses. Don’t they deserve credit and more respect and recognition? But no, they are sunk not beneath the waves but in obscurity and that is one of the purpose of this article, to set the record straight.

In Manila, the old MBRS Lines and its successor Romblon Shipping Line never lost a ship (but the company is dead now anyway, sunk by the intermodal). In Lucena, Kalayaan Shipping Lines might have a perfect safety record too at least in steel-hulled ferries. In Batangas, there are operators of just one or two ferries which have not lost a ship (do they take care not to lose one because that will mean the shutdown of operations?). In Iloilo, did Milagrosa Shipping Lines already lost a ship? In number half of the overnight ferry operators never lost a ship although in the number of ships owned theirs comprise just the minority, to clarify.

It is in short-distance ferries that I noticed a lot more of disproportionalities especially in the recent decades when maritime databases were able to keep track with them (the wooden-hulled short-distance ferries generally doesn’t have IMO Numbers so keeping track of them is difficult but these lanchas or batels were our early short-distance ferries aside from the motor bancas). For this sector or segment I would rather stick to steel-hulled ferries like what I mentioned early on especially since there is no way to track the hundreds and hundreds of motor bancas and their losses which are not even properly reported at times.

There are areas, routes and short-distance companies that have perfect safety records (again, wooden hulled ferries are not included here and that also mean the earlier years). In the eastern seaboard where the typhoons first strike and where it is fiercest the routes and shipping companies there have a perfect safety record ever since the steel-hulled ships first appeared in 1979. This was only broken in 2013 due to the dumbness of a stranger which invaded the Masbate waters (is that part of the eastern seaboard anyway? but Masbate is in Bicol). They withdrew from Bicol after that incident to just sail the more benign Camotes Sea waters. And that is one of the reasons why I was furious at Archipelago Ferries for not coming to the aid of their stalled ship for 6 hours when their good ship was just just two hours sailing away and so the stricken ship slid off the waves (shouldn’t someone be hanged for that?). Because of that the perfect record of the local shipping companies based in the eastern seaboard was broken. I just hope the crewmen of Maharlika Cuatro which failed to respond to an SOS then are not employed in the FastCats now.

Short-distance ferries also does not sink in the Tablas Sea crossings or in the routes to Marinduque from Lucena. However, I do not know what is the curse of the Verde Island Passage that many ships have been already lost there when to think practically the same shipping companies ply the three routes mentioned. To think the Tablas Sea wind and waves could be rougher than that in Verde Island Passage. Did they assign their lousier crews there? Just asking. As they say the proof is in the pudding (and the pudding tastes bad).

I just wonder too about the luck of the Mindanao Sea crossings. The waves there could also be rough and the crossing is longer but none was ever lost among the short-distance ferries running the Dumaguete-Dapitan, Samboan-Dapitan and Jagna-Balingoan routes. Like in Tablas Strait, do the longer route makes the crews more careful? Are the crews there better trained and has better seamanship?

The many routes connecting Cebu island and Negros island and Negros island and Panay island are also safe. Hard to find there a short-distance steel-hulled ferry that sank. That is also true for the steel-hulled ferries connecting Masbate island to Cebu island when the distance there is also long for a short-distance ferry and the wind and waves are no less dangerous. What is their secret there? Is it just that Camotes Sea navigators are lousier? With exceptions, of course because Gabisan Shipping surely will not agree.

I could go to the less obscure, short-distance routes. Just the same I will tell you these are also safe. Never heard of a steel ferry going to Alabat that sank. Or to Dinagat and Siargao islands (sure their motor bancas sink). Or the routes to Basilan from Zamboanga. Not even a RORO to Guimaras have sunk or a RORO to Bantayan island. That is also true for the short-distance connections within Romblon island served by steel-hulled ships (the Princess Camille that capsized in Romblon port in 2003 was an overnight ferry from Batangas). No steel-hulled ferry connecting Leyte and Bohol was ever lost too. And that is also true for the route connecting Siquijor to Dumaguete.

