The Early Years of William Lines

Among the major liner companies, I found William Lines Incorporated striking in some ways. First, in their early days they were very loyal to the former “FS” ships as in they were operating no other type in their first 20 years. Others like Bisaya Land Transport was also like that but they were not a major liner company. Some other majors that initially had a pure ex-”FS” fleet like the General Shipping Company acquired other types earlier than William Lines.

M.V. Don Victoriano (unverified)

The unlengthened Don Victoriano (Photo credits: Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen)

Yet, even though they just have a pure ex-”FS” fleet which were small and slow ships that looked vulnerable, William Lines stressed the southern Mindanao routes (Dadiangas and Davao) that needed two ships alternating just to maintain one weekly schedule as a voyage takes nearly two weeks to complete. This is the second striking characteristic I noticed in their history, the stress in southern Mindanao. In fact, because of the weight demanded on a fleet by the southern Mindanao route most of our liner companies then did not enter the southern Mindanao route.

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The lengthened ex-“FS” ship Elena (Gorio Belen research in Nat’l Library)

Only three others aside from William Lines did Southern Mindanao routes. Three other companies did this route for decades — Compania Maritima, Philippine Steam and Navigation Company (PSNC) and Carlos A. Go Thong & Company. The first two were big companies in those days. Manila Steamship Company (Elizalde y Compania) also did the southern Mindanao route before they quit shipping in 1955. It was also a big company. De la Rama Steamship also sailed southern Mindanao routes before they quit local shipping in the early 1950’s.

William Lines started shipping sometime at the tail end of 1945. Everyone knows the company is named after the founder William Chiongbian. And the first ship of the company, the Don Victoriano was named after the father of William Chiongbian. Subsequently, in its first decade, the ships of William Lines were named after his sons and daughters. Jimenez, Misamis Occidental is the place of origin of William Lines.

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Photo credits: Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen

Actually, William Chiongbian did not start from zero. His father already had trading ships before World War II in support of their copra business. That was normal then before the war. Others that made it big in shipping after World War II had similar origins like Carlos Go Thong and Aboitiz (but the latter was already big even before the war).

The route system then of William Lines was very simple. 6 ships in 3 pairs will do a thrice a week Manila-Cebu-Tagbilaran-Dumaguete-Zamboanga-Davao voyages leaving Manila on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. The rest of the fleet will do a once or twice a week sailing to Panguil Bay (Iligan and Ozamis plus Dumaguete) via Cebu. Was there a route system more simple than that?

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From the research of Gorio Belen in the National Library

It might be simple but actually William Lines was a beneficiary to the growth of traffic to southern Mindanao with the opening of the island to exploitation and colonization by Christians from the rest of the country. The routes to that part of the country were those that grew consistently over the years because of the big increase in population brought about by migration of people. With that came goods and produce that need to be transported.

Actually except for Manila Steamship which quit shipping early after the shock of losing their flagship Mayon to fire and explosion in 1955, all those that stayed in the southern Mindanao route lived long (the Compania Maritima quitting was another story). Many that did short routes from Manila even had shorter life spans like Southern Lines, General Shipping Company and Madrigal Shipping. The southern Mindanao area with its continuously growing production and trade buoyed the shipping companies that stayed there.

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From the research of Gorio Belen in the National Library

The other ships of William Lines in this period were Elena (which later became Virginia VI and Don Jose I), Elizabeth, Edward, Albert (which also became known as Iloilo City), Victor, Henry I and Grace I (which also became the first Manily City). All including the Don Victoriano (which became the second Elena) had their hulls subsequently lengthened to increase capacity. That was needed for the growing traffic and cargo in the routes of William Lines.

Within its first two decades, in 1961, William Lines also purchased the Kolambugan of Escano Lines. It was used to open a Cagayan de Oro route for the company and she was fittingly renamed as the Misamis Oriental. From Cagayan de Oro the ship also called in Iligan and Ozamis. Also acquired that year was the Davao of A. Matute which became the Davao City in the fleet of William Lines.

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From the research of Gorio Belen in the National Library

That same year the FS-272 of Philippine Steam and Navigation Company was also acquired and this became the Don Jose in their fleet. In 1963, the President Quezon of Philippine President Lines was also acquired and the ship became the Dona Maria in the fleet. At its peak the William Lines passenger fleet consisted of 11 former “FS” ships. However, I am not sure if the latter additions were all lengthened.

