The Sweet RORO

Many, when talking about the Sweet RORO of Sweet Lines Incorporated which is pf Bohol origin talk about her technicals and that is not wrong as there is nothing incorrect in admiring the technical merits of a ship especially that of a luxury liner. But to me I also tend to look at the historical position of things and how they interacted as I am also keen on the historical perspective of the ferries when they came and also their roles. After all, ferries make the shipping companies, at least in the early decades of our shipping history. And, it is in the great liners in which shipping companies are identified by the public.

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The Sweet RORO in original livery. Photo by Lindsay Bridge.

The Sweet RORO came to Sweet Lines when from the peak of the company a great slide was already happening them. This came from a probable mistake when in the late 1970’s the company decided they would henceforth just buy small liners. It was a great reversal from the previous mantra of the company that they will bring great liners, the prime examples of which were the highly regarded Sweet Faith and Sweet Home which were former luxury liners even in Europe. Also included in that was the Sweet Grace which was acquired brand-new from West Germany.

That bad decision came when the top liners of the company, the aforementioned Sweet Faith and the Sweet Home were already graying and if analyzed technically were already threatening to quit in a few years time (and they subsequently did). Coupled with that that the former cargo-passenger ship from Europe, the Sweet Bliss, the Sweet Life/Sweet Dream, the Sweet Lord/Sweet Land and the Sweet Love which buoyed the company early on and helped in their rise were also growing old as they were also built in the 1950’s like the Sweet Faith and the Sweet Home and ferries then were not known to exceed 30 years of life as the metallurgy and technology were still not the same as today when ferries normally exceed 40 years of service life here. Spare and surplus parts are easy to find today and CNC milling of parts are already common whereas that was not the case of 40 years ago. When that decision to just acquire small ferries was made the six liners of Sweet Lines from Europe were already approaching 30 years old save for the Sweet Home (but then this luxury liner, the biggest of her time was actually the first to go because of mechanical problems).

The year 1980 came and one of the biggest crisis in local liner shipping came. This happened when a lot of liners were suddenly laid up because the container ships came into full force all at once and suddenly the old passenger-cargo liners no longer had enough cargo to carry and it was actually cargo which is decisive in the profitability of a passenger-cargo ship. Before the arrival of the container ships of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation, William Lines, Sulpicio Lines, Lorenzo Shipping Corporation, Central Shipping Corporation (the cargo shipping company of Sweet Lines), Sea Transport Company, Negros Navigation Company and Solid Shipping Lines, it was practically just the passenger-cargo liners which were carrying the cargo in liner routes.

Sweet Home was gone in 1979, sold, and Sweet Faith was also gone the next year in 1980, first laid up then sold to the breakers. The new decade came and Sweet Lines had no ship good enough for the premier Manila-Cebu route which they used to dominate albeit with just a small pull only early in the 1970’s but largely gone as the decade was winding down. What they had left to serve as flagship was the cruiser liner Sweet Grace which was ordered brand-new from West Germany in 1968 but which does not have the speed and the size of the now-dominant fast cruiser liners of that era already.

While Sweet Lines was saddled with such problem William Lines rolled out the half-cruiser, half-RORO Dona Virginia in December 1979 which was the biggest liner in the country when she was fielded and with a speed of 20 knots too like the liner she was replacing, the storied Cebu City which came brand-new just in 1972. Then Sulpicio Lines rolled out the Philippine Princess in 1981 and this liner was nearly as big as the Dona Virginia but not as fast. Sweet Grace was far smaller than the two unlike the flagship Filipinas of Compania Maritima which was nearly as big as Dona Virginia and Philippine Princess although not as fast as the two. Sweet Grace was also much slower than the three, she cannot even be considered as a fast cruiser liner and so for the first time since Sweet Lines raised the bar in the Manila-Cebu premier route in 1970 with the Sweet Faith, this time it found itself as the laggard and outmatched. And that was where the decision to just buy small liners bit Sweet Lines hard.