So a lot of our short-distance routes and the ferries plying them are actually safe. Who can argue against a perfect safety record? A little rust will not sink ships nor would a non-functioning firefighting pump (and the ship is not in the middle of an ocean anyway). Those are just a little margins that are not that critical. Does not look good to the eye but to a passenger like me it is more important if MARINA enforces their Memorandum Circular that ferries should feed its passengers if the arrival of the ship exceeds 7am. And I am more concerned if the ship is clean especially the rest rooms and if there is clean drinking water. Besides, trust me, our mariners are not that negligent or dumb that they will leave the ramps unclosed and then sail like what some Europeans did.

So are our ferries safe? Yes, it is except for the liners, some shipping companies and some routes and areas. Never mind if they are old. It is not necessarily the factor that will sink ships (a ship if it loses motive power still has the flotation of a barge). It is actually the lack of seamanship that sinks ships (old ship, new ship can both collide or fail to heed the weather). And trust the short-distance ferries on the fringes and don’t underestimate them. The crew won’t let their ships sink if their families, relatives, friends, schoolmates, etc. are aboard. Well, not all. Be a little wary in Verde Island Passage and in Camotes Sea.

Let us be more objective. Our ferries and mariners are not really that bad, contrary to what hecklers say.

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Haters of Old Ships Should Train Their Guns on Liners

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Image from ABS-CBN News

This article is actually intended for the reading (dis)pleasure of the likes of Arben Santos, Christopher Pastrana, Alfonso Cusi and Rey Gamboa who in the past three years or so have been attacking old ships as if they are unworthy or worse as thought of “floating coffins”. They try to make the connection that old ships are bound to sink although they cite no study or empirical evidence to support such conjecture. They also intentionally neglect to cite that human error could simply be the cause of the sinking or hull losses of local ferries and this is what is posited by one experienced Captain. I would really like to read the BMI or Board of Marine Inquiry findings of these mishaps but sadly they are not public. BMI is made by Coastguardmen but the Philippine Coast Guard cannot even feed media reliable and complete statistics on sinkings or hull losses. I wonder if termites or sea water got to those findings first.

There was a conference arranged by the Maritime Industry Industry or MARINA two months ago where are all the shipping companies and shipyards were invited. Sensing the topic will be the culling of old ships, the shipping companies came prepared and with their lawyers (well, I understand one of the functions of lawyers is to protect their clients’ rights). The shipping companies asked if MARINA has a study showing old age was the cause of ship sinkings. Of course MARINA has no such study or studies and so the answer of MARINA was simply, “Noted”. Watta funny answer! I thought they were the experts. At the least that is their line of work. Now I don’t know if they are making a study. Well, I am glad there was a BMI in the past because although their records might not be complete, at least it prevents the twisting of events and results in the past. Now, they better find those records now and fast.

Of course, I would like to help them. Or better yet I would like the public to know the empirical evidence on ship losses so they can judge for themselves. In rearranging my database of maritime hull losses I only took note of the the sinkings and hull losses of the past 25 years or from 1992. 25 years is one generation and so it is long and broad enough and there is sufficient sample. 1992 was also the start of the term of President Fidel V. Ramos which introduced shipping liberalization in the country and he rolled out incentives in the importation of ships. His term was the start of the sharp rise in the importation of ships including ferries. Many will remember too that in his term High Speed Crafts (HSCs) which means catamarans and fastcrafts became a new and successful shipping paradigm in the country.

In my sample I just concentrated on steel-hulled ferries. Why ferries? Because it is ferries that capture the public’s attention and their ire if it sink (of course our media is sensationalistic but without substance). I excluded High Speed Crafts because the comparison to steel-hulled ferries might be inexact (and anyway only four were lost in the same period). I also excluded the wooden-hulled crafts like the motor boats (officially called motor launches) and more so the passenger-cargo motor bancas. Their rates of loss are simple much higher than steel-hulled ferries and the reason is pretty obvious and they will simply skew the comparisons.