In 1966, William Lines acquired their first liners that were not former “FS” ships when they also began acquiring big former passenger-cargo ships from Europe like Go Thong and Compania Maritima. That was the new paradigm then and they were able to latch into it. It was a response to the growing need for additional bottoms when surplus ships were not yet available from Japan in great numbers.

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From the research of Gorio Belen in the National Library

That was the early history of William Lines, the tale of their first 20 years in shipping. Their growth into first rank will come after their first two decades until for a brief period they might have been Number 1 in local passenger shipping.

By the way, they had no ship losses in their first two decades. And that was pretty remarkable given the rate of liner losses over the decades and even in the modern era.

Maybe somebody should do a study what was their safety secret then.

Notes:

The usual length of an unmodified ex-”FS” ship is 53.9 meters with a breadth of 9.8 meters and a depth of 3.2 meters. The Gross Register Tonnage (GRT), a measure of the ship’s volume is usually 560 tons.

The Length, Depth and GRT of the lengthened ex-”FS” ships of William Lines (the Breadths do not change):

Don Victoriano (the second Elena)

62.4m

4.3m

694 tons

Elena (the first)

66.9m

4.3m

694 tons

Elizabeth

66.1m

4.3m

657 tons

Edward

67.3m

4.3m

651 tons

Albert

67.1m

4.3m

648 tons

Victor

62.6m

4.3m

699 tons

Henry I

67.0m

4.3m

648 tons

Grace I

66.3m

4.3m

652 tons

Davao City

67.8m

4.3m

691 tons

Misamis Oriental

68.2m

4.3m

673 tons

Dona Jose (the second Dona Maria)

67.2m

4.3m

699 tons

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The Ten Ships From Europe That Vaulted Go Thong To No.1 Before The Break-up in 1972

In the 1960’s, Carlos A. Go Thong & Co., as it was known then. was able to latch their sail to a new commodity crop that will soon rise as the Number 1 commodity crop in the Philippines. That commodity crop was copra and its downstream product coconut oil. In the world this was the decade when coconut oil will displace animal oil (lard) as the primary cooking oil. The Philippines will become the Number 2 producer of copra in the world and the Number 1 exporter. Lu Do and Lu Ym will become the biggest aggregator of copra in the Philippines in that decade and its partnership with Go Thong and its subsidiary for international routes Universal Shipping with bring the two to the highest of heights in the trade of this commodity crop.

Go Thong will have many small ships with small passenger capacities or even none plying distant and out-of the way ports to load copra all over the Visayas and Mindanao. In many ports where they load copra, Go Thong will usually have big bodegas just for copra. In Iligan City, it was big as a city block and right there near the port and part of the city proper. All these copra will go to Lu Do and Lu Ym in Cebu and a portion of it will be milled into coconut oil, both crude coconut oil and refined coconut oil (this is what we buy from the supermarket and stores). The coconut oil and copra (mainly the latter) will be loaded in Universal Shipping vessels to be shipped to Europe (mainly West Germany) and the Far East. Other tankers, both foreign and local will also load coconut oil in the Lu Do and Lu Ym jetty in Cebu that is now partially enclosed by the SRP road.

Along the way with this trading in Europe, Go Thong was able to meet a broker or agent that promised them ten used European cargo-passenger ships that can be used in Philippine waters. In the middle of the 1960’s there was already a need for new liners in the inter-island routes as the population has already increased, the economy has already grown since 1945 and Mindanao was undergoing fast colonization (hence there was a need for ships to load people and cargo). At this time there were no more available former “FS”, former “Y”, former “F”, former PT boats and minesweepers and former “C1-M-AV1” ships from the US. Japan has no great supply yet of surplus ships as they were still in need of them to fuel their economic boom which was called the “Japan miracle”, their process of rising from the ashes of World War II to a great economic power of the world. It was only Europe that can provide the liners we needed then in the mid-1960’s.