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Photo from a research of Gorio Belen in the National Library

Having money from the proceeds of the disposals of Sweet Home and Sweet Faith, Sweet Lines was obliged to look for their replacement and it is forced that it should be a good and a big one. They did not disappoint when the former Ferry Ruby of the Diamond Ferry which plies the Osaka to Oichi route came to them in 1982 (but the seller was a third by the name of Dimerco Line SA of Panama and more on that later). The ship was nearly as big as her main competitors at 117.5 meters length and 4,700 gross register tons and at 18 knots design speed she was not giving away much to her direct competition, the flagships of the other liner companies although she was still the slowest at full trot among the flagships. And so what Sweet Lines emphasized was her being a RORO liner and its swiftness in cargo loading and unloading. However, the claim of Sweet Lines that she was the first RORO liner in the country is incorrect as the Sta. Maria of Negros Navigation Company came earlier in 1980. She, however, was the first big RORO liner in the country if the Dona Virginia is excluded.

When analyzed technically, the Sweet RORO is a leapfrog in technology compared to her main competitors which were mainly cruiser liners, the old paradigm. She was already a full-pledged ROPAX (RORO-Passenger) ship unlike the Dona Virginia whereas the Philippine Princess and the Filipinas of Compania Maritima were still cruiser ships . Now these four are all flagships and only four shipping companies were competing seriously in the prime Manila-Cebu route as the others like Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and Escano Lines were no longer in serious contention in that route and the others have practically withdrawn from contention there like Lorenzo Shipping Corporation and Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (but this company later made a comeback in that route). By the way, Negros Navigation Company is not being mentioned here as she was not doing the Manila-Cebu route then.

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Credits to Philippine Daily Express and Gorio Belen

But Sweet RORO might have been too much ahead of her time. Loading vehicles was not yet the wont then in her route (and neither now except for brand-new cars headed for car dealers down south). Container vans were mainly carried by the container ships and at that time there were still a lot of XEUs, the 10-foot container vans which can be handled by forklifts or loaded atop the cruisers at their bow and/or stern. Using chassis for container vans was not yet the standard then and so the full advantage of being a RORO or Roll-on, Roll-off ship was not fully realized when a lot of cargo was still palletized or are still carried loose (however, Sweet RORO had advantage over the others in carrying vehicles and heavy equipment down South). It would be nearly a decade later when the TEUs, the 20-foot container vans will be the new standard in cargo loading and by that time the Sweet RORO was already gone.

The Sweet RORO, the former Ferry Ruby was built by Onomichi Dockyard (Onomichi Zosen) in Onomichi, Japan in 1970 (but Sweet Lines says she was built in another yard) as one of the fast overnight ferries of Japan that bypasses their clogged highways then. She was average in size then (but this is not to disparage her) at 117.5 meters in Length Over-all, 107.0 meters in Length Between Perpendiculars, 20.6 meters in Breadth and 4,619 tons in Gross Register Tonnage. She was 1,943 tons in Net Register Tonnage and 1,477 tons in Deadweight Tonnage. This RORO liner was powered by 4 Kawasaki-MAN V8V 22/30ATL diesel engines with a combined 8,080hp which gave her a top speed of 18 knots which was also average for her size during her time. At that power she would have been more economical in fuel than the other flagships.

The stem of the ship was raked and she had transom stern. She was equipped with ramps bow and aft as access to the car deck. The ship has three decks for the passengers, the uppermost one a local addition (and that deck contained a lobby/relaxation room, the First Class bar and disco plus a game room) and abaft of the funnels is a wide open-air promenade area/sun deck. Aside from First Class and Second Class, a part of her Third Class (now known as “Economy”) is also airconditioned. This is because as-built the ship was fully air-conditioned. Her original passenger capacity as refitted was 1,692, one of the highest then among passenger ships in the country. It was broken down into 148 in 1st Class, 144 in 2nd Class, 400 in air-conditioned 3rd Class and 1,000 in non-airconditioned 3rd Class. The 3rd Class occupied the lowermost passenger deck while the First Class and Second Class accommodations and lobbies were on the deck above that and so it is the middle deck.