In the last 25 years some 56 steel-hulled ferries were lost to various reasons (and that is an average of more than 2 a year) and that includes not only sinkings and founderings but also hull losses due to fire and wrecking. Included were ships lost even when they were not sailing but were caught by typhoons in anchor and which became complete total losses or which capsized and never were salvaged. Of these 56, 16 were liners, 20 were overnight ferries and another 20 were short-distance ferries. And for me that is a very surprising finding. Why? Because pro rata the liners which are the biggest and most well-equipped sink at a greater rate than their smaller counterparts. There are not that many liners but sure there were much more overnight ferries and even more short-distance ferries.

How did that happen?? I don’t have a complete explanation myself. And to think many of the liners have MMSI Numbers hence AIS-equipped. For sure their masters are real Captains whereas in lesser ships a Second Mate will qualify as Captain. And of course their crews are better trained than the crews of the two other classes. Most of our ships that have P&I (Protection and Indemnity) insurance, the most comprehensive insurance are the liners among the ferries. It might be incomprehensible but that is the raw statistics. Liners sink at a faster rate than overnight ferries and short-distance ferries (is that believable?). By the way most of the 56 lost ships are ROROs (Roll-on, Roll-off ships). There were actually very few cruisers among them.

So if Arben Santos, Christopher Pastrana, Alfonso Cusi and Rey Gamboa are really interested in safety, the lesson is maybe they should be more critical, should have a more wary eye of the liners (LOL!). Now I just wonder how Dennis Uy will tell them off. But as they say numbers don’t lie. But for the four gentlemen mentioned I just hope they make their own study first before they open their mouths the next time. Shut down the propaganda and be more objective. They might say liners casualties are rare now. But that is simply because there are so few liners now. And voyages are suspended even if it just a tropical depression with winds of 45kph and swells of less than 1 foot.

For the perusal of the public here are the lost steel-hulled ferries since 1992. This is much, much more complete than what was presented by media which do not know how to do research.

Lost Steel-hulled Ferries Since 1992:

LINERS

OVERNIGHT FERRIES

SHORT-DISTANCE FERRIES

Cebu City (1994)

Aleson III (1994)

Baleno 168 (2013)

Iloilo Princess (2003)

Asia Malaysia (2011)

Baleno Nine (2009)

Philippine Princess (1997)

Asia South Korea (1999)

Baleno Six (2006)

Princess of the Orient (1998)

Asia Thailand (1999)

Baleno Tres (2011)

Princess of the Pacific (2004)

Blue Water Princess 1 (2007)

Ciara Joy (2003)

Princess of the Stars (2008)

Cebu Diamond (1998)

Ivatan (2000s)

Princess of the World (2006)

Dumaguete Ferry (1990’s)

Ivatan Princess (2004)

St. Francis of Assisi (1999)

Hilongos Diamond 2 (2004)

Lady of Carmel (2013)

St. Gregory The Great (2013)

Kalibo Star (1997)

LCT Davao del Norte (1990s)

St. Thomas Aquinas (2013)

Kimelody Cristy (1995)

LCT Gwen Vida (2008)

SuperFerry 3 (2000)

Labangan (1996)

Maharlika Dos (2014)

SuperFerry 6 (2000)

Maria Carmela (2002)

Northern Samar (2006)

SuperFerry 7 (1997)

Princess Camille (2003)

Ruby – 1 (1993)

SuperFerry 9 (2009)

Pulauan Ferry (2000’s)

Ruperto Jr. (1990s)

SuperFerry 14 (2004)

Rosalia 2 (1999)

San Miguel de Ilijan (1990s)

Tacloban Princess (2009)

Sampaguita Ferry 2 (1990s)

Sta. Penafrancia 7 (2006)

San Juan Ferry (2000)

Starlite Atlantic (2016)

Super Shuttle Ferry 7 (2014)

Super Shuttle Ferry 2 (2013)

Super Shuttle RORO 1 (2012)

Super Shuttle Ferry 17 (2014)

Wonderful Star (2000s)

Viva Penafrancia II (2000)