These ten passenger-cargo ships for Go Thong along with a few local acquisitions and one from Japan vaulted a shipping company that was relatively late in the liner scene (they became a liner company only in 1954 with the launching of the lengthened ex-”F” ship Dona Conchita) to Number 1 in the very early 1970’s. They overtook the erstwhile leader Compania Maritima which was already then steadily losing ships through maritime accidents in what seemed to be a death wish. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation was then in the process of taking over the Philippine Steam Navigation Company (PSNC), their partnership with Everett Steamship. It had as many ships approximately but most of those were ex-”FS” ships whose size and quality cannot match with the new ships of Go Thong from Europe. Some of those have airconditioning and refrigeration because they were once refrigerated passenger-cargo ships in Europe and those were generally faster. Aboitiz Shipping through Everett Steamship had three good ships ordered new from Japan in 1955, the Legazpi, Elcano and Cagayan de Oro but Go Thong had more ships with airconditioning especially since they were able to acquire the former Gov. B. Lopez from the defunct Southern Lines which became the first Dona Ana.

The ten passenger-cargo ships from Europe which were fueled by the copra trade were the following:

The Gothong which was acquired from Cie Cherifienne d’Armament in 1963 whose first name was Cap Gris Nez. Later she was known as the Dona Pamela. She was built by Solvesborgs Varvs & Reden in Solvesborgs, Sweden in 1950. She measured 88.8 meters by 12.4 meters with a Gross Register Tonnage of 2,347 tons and Net Register Tonnage of 1,272 tons after modification. Her Deadweight Tonnage was 2,317 tons. She was powered with a single Atlas engine which gave her a top speed of 14 knots when new. Take note the US war-surplus ships usually ran only at 11 knots. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up in 1972.

The first Don Sulpicio which was acquired from Rederi A/B Samba in 1964 whose original name was the Colombia. Later she was known as Dona Gloria. She was built by Ekensberg in Stockholm, Sweden in 1947. Her measurements were 85.9 meters by 11.6 meters by 10.0 meters. The ship’s Gross Register Tonnage was 1,759 tons with a Net Register Tonnage of 1,079 tons. The Deadweight Tonnage was 2,235 tons. She was powered by a single Atlas engine of 2,000 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 13 knots when still new. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

The Tayabas Bay which was acquired from Liberian Navigation Company SA in 1965 which was first known as the Tekla. Later she was known as the Don Arsenio. She was built by Helsingor Vaerft in Elsinore, Denmark in 1945. She measured 110.0 meters by 14.0 meters by 8.7 meters with a Gross Register Tonnage of 2,306 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 4,197 tons. She was powered by a single Helsingors Jernskib engine which gave her a top speed of 14.5 knots when new. This ship was first used in the international routes. She went to the fleet of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. after the break-up.

In 1966, two big sister ships came which were used in the international routes. These were war-surplus former US ships but acquired from European owners.

The Manila Bay, a sister ship of Subic Bay which acquired from from A/S J. Ludwig Mowinckels Rederi in 1966 was first known in Cape Pillar in the US Navy is a Type” C1-A” cargo used used for convoy duty during World War II. She was built by Pennsylvania Shipyard in Beaumont, Texas, USA. Her measurements were 125.7 meters by 8.3 meters and her Gross Register Tonnage was 5,158 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 6,440 tons. She was powered by a single Westinghouse engine of 4,000 horsepower which was good for 14 knots when new. This ship was bigger and faster than the Type “C1-M-AV1” ships of which the other local shipping companies have in their fleet then. She was broken up in 1973.

The Subic Bay, the sister ship of Manila Bay was acquired from O. Lorentzen in 1966. She was first known as the Cape St. George in the US Navy fleet and like Manila Bay she was built by Pennsylvania Shipyard in Beaumont, USA but in the year 1942. She had the same external measurements as Manila Bay but her Gross Register Tonnage was a little lower at 5,105 tons and but her Deadweight Tonnage was the same. She had the same powerplant and top speed as the Manila Bay. She was broken up in 1973.

The Dona Rita which was acquired from Cie de Nav Mixte in 1967 was first known as the Tafna. She was built by Lorient Arsenal in Lorient, France in 1949. She measured 95.3 meters by 14.0 meters and she had a Gross Register Tonnage of 2,063 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 2,147 tons. She had just a single engine but her top speed when new was 15 knots. She went to the fleet of Lorenzo Shipping Corporation after the break-up in 1972.