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Photo from a research of Gorio Belen in the National Library

Like the Sweet Faith before her, the Sweet RORO plied the premier Manila-Cebu route twice a week with a 22-hour sailing time which means a cruising speed of 18 knots for the 393-nautical mile route which is actually her design speed. It seems the policy of Sweet Lines is sail the ship at design speed because that is what they also did with the Sweet Faith. However, running a ship at 100% usually entails a ship’s not living very long. In 1988, Sweet RORO already had trouble with her engines specifically with her crankshaft as one report said and from that time on she already had difficulty sailing and if she did it is at reduced speed. The next year she was already laid up when she was less than 20 years of age. In 1990, she was sent to India for breaking up, a very short career when her two sister ships was still sailing in Greece up to the new millennium.

In 1987, Sweet RORO had a change of ownership but she was still sailing for Sweet Lines even then. She again became a Panamanian ship with the Dimerco Line SA which was the seller of her to Sweet Lines and to me that indicates a possibility that she was not fully paid for by Sweet Lines and so the seller re-acquired her. This was also about the same time that the Eduardo Lopingco group entered Sweet Lines and took over the management. With the entry of Lopingco additional ships came to the fleet but it turned out those were just chartered from the Hayashi Marine Company of Japan . Later, court cases arose after the company was not able to pay the charter to Hayashi Marine because court records show money was diverted by Lopingco to other ventures.

I wonder but I know financial troubles and mismanagement are ship killers especially when the needed maintenance of the ship are no longer made. And running ships at 100% power is parts-hungry and can result in damages to the engine in the long term especially when maintenance is not up to date. A report said that re-engining her was suggested to the company but nothing came out of it. This was already the time that the company was already headed on the way down after it seems that the founding Lim family has already lost control of the company if court filings are to be believed.

Whatever, the Sweet RORO was a big success in the Manila-Cebu route as actually Sweet Lines was a favorite of many especially the Bol-anons that until today many still remember her fondly (people are more attached then to their great liners unlike today that is why there were ship legends then including the Sweet RORO while now there is no such sentimentality anymore). However, it puzzles me why didn’t they extend the route to Tagbilaran given it was their origins and the ship had a long lay-over anyway in Cebu (was Tagbilaran port too shallow for her then?).

She was a fine ship ahead of her time. However, the sad part is she did not last long.

The Maria Matilde

The ferry Maria Matilde of Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI) of Batangas was in the news lately because of a mishap she suffered while in transit from Odiongan port to Romblon port when she tried the hardness and strength of her bow against what seems to an overhanging rock and she lost. Actually she was lucky because had there been more clearance below the overhanging rock, the bow would have been cleared and instead it will be the bridge of the ship which will strike the rock and it would have been a good comeuppance for her negligent bridge crew who have been too good in making ridiculous excuses after the accident happened. Scores of passengers have been hurt in the accident necessitating the bringing of several to hospitals. It was also reported that four vehicles aboard the ship also sustained damages (maybe it jumped the wheel chocks). Well, imagine a ship probably sailing at 12 knots or over 20 kilometers per hour coming to a halt in a split second without warning. Many would be hurtling forward then, unplanned and unwarned.

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Taken from maritimebulletin.com. Credits to Romblon News Network.

The Maria Matilde was once thought by some as the biggest ferry of Montenegro Lines but actually it is not true as their ferry Maria Xenia from Shipshape/Safeship is actually a little larger than her. Whatever, when the Reina del Rosario came from Trans-Asia Shipping Lines of Cebu with its 82.8 meters length and over 2,000 of gross tonnage, there was no assertion anymore that the Maria Matilde was the biggest ship of Montenegro Lines and so the former Cebuano ship won.