In the classification I looked more at the route of the ship and not if it has bunks or none. I did not include in the list the Mega Asiana and Tagbilaran Ferry that were cannibalized inside a shipyard nor the Roly-2 which capsized in a shipyard but over land. Not also listed were the Dona Virginia and the Our Lady of Banneux which were no longer repaired after grounding and were instead sold to the breakers. The last two were actually liners. In the same manner, I did not include the Starlite Voyager which was sent to the breakers after a grounding incident. Also not listed was the Ocean King II which capsized but not under water and was salvaged to become a RORO freighter. And I did not also list the casino ship Mabuhay Sunshine which was formerly a cruise ship. If all these are counted, the total would have been 64 and 18 would have been liners and 23 would have been overnight ferries and 22 would have been short-distance ferries.

I challenge the four haters of old ships to prove which of those 56 (or 64) steel-hulled ferries were lost due to old age. Well, the might even have determining what were the causes of the loss of the 56.

Two of the ships mentioned above belong to Alfonso Cusi and another one belongs to Christopher Pastrana. 7 of the 16 lost liners belong to the highly-respected WG&A/Aboitiz Transport System/2GO. 6 lost liners belong to the much-maligned Sulpicio Lines.

The Batangas-Caticlan Route

Once, as we were ship spotting Pier 4, me and Vinz noticed that there seems to be a ceremony involving Cebu Ferry 1 and Cebu Ferry 3. Asking the guard who is his friend, Vinz learned it was despedida (farewell ceremonies) for the two Visayas-Mindanao ferries which will be transferred in Batangas. We learned later that the Batangas manager of 2GO said he can make the two ferries earn more there than in Cebu. That was already the era of the retreat of Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC) when to think that in the late 1990’s they were bullying the Visayas-Mindanao ferry companies which led to the demise of some. This time around, Cebu Ferries Corporation can no longer keep with their competition. What a reversal of fortune!

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The despidida for two Cebu Ferry ships

Vinz asked me how the two ferries will fare in Batangas. I told him it is a different ballgame there. What I meant was in Cebu it was a matter of attracting passengers and loose cargo, I told Vinz the game in the intermodal ports of Luzon (and Batangas is one) is in attracting the buses and the trucks and I told him discounting (called “rebates”) is the name of the game there (and that also includes freebies). That means whichever has the biggest discount will have the rolling cargo and for the regulars long-term agreements apply so it is not the decision of the drivers what ship to board. I told Vinz the new “Batangas Ferries” (my monicker) will have to learn the new game.

The new “Batangas Ferries” plied a direct Batangas to Caticlan route compared to their competitors which ply both the Batangas-Calapan route and the Roxas-Caticlan route and let the buses and trucks roll from Calapan to Roxas in Oriental Mindoro, a distance of about 120 kilometers or so or about 3 hours of rolling time. The “Batangas Ferries” can easily sail that route as an overnight ferry because they have the speed to do it in less than 12 hours (and as overnight ferries they are already equipped with bunks). In fact, early on they tried a round trip in a day for the Batangas-Caticlan route. Then they found out they don’t have enough load because many of the buses and trucks are already tied to their competitors and there is no load yet in the early morning in Caticlan as the buses and trucks are still rolling from many parts of Panay and will still arrive at noon or in the afternoon.

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A “Batangas Ferry” sailing into the coming night by Nowell Alcancia

In reality, even the slower ferries of their competition can do a Batangas-Caticlan route should they want to do it. It will take more than 12 hours but they will still be able to sail the next night. Even at the usual 11 knots they can do that route in no more than 16 hours. Their faster ferries than can do 14 knots can do the route in about 14 hours. Their ferries will just have to become overnight ferries+ instead of being short-distance ferries.

That then was the first rub. The ferries of Batangas are not used to and are even loath to operate overnight ferries. For one, they will have to convert their ferries to have bunks. That means expenses, that means lessening the passenger capacity. Now for shipping companies that are even loath to adding scantlings and were just content to have the unofficial “Stairs Class”, that is a difficult sell. Good overnight ferries also must be able to provide a restaurant and hot food. Well, nothing beats the ease and profit margins of overpriced instant noodles where the only capital is hot water. Now what if MARINA obliges them to provide free meals if the voyage time is over 12 hours like what Administrator Pacienco Balbon required then of Viva Shipping Lines? That could be disaster.