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The Dona Helene which was acquired from Cie Generale Transatlantique in 1968 was originally known as the ship Atlas. Later she was known as the Don Alberto. She was built in 1950 by the Chantiers et Ateliers de Provence in Port de Bouc, France. She measured 95.4 meters by 14.0 meters by 8.5 meters and her Gross Register Tonnage was 2,317 tons. Her Net Register Tonnage was 957 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 2,267 tons. She also had a single engine, a 3,000-horsepower Sulzer and her top speed when knew was 13 knots. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

In that same year 1968, two sister ships were acquired from Norddeutscher Lloyd.

The Don Lorenzo which was acquired from Norddeutscher Lloyd in 1968 and was first known as the Liebenstein and was a sister ship of Don Camilo. Later she was known as the Dona Julieta. She was built in 1951 by Bremer Vulkan in Vegesack, West Germany. Her measurements were 105.1 meters by 14.2 meters by 8.7 meters. The ship’s Gross Register Tonnage was 2,353 tons, her Net Register Tonnage was 1,275 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 3,175 tons. She carried 411 passengers. The Don Lorenzo was powered by a single Bremer Vulkan engine of 3,800 horsepower and she was fast at 16 knots top speed when new. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

The Don Camilo was also acquired from Norddeutscher Lloyd in 1968 and was first known as the Liechtenstein. She was the sister ship of Don Lorenzo which was also known as Dona Julieta. She was also built in 1951 by Bremer Vulkan in Vegesack, West Germany. She had the same external measurements as her sister ship. Likewise, their dimensional measurements – GRT, NRT and DWT were also the same. She had the same 3,800-horsepower Bremer Vulkan engine which was good for a fast 16 knots when new. This speed was the same as the luxury liners then running the inter-island water. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

The second Don Sulpicio was acquired from H/f Eimskipafelag Islands in 1969. She was first known as the Dettifoss and she was a refrigerated passenger-cargo ship and hence she had refrigeration and airconditioning and was a modified version of a luxury ship. She was in effect the flagship of the company from 1969 to 1975 when the third Don Sulpicio came and she became known as the Don Carlos Gothong. She was built in 1949 by Burmeister & Wein (yes, the B&W) in Copenhagen, Denmark. She measured 94.6 meters by 14.0 meters and her Gross Register Tonnage was 2,918 tons and her Deadweight Tonnage was 2,700 tons. She was powered by a single B&W engine and her top speed was fast at 16 knots when new. She went to the fleet of Sulpicio Lines Inc. after the break-up.

In 1972, one more ship arrived from Europe which became the Dona Angelina. She was the former Touggourt from Cie de Nav Mixter like the like the Dona Rita. She was also built by Provence in Port de Bouc in 1950. Her measurements were 91.4 meters by 14.0 meters and her Gross Register Tonnage was 2,696 with a Net Register Tonnage of 1,600. Her Deadweight Tonnage is 2,269. She had a Loire engine of 3,000 horsepower that gave her a design speed of 13.5 knots. Dona Angelina went to Sulpicio Lines after the break-up in 1972.

Now, i don’t know why the total is 11. Maybe Dona Angelina is not part of the ten-ship deal as she came three years later than that burst in 1963 to 1969. All were bigger and faster than ex-”FS” ships, even those lengthened ones and they were generally in the size of the former “C1-M-AV1” ships but faster. 

 In this period, Go Thong also acquired other ships from local sources. They took over the former Dona Aurora of the Maritime Company of the Philippines (the international line of Compania Maritima) in 1965 and she became the Sarangani Bay. She was used in the international routes like when she was under the Maritime Company of the Philippines.

In 1966, Go Thong acquired the Gov. B. Lopez from Southern Lines, the only luxury liner of their fleet and which has airconditioning and refrigeration. This became the first Dona Ana. This ship was a local-built by NASSCO in Mariveles, Bataan and she went to Lorenzo Shipping Corporation after the break-up.

Also in 1966, Go Thong acquired the Don Amando from Northern Lines. This was the former Tomokawa Maru from Japan built by Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation in Kobe, Japan. In the Go Thong fleet, she was first known as the Dona Hortencia before she became known as the Dona Paz (this is an earlier Dona Paz and not the infamous Dona Paz which was formerly the Himeyuri Maru) in the fleet of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc.