Actually, the two ships are familiar with each other. Once upon a time, the Maria Matilde might have been the most distant ship of Montenegro Lines in terms of fielding. When she was first sailed in 2005, she was on the Cagayan de Oro-Cebu-Iloilo-Puerto Princesa route (imagine a route that long). Now I just can’t remember if the Surigao-Siargao ferries of Montenegro Lines came earlier but probably not. So, the Maria Matilde was an overnight ferry from the very start and might even qualify technically as a multi-day liner although it is really an effort for a passenger bound for Puerto Princesa as the ship spends the daytime in port waiting for the next leg of journey in the night. Well, that could be a lot of free tourism for the more adventurous but unlike true liners of the period then they will not be fed while on port.

A few years before the Maria Matilde came, the Negros Navigation Company (NENACO) and later through Jensen Shipping tried the same route and it bombed. So I was wondering if Montenegro Lines knew a secret that Negros Navigation did not know or if they have a better formula. After all in the different legs of the route the Maria Matilde will be experiencing tough competition especially in the first two legs and in the last leg (the Iloilo-Puerto Princesa leg) the traffic between its two ports is not really heavy and actually Montenegro Lines is already serving that route aside from the original holder of the route, the hardy survivor Milagrosa Shipping Lines.

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Photo by Edsel Benavides

Apparently, Montenegro Lines did not know any better and they bombed out too. First, they cut the route to Cagayan de Oro. That is the prime Visayas-Mindanao route and competition there is very tough with the top competitors even fielding former liners aside from real liners from Manila holding the Manila-Cebu-Cagayan de Oro route (like the former SuperFerry 12 that is now known as the St. Pope John Paul II which is still plying the route). The Maria Matilde was severely outclassed in modernness of the competitors, in size, in the amenities and accommodations and in the speed when some can do almost twice her speed. And in passenger service there is almost no way for them to beat the liners (Montenegro Lines was never known for service especially since they have never experienced liner sailing). And the Maria Matilde does not even offer free food as that is the domain of the liners but not of the Batangas ferries. Additionally, some passengers bound for Iloilo or Bacolod can just take the liners doing the Cagayan de Oro-Iloilo-Manila or the Cagayan de Oro-Bacolod-Manila routes. If the passenger is still bound for Puerto Princesa he or she can just transfer to an Iloilo-Puerto Princesa ferry. In the Cebu-Iloilo leg the Cebu shipping companies also have good ferries and again that is another top route from Cebu. I felt then that the Maria Matilde was in a cul-de-sac especially since I know the Batangas people don’t know how good are the top overnight ferries of Cebu (all they know is beat the crappy Viva Shipping Lines standard).

In a span of a few years, Montenegro Lines gave up and brought back the Maria Matilde to Batangas to do their MIMAROPA Region overnight routes like their route to Romblon from Batangas. There, the Maria Matilde is not outclassed as Batangas barely know overnight ferries and in fact just have a few and it is one area where ROROs without bunks are used in night routes and so people use the benches as “bunks” leading to complaints by some and the crew there is not good in instilling discipline and unlike in the Visayas-Mindanao region the passengers are not averse to appropriating the whole bench for themselves. Well, that is the consequence of having no proper bunks. The Maria Matilde has been one of the longest overnight ships now in the Romblon route together with the biggest ship of Montenegro Lines, the Reina del Rosario. If they know each other in Romblon, they actually knew each other before in Cebu when the latter was still with Trans-Asia Shipping Lines.

The Maria Matilde is a not a new ship by any means and she belongs to the class that the haters of old ships love to jeer (because they have vested self-interest). She actually doesn’t show her age although she was built way back in 1971 or 46 years ago (well, Montenegro Lines is really good in refurbishing and maintaining old ferries). Her builder is the Taguma Zosen in Innoshima, Japan and she carries the IMO Number 7106126 which indicate when her keel was laid up.

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Taken by John Michael Aringay from funekichimurase.lolipop.jp

Originally, she was known as the Ferry Goto of the Kyushu Shosen KK of Nagasaki, Japan. She must have been doing the Nagasaki to Goto route as her name is an obvious giveaway. As such she might have been familiar with the Ferry Fukue which also came to the Philippines that is now known now as the Filipinas Iligan of Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc. (that is if she was sailing to the southern island of Fukue). However, when that ship came the Maria Matilde was no longer in Cebu.