Well, it seems nothing will beat requiring the rolling cargo and its passengers two ferry rides within the same night (for some that leave Manila late). They will earn twice and anyway the rolling cargo won’t go to “Batangas Ferries” because many are tied to them with discounting and rebates. And they won’t just transfer because the rates in the sea is high for the same distance and the distance of Batangas-Caticlan is high and so it is not cheap and Batangas Ferries is not used to discounting (actually, the reason they eventually lost in Visayas-Mindanao is they were the more expensive).

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Passengers can’t be aboard the bus during the voyage and in loading and offloading

The buses won’t go along with “Batangas Ferries” too. If they ride on a Batangas-Caticlan ferry they would have to forego the fare for 120 kilometers or so and that is not peanuts. It has long been held by the LTFRB that a bus cannot charge for the distance traveled at sea (of course, secretly they will try to do it since anyway most passengers don’t know how to compute the fare nor do they know of the number of kilometers). And they will have to pay higher for the longer sea distance crossed. Does anyone need a nail to the head?

And so the buses will rather have their passengers ride two ferries at night. That connotes all the trouble of disembarking and boarding again plus the queues for the various tickets. And never mind if it is raining. In that route, that can be the definition of “passenger service”. Is there a difference between passengers and cattle?

And so until now it is still just 2GO, the renamed “Batangas Ferries” which do the direct Batangas-Caticlan route. Montenegro Shipping Lines, Starlite Ferries, Archipelago Ferries Philippines, Super Shuttle Ferry (Asian Marine Transport Corporation) and Besta Shipping Lines never did that direct route. Who said they will walk the extra mile for their clients?

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“Batangas Ferry 3”

Anyway, passengers are appreciative of the superior accommodations of the 2GO ferries. They have never seen such ferries in Batangas before (and they haven’t been to Cebu either, the home of good overnight ferries). They never ever thought that their ropaxes are actually just cattle carriers. And they have never seen a true restaurant in a ship before which the 2GO ferries have. And oh, plus true, polite passenger service (they have been too used to masahista ng bakal in T-shirts before pretending as stewards).

Will Archipelago Ferries Philippines do a direct route since their catamaran ROROs are faster (theoretically they can do the route is just 10 hours but they will have to do it at daytime since they don’t have bunks)? Well, I don’t think so. I heard they are even happy with the farther Bulalacao-Caticlan route since their sister company bus rolls farther and thus earns more from fare.

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A catamaran RORO of AFPC by Jon Erodias

And that is the situation of the Batangas-Caticlan route. Now I wonder when the Panay passengers will demand for something better.

Are they just content to get up at night and disembark even if it is raining and continue the trip with their heads hanging out from seats and their bodies contorted in search of sleep?

Daihatsu Marine Engines Dominate the Philippine Ferry Fleet

In the field of marine main engines, it is the Daihatsu make that dominate our ferry fleet. About a third of our steel ferries mount Daihatsu main engines (as differentiated from auxiliary engines) for their propulsion. This is so because in Japan it is Daihatsu that dominate the small ferries and most of our ferries are small and sourced from Japan. Daihatsu cannot be found in the bigger ferries from Japan because what was used there were licensed-built European engines like MAN, Pielstick, Sulzer and B&W. Japan actually had no competent big engines in the past so they took the shortcut of license-built engines although Mitsubishi also builds big engines now.

Sometimes, to power ferries of medium size (or even large ferries), Japan shipbuilders sometimes use four main engines and use synchronizers to transmit the power to two propellers. This is the arrangement in the likes of MV GP Ferry 2, the MV Asia China, the MV Trans Asia, the MV Asia South Korea, the MV Filipinas Iligan, the MV Filipinas Butuan, the MV Reina del Rosario, the MV Princess of New Unity, the MV SuperFerry 10 and some others more. But added mechanical contraptions add to complexity and lessens reliability and this became a problem for some of the ships above. Failure of one engine can have a calamitous effect on the running of the ship.