A grand total of 15 ship additions from 1963 to 1972 and actually 14 from 1963 to 1969, probably the fastest addition of liners in Philippine shipping history! Including minor ships in out-of-the-way routes, by 1972 Go Thong had already a fleet of more than 30 vessels including cargo ships with more than 20 of those being passenger-cargo ships. This was the biggest fleet then with more than the total of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and PSNC which only had over 20 vessels. Actually, even in 1970, the start of the new decade they already had the biggest fleet in the inter-island waters. Not included in the comparison was the bigger Philippine President Lines which was in ocean-going routes and its rise was fueled by something else.

In the split of 1972, 16 ships went to the new Sulpicio Lines Inc. Most of these were liners and it included 6 of those 10 ships (two, the Manila Bay and Subic Bay might have been retained by Universal Shipping until their break-up). Compania Maritima had a grand total of 19 ships in 1972.

Even with the split, Sulpicio Lines Inc. started with still one of the biggest fleet in the country at probably third rank in grand total. They did not start at the bottom (and will soon rise to Number 1 again).

That was the rise of Go Thong then which was real fast by any measure.

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Photo Credits: Gorio Belen, Philippine Herald, Philippine Ship Spotters Society

Developments in Philippine Shipping in 1965 and 1966

The years 1965 and 1966 witnessed key developments and shifts in Philippine shipping. In those two years, two liner companies quit the local passenger liner shipping scene. These are the General Shipping Company and the Southern Lines Incorporated which both started right after the end of World War II when the US began transferring to us war-surplus ship. Thus the fleet of General Shipping Corporation and Southern Lines Incorporated consisted mainly of converted ex-“FS” ships. General Shipping, however, has two local-built luxury liners, the General Roxas and the General del Pilar. Southern Lines, meanwhile has one local-built luxury liner, the Governor B. Lopez plus the Don Julio from Ledesma Shipping Lines which was an ex-”FS” ship refitted to have luxury accommodations and was fast as she had former submarine engines. The rest of the fleet of the two shipping companies were run-of-the-mill passenger-cargo ships of the time except that Southern Lines had a significant number of the smaller ex-“F” ships in their regional routes.

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General Shipping had a fleet of a dozen liners and it had routes to all over the Visayas but it barely touched Cebu and Mindanao. Meanwhile, Southern Lines’ routes were mainly concentrated in Western Visayas and Romblon. It was the “Negros Navigation” of that region during that time, in effect, because Negros Navigation was just practically a regional operation then and they began as a postwar liner company when Southern Lines went out of the liner shipping scene. The fleet of Southern Lines was just as big as General Shipping but as said earlier a significant number of it was in the regional routes and those were mostly former “F” ships that were a little small for liner use unless lengthened like what was done by Carlos A. Gothong & Co. and others.

How did the national shipping scene stack up in those years? Well, in 1966, there was a near-parity between Compania Maritima, Philippine Steamship & Navigation Company (PSNC) and Carlos A. Gothong & Co. in the inter-island routes. Let me clarify that not counted here were their ships in the international routes. In ranking the shipping companies, Compania Maritima was a little ahead with Philippine Steamship & Navigation Company coming in second and Carlos A. Gothong & Co. trailing in on third. They were the first pack, so to speak as the fleet of the other liner shipping companies were a significantly behind them. If a fourth place will be awarded it will actually go to General Shipping Company. And a fifth place will have to be claimed by William Lines Inc.. This reckoning considers not only the number of ships but also the sizes of the ships as well as if the company has a luxury liner.

Two liner shipping companies quitting at nearly the same time will trigger realignments as they won’t simply go away as their ships and franchises will go to other shipping companies and that has always been the case. In this particular case their quitting of the General Shipping and Southern Lines not only produced realignments but also births and rebirths two three shipping companies.sli

In the sell-offs of the liners, Aboitiz Shipping Corporation got nearly half of the fleet of General Shipping (and the other half went to Sweet Lines Incorporated). Though Aboitiz Shipping had a start way back in 1907 to support their abaca trade in the pre-World War II period, they were in a merger with Escano Lines in La Naviera shipping company before the war. Then after World War II, they were in a partnership with Everett Steamship in Philippine Steamship & Navigation Company and had no independent operations. [And so it seems when they proposed a merger with William Lines Incorporated and Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated for a merger in 1995, it seems they were simply going back to their old habit?]