The Maria Matilde has a steel hull and had car ramps at the bow and at the stern that led to the single car deck. She already has the modern semi-bulbous stem and the usual transom stern of a ROPAX (RORO-Passenger) ship. Her length is 73.6 meters with a beam of 14.3 meters (which is only declared as 12.0 meters here but international databases says otherwise and 12.0 meters breadth are for the smaller ferries) and a depth of 4.8 meters. Her declared gross tonnage is 1,266 which is just about the same as her original gross register tonnage of 1,262 (and that is after adding an additional passenger deck). Her declared net tonnage is 693 with a passenger capacity of 832 (that includes the old Jet Seater class of the ship) in two-and-a-half passenger decks. She is powered by two Hanshin marine diesels with a total of 4,000 horsepower and her original top speed (the design speed) was 16 knots (lately she is still capable of a cruising speed of 13 knots which is not that far off from her design speed). Hanshin is not a common engine for passenger ships.

Unlike most Batangas passenger ships, the Maria Matilde is equipped with two stern passenger ramps (in Batangas, in general, the passengers enter and exit through the car deck and ramp heightening the chance on an accident). Part of the car deck was once used converted for passengers but it was removed now. The ferry also has a forecastle and small poop deck aside from two funnels which signifies two engines.

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Photo by Nowell Alcancia

The Maria Matilde might have remained an obscure ferry doing its job silently except when she was thrown into ignominy when she hit that overhanging rock last September 25, 2017 in Calatrava town of Tablas island, Romblon when the ferry was on the way from Odiongan to Romblon town (some reports said she grounded but that seems not to be the case as the stem of the ship is undamaged). Minor accidents and incidents are part of a ship’s life but the unusualness of the accident put this good ferry in a bad light due to the incompetence of the bridge crew. Nowadays, with pocket Wi-Fi and smartphones keeping lid on accidents on passenger ships with casualties is hard to do as it hits the public immediately. The only similar accident to this that I know was when the flagship of Escano Lines, the Fernando Escano II rammed the concrete battleship island in the mouth of Manila Bay in 1969 that also damaged the ship’s bow.

The crew when asked by media offered many lousy, unbelievable excuses. One said there was a steering failure (but then the ship was able to dock later in Romblon port and offload not only vehicles and passengers but also the wounded). Another said there was failure in the GPS instrument of the ship (but then there should still be nautical charts in the bridge and navigators that constantly plot the position of the ship). There is no question that there is bad visibility when the incident happened and it was still dark as it was just dawn yet and raining. But then if the radar is working and the bridge crew was not sleepy they should have seen that there was an obstacle ahead. Actually, the most likely thing that happened is the ship drifted because of the currents and the bridge crew failed to notice and correct it. In terms of familiarity of the course, the ship cannot give it as an excuse as they were on their regular route (and what are nautical charts for anyway?). Now, was there even a look-out or the look-out was busy stirring his cup of coffee?

With the accident, the length over-all of the ship shortened (although they will bring that to the shipyard for repairs and that is easy to remedy). However, the reputation on the crew and the ship is harder to repair now. With the Net, a search on Maria Matilde will always lead back to the accident in Romblon and that will be for years on end (what a disgrace). If we can search Fernando Escano II’s accident of almost half a century ago, imagine how long Maria Matilde’s accident will be searchable even if she is gone already. I don’t know if it is already time to change the ship’s name.

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Credits to The Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen

Even then this ship is still a reliable ship that is capable of sailing many more years unless some government device is approved to cull old ships like that signed agreement to cut carbon dioxide emissions (practically no old ship of ours will survive massive carbon cuts unless re-engined but that is not cheap). Her owner Montenegro Lines is really good in prolonging the lives of their old ships and will even resort to re-engining if needed (we really love and value old ships, don’t we?).

Now if only her crew had been more careful.