For local shipping companies, the Daihatsu marine engines are highly prized. They are known to be tough, reliable and ages well. Replacement parts can easily be sourced or fabricated abroad. Plus there are also so-many local marine engineers who know Daihatsu engines well and have the experience. Fact is, we have a number of Daihatsu-engined ferries which are now over 40 years old and they are still running well and reliably. In local shipping, Daihatsu is preferred over competitors like Niigata, Hanshin or Akasaka,

Below are some of our still-active ships which have Daihatsu main engines. I will remove the “MV” so as not to be repetitive. And what will follow will be the shipping company, date (year) of build and the PSSS Classification, to wit:
L = Liner
OF = Overnight Ferry
SDF = Short-distance Ferry

St. Augustine of Hippo (2GO), 1989 L
St. Anthony de Padua (2GO), 1986 L
St. Ignatius of Loyola (2GO), 1988 L
Trans-Asia 2 (Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc.), 1977 OF
Trans-Asia 3 (Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc.), 1989 OF
Trans-Asia 8 (Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc.), 1984 OF
Asia Philippines (Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc.) OF
Filipinas Nasipit (Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc.), 1992 OF
Filipinas Iligan (Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc.), 1978 OF
Filipinas Butuan (Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc.), 1982 OF
Filipinas Iloilo (Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc.), 1979 OF
Filipinas Dapitan (Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc.), 1971 OF
Filipinas Dinagat (Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc.), 1972 OF
Filipinas Dumaguete (Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc.), 1970 OF
Stephanie Marie (Aleson Shipping Lines), 1979 SDF
Stephanie Marie 2 (Aleson Shipping Lines), 1986 SF
Danica Joy (Aleson Shipping Lines), 1972 OF
Danica Joy 2 (Aleson Shipping Lines), 1982 OF
Trisha Kerstin 2 (Aleson Shipping Lines), 1989 OF
Trisha Kerstin 3 (Aleson Shipping Lines), 1995 OF
Ciara Joie (Aleson Shipping Lines), 1979 SDF
Neveen (Aleson Shipping Lines), 1975 SDF
Joyful Stars (Roble Shipping), 1971 OF
Theresian Stars (Roble Shipping), 1973 OF
Blessed Stars (Roble Shipping), 1979 OF
Sacred Stars (Roble Shipping), 1979 OF
GP Ferry 2 (George & Peter Lines), 1972 OF
Lite Ferry 1 (Lite Ferries), 1969 SDF/OF
Lite Ferry 2 (Lite Ferries), 1969 SDF/OF
Lite Ferry 3 (Lite Ferries), 1969 SDF/OF
Lite Ferry 6 (Lite Ferries), 1972 SDF/OF
Lite Ferry 9 (Lite Ferries), 1997 SDF
Lady of Love (Medallion Transport), 1979 OF
Lady of Good Voyage (Medallion Transport), —- OF
Lady of Miraculous Medal (Medallion Transport), 1984 SDF/OF
Lady of Angels (Medallion Transport), 1977 SDF/OF
Lady of Charity (Medallion Transport), 1969 SDF/OF
Maria Beatriz (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Diana (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF/OF