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With the purchase of ships and franchises from General Shipping, Aboitiz Shipping was reborn with an independent operation in 1966. And besides that, a little later, they were also able to establish the Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company (CBFC), a shipping company that has no Bohol port of call from Manila but has regional operations. To bolster their fleet, Aboitiz Shipping also purchased two ex-”FS” ships from Philippine Steamship & Navigation Company (PSNC), the Baztan and FS-165. Maybe the two belonged to them anyway as part of their partnership with PSNC. As clarification, the ships acquired from General Shipping did not immediately begin sailing as those were lengthened first locally and refitted. Lengthening of former “FS” ships was a common practice in the 1960’s.

Since Aboitiz Shipping Company, Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company and Philippine Steamship and Navigation Company had combined operations, for the first time after the war there is a shipping combine with more ships total than the leader Compania Maritima. However, the fleet of Aboitiz Shipping Company, Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company and Philippine Steamship and Navigation Company consisted mainly of ex-“FS” ships while the majority of Compania Maritima’s fleet consisted of big ships from Europe and so in terms of Gross Register Tonnage (GRT), an established way of calculating fleet size, Compania Maritima was still ahead. And besides, they have liners in the foreign routes that can also be used for the local routes if those were around.

Sweet Lines Incorporated of Bohol, which was formerly a big regional shipping company in Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas and Northern Mindanao was able to acquire the same number of ships as Aboitiz Shipping from General Shipping Corporation. With the franchises that went along with the ships, Sweet Lines was able to open routes to Manila and for the first time they became a liner shipping company. Meanwhile, General Shipping Company swapped their luxury liner General del Pilar for an ex-“C1-M-AV1” ship Compania Maritima, the Mactan to use it in their international routes. Sweet Lines, however, was able to acquire one of the luxury liners of General Shipping, the General Roxas which became the Sweet Rose. That was the total picture now of how the local fleet of General Shipping Corporation was cut up after it quit the local shipping scene.

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The exit of the other shipping company, the Southern Lines Incorporated also had dramatic aftermaths. With the exit of Southern Lines Incorporated, it was full steam ahead for Negros Navigation Company to become a full-pledged liner shipping company as Western Visayas needed a successor liner company in their place. However, unlike the others which relied at this time with surplus ships from Europe, Negros Navigation built their fleet not by taking over the fleet of Southern Lines but by ordering brand-new liners from Japan starting with the Dona Florentina in 1965 (or with the Princess of Negros of 1962 that was ordered from Hongkong which succeeded the Don Julio, the ex-”FS” ship which went to Southern Lines). [In fact, none of the ships of Southern Lines ended up with Negros Navigation.] The routes and ports of call of Southern Lines and Negros Navigation were almost exactly the same. Take note that the Board of Directors of Southern Lines and Negros Navigation have an intersection and both belonged to the crème de la crème of Iloilo and Negros. The succession of Southern Lines to Negros Navigation was just like a baton passed by a runner to a fellow runner.

The demise of the fleet of Southern Lines did not produce a big realignment in the fleet of others. Firstly, 2/3 of the fleet of Southern Lines were ex-”F” ships which were not liners in the first place. Secondly, the remainder of its fleet, the liners, their major ships were divided almost equally by the other shipping companies. Carlos A. Gothong & Co. got the best, the only luxury liner of Southern Lines which was the Governor B. Lopez which became the first liner of Carlos A. Gothong & Co. with airconditioning, the Dona Ana in their fleet. Another which is better and than the ex-”FS” ships went to Sweet Lines as the Sweet Sail. Two of the liner ships of Southern Lines went to the regional shipping company Visayas Transportation so it did not matter in the national shipping balance.

nssc

For a very short time Compania Maritima and PSNC+Aboitiz Shipping Comp.+Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company was ahead from the others. However it was very short lived since Carlos A. Gothong & Co.’s surplus ships from Europe began arriving in greater numbers starting in the mid-1960’s. William Lines likewise copied that model and also began purchasing surplus ships from Europe to be converted into liners here. Actually PSNC+Aboitiz Shipping Comp.+Cebu-Bohol Ferry Comp.’s share of the lead was tenuous as most of their fleet consisted of war-surplus ships from the US that were beginning to get old and are more prone to accidents. Meanwhile, from 1967 the “suicide” of Compania Maritima’s ships began.

https://psssonline.wordpress.com/2016/09/23/how-to-lose-the-equivalent-of-a-liner-fleet-in-just-over-a-decade-the-decline-and-fall-of-compania-maritima/

So, two liner shipping companies died in the mid-1960’s (actually General Shipping Company shifted to international routes like Ledesma Shipping Co. which had a merger with Negros Navigation earlier) but in their place three liner shipping companies emerged – Aboitiz Shipping Company, Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company and Sweet Lines Incorporated although one is a subsidiary of the other.