Maria Erlinda (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Gloria (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Helena (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF/OF
Marie Kristina (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Oliva (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Querubin (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Rebecca (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Sophia (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Marie Teresa (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Ursula (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Maria Yasmina (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Reina del Cielo (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Reina de Luna (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Reina Magdalena (Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.) SDF
Starlite Annapolis (Starlite Ferries), 1982 SDF
Starlite Ferry (Starlite Ferries), 1971 SDF
Starlite Pacific (Starlite Ferries), 1983 SDF
Starlite Atlantic (Starlite Ferries), 1983 SDF
Starlite Nautica (Starlite Ferries), 1985 SDF
Starlite Polaris (Starlite Ferries), 1975 SDF
Super Shuttle Ferry 1 (Asian Marine Transport Company) SDF
Super Shuttle Ferry 3 (Asian Marine Transport Company) SDF
Super Shuttle Ferry 5 (Asian Marine Transport Company) SDF
Super Shuttle Ferry 9 (Asian Marine Transport Company) SDF
Super Shuttle Ferry 10 (Asian Marine Transport Company) SDF
Super Shuttle Ferry 18 (Asian Marine Transport Company) SDF
Super Shuttle Ferry 20 (Asian Marine Transport Company) SDF
Island RORO II (VG Shipping), 1978 SDF/OF
Super Island Express III (VG Shipping), 1972 SDF
Island Express III (VG Shipping), 1978 SDF
Lady of the Gate/Yellow Rose (JJA Transport), 1980 SDF
J&N Carrier (J&N Shipping), 1970 OF
J&N Ferry (J&N Shipping), 1982 OF
J&N Cruiser (J&N Shipping), 1979 OF
Grand Unity (Navios Shipping Lines), 1969 OF
Grand Venture 1 (Navios Shipping Lines), 1970 OF
Melrivic Three (E.B. Aznar Shipping), 1975 SDF
Melrivic Nine (E.B. Aznar Shipping), 1979 SDF
Mika Mari (Jomalia Shipping), 1975 SDF
King Frederick (Sta. Clara Shipping Corp.), 1987 SDF
Nelvin Jules (Sta. Clara Shipping Corp.), 1985 SDF
Hansel Jobett (Sta. Clara Shipping Corp.), 1979 SDF
Nathan Matthew (Sta. Clara Shipping Corp.), 1973 SDF
Anthon Raphael (Penafrancia Shipping Corp.), 1990 SDF
Don Benito Ambrosio II (Penafrancia Shipping Corp.), 1967 SDF
Don Herculano (Penafrancia Shipping Corp.), 1970 SDF
Eugene Elson (Penafrancia Shipping Corp.), 1965 SDF
Regina Calixta II (Regina Shipping Lines), 1986 SDF
Regina Calixta VI (Regina Shipping Lines), 1988 SDF
Star Ferry II (168 Shipping), 1961 SDF
Star Ferry III (168 Shipping), 1987 SDF
Grand Star RORO 3 (————–), 1987 SDF
Marina Empress (Denica Shipping Lines), 1972 SDF
D’ASEAN Journey (JVS Shipping Lines), 1980 OF
Baleno Otso (Besta Shipping Lines), 1984 SDF
Calixta III (Aqua Real Shipping Lines), 1988 SDF
Milagrosa J-5 (Milagrosa Shipping Lines), 1978 OF
Ever Queen of Pacific 1 (Ever Lines), 1968 OF
Jadestar Legacy (Ibnerizam Shipping), 1982 SDF
Mama Mia (Sing Shipping), 2011 OF
Kalinaw (Philstone Shipping), 1972 SDF