Those were the major developments in Philippine liner shipping in the mid-1960’s. That then shaped the liner shipping scene in the Philippines in the next years.gen-luna

Photo Credits: Gorio Belen, Philippine Herald, Manila Chronicle, Philippine Ship Spotters Society, PSSS

The Passenger-Cargo ex-“FS” Ships of the Philippines

Right after World War II, the former FS ships of the US military dominated the Philippine shipping industry. FS means “Freight and Supply”. Their earlier designation was “FP”. The FS series is one of the many types of transport-supply ships used by the US armed forces in World War II.

The FS ships proceeded from one basic design, with variations. There were many contracted shipbuilders in the US that built them. Higgins Industries and Wheeler Shipbuilding were the dominant FS shipbuilders. The FS ships that reached the Philippines were about 54 meters in length with a beam of 9.8 meters. It is about 560 gross tons. Many manufacturers supplied engines for the FS ships from the basic General Motors-Cleveland design.

The bulk of the FP/FS ships were built in the year 1944 and a few were built in 1945. Most were built for the US Army and it was mainly employed in the Pacific theater of operations of the US armed forces. That was one of the reasons why so many FS ships found its way to the Philippines.

As military surplus ships which the US no longer needed anymore after the war, the FS ships were plenty, readily available and very cheap. Many were just given as reparations for the ships requisitioned by the US during the war or were replacements for the ships that were deliberately scuttled during the early phase of the Pacific war to prevent them from falling into enemy hands.

The first batch that came was directly given to the Philippine government for its disposal. Later, some FS ships given to other countries found its way to the Philippines, mainly in the 1950’s and these were private transactions. Even much later, some former FS ships converted by the US Navy for post-war uses (the “AKL” series) found its way to the Philippines as late as the 1960’s. This batch was cornered by the well-connected Philippine President Lines.

Some of FS ships were used unconverted and served as cargo ships carrying a few passengers. Most, however, were converted to true passenger-cargo use. About half were later lengthened in Hongkong and Bataan shipyards and some were even re-engined. Aboitiz Shipping Lines and William Lines were notable for this.

Converted and/or lengthened FS ships added passenger decks and accommodations. But compared to later standards those were still very spartan and meager. Third-class was really hardship class as one has to sleep among the cargo in the lowermost deck which is hot and noisy as it was just above the engine deck. Second class accommodations meant foldable cots and being located a deck above third class. First class is usually located in the bridge deck and is not accessible by the other classes. However, for all classes air-conditioning is non-existent.

Originally running at 12-13 knots, converted FS ships generally ran at 10-11 knots and sometimes even slower as they aged and got heavy. A route in general had many ports of call with long in-port hours due to the slow loading and unloading operations using porters and booms. Southern Mindanao voyages took two weeks to complete, round-trip. Visayas and northern Mindanao routes took one week. In a few short routes to Panay, Palawan, Mindoro, Romblon and Marinduque, a twice a week sailing was possible.

The FS ships generally didn’t have radar and ship masters became versatile in reading the weather and in looking for coves to take cover when the waves became rough for comfort and safety. The FS ships were known for rolling in heavy seas and being slow it cannot outrun a coming typhoon. Many were caught in the seas by storms and foundered or were wrecked.

The FS ships served longer than they were intended or expected to. Most were still sailing in the 1970’s and having completed three decades of service. But by the 1980’s, only the sturdiest of the class survived. A few of the FS ships served until the early 1990’s. It is a matter of conjecture which was the last FS ship sailing in our waters. That FS ship was probably a vessel running cargo somewhere among the lesser-known routes.

Usually death of the engine is the main cause of the retirement of the FS ship. Others were retired because they were no longer competitive in terms of speed and comfort. Many long-surviving shipping companies sold and broke up FS ships late in its life to be able to buy newer replacement ships. However, other lesser companies sold and broke up ships in the economic crisis of the mid-1980’s and went out of the shipping business.

By the mid-1990’s, the FS ships were already history. At the age of 50 even the sturdiest of machineries begin to fail and can no longer be retrofitted. Radar and air-conditioning, musts of