A total of exactly 100 still-active ferries. However, this is not a complete list as in a fraction of our steel ferries I do not know the engines mounted. Foreign databases don’t know either and that data is also not visible in the MARINA (Maritime Industry Authority) database. There are still ferries arriving from Japan and maybe the list will still grow especially if I am able to determine the mounted engines of our other steel ferries. May I add, however, that for our wooden-hulled and small ferries it is rare that Daihatsu marine engines will be mounted. For those crafts, it is the engines from trucks that predominate as it is cheaper and truck mechanics and spare parts are available anywhere in the country.

Hail to Daihatsu!

Quo Vadis, Lite Ferry 8?

Nobody might have realized it but Lite Ferry 8 might now be the RORO ferry with the second-most number of years of service in the Philippines after “Melrivic Seven” (excepting also the LCT’s). She first came to our country in 1980 as the “Sta. Maria” of Negros Navigation, the first RORO ship in their fleet. Later, in 2001 she was sold by Negros Navigation to George & Peter Lines where she became the “GP Ferry-1”. After several years, in 2007 she was sold by G&P Lines to Lite Ferries where she became the “Lite Ferry 8” and was designed to compete in the prime route across Camotes Sea, the Cebu-Ormoc route. She is certainly a well-traveled ferry.

“Lite Ferry 8” started life as the “Hayabusa No. 3” of Kyouei Unyu of Japan with IMO Number 7323205. She was built by Yoshiura Zosen in their Kure shipyard and she was completed on April of 1973. As built, her Length Over-all (LOA) was 72.0 meters and her Breadth was 12.6 meters with a Gross Tonnage (GT) of 691 and a Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) of 1,680. She was powered by two Akasaka marine diesel engines totaling 4,200 horsepower routed to two screws. She had a maximum service speed of 15 knots when she was still new.

Sta. Maria ©Gorio Belen

Before leaving Japan, she was renamed as the “Hayabusa No.8”. In December of 1980 she came to Negros Navigation of the Philippines which added decks and passenger accommodations to her. She was among the first RORO’s in the Philippines and the first for Negros Navigation. She could actually be the first RORO liner in the country (as distinguished from short-distance and overnight ferries). Originally, she held the route from Manila to Iloilo and Bacolod and calling on Romblon port along the way. In one sense she replaced the flagship “Don Juan” of the Negros Navigation fleet which sank in a collision on April 22, 1980.

Sta. Maria ©Gorio Belen

With the advent of additional liners in the Negros Navigation fleet, the smaller and slower “Sta. Maria” was withdrawn from the Manila route and shunted to regional routes. Among the routes she did was the Cebu-Iloilo-Puerto Princesa route and later the Iloilo-Bacolod route. In 2000, when Negros Navigation already had a surplus of ships and the parallel route Dumangas-Bacolod was already impacting the Iloilo-Bacolod route she was sold to George & Peter Lines which needed a replacement ship after the loss of their ship “Dumaguete Ferry” to fire.

GP Ferry-1 ©Wakanatsu and Toshihiko Mikami

In George & Peter Lines, she became the “GP Ferry-1” where she basically did the staple Cebu-Dumaguete-Dapitan route of the company which was an overnight and day route on the way to Dapitan and an overnight route on the way back to Cebu. When there were still no short-distance RORO ferries between Dumaguete and Dapitan this was a good route. But when short-distance ferries multiplied in the route and with it dominating the daytime sailing, slowly George & Peter Lines saw their intermediate route jeopardized and the process accelerated with the entry of Cokaliong Lines in the Cebu-Dapitan-Dumaguete route.

I think it is in this context that G&P Lines sold her to Lite Ferries in 2007. By this time her engines were also beginning to get sickly, a factor of age exacerbated with longer route distances. Lite Ferries designed her to compete in the prime Camotes Sea route where the “Heaven Stars” of Roble Shipping Lines and the good overnight ferries of Cebu Ferries were holding sway. However, she was not too successful for Lite Shipping as her old engines seemed to be too thirsty and not too solid for the route. Sometime in 2010, Lite Ferries began using the Lite Ferry 12 for the Ormoc route and after that Lite Ferry 8 already spent considerably more time in anchorage than in sailing. Lite Ferry 12 had considerably smaller engines than “Lite Ferry 8” and her size was just a match for the like of “Wonderful Stars” which was also doing the Cebu-Ormoc route.

Lite Ferry 8 ©Jonathan Bordon

“Lite Ferry 8” was also put up for sale but with the history of her engines any sale except to the breakers will not be easy. Her accommodations and size is not what is used for the short-distance ferries and her engines are also too big for that route class. The only RORO now of her length, engine size and passenger accommodations are the overnight ferries from Cebu to Northern Mindanao but Lite Ferries do not sail such routes except for their route to Plaridel, Misamis Occidental and even in such route lengths the company prefers to use ROROs in the 60-meter class with engines totaling less than 3,000 horsepower.

As of now, “Lite Ferry 8” is almost a ship without a route. She is difficult to find a soft landing spot and she does not have the endurance of the Daihatsu-engined ex-“Asia Indonesia” and ex-“Asia Brunei” which more or less shares her age and size and engine power. Kindly to her, Lite Ferries is not a company known for contacting fast the breakers’ numbers unlike Cebu Ferries and its former mother company.

Lite Ferry 8 ©Aristotle Refugio

So the question lingering about her now is, Quo vadis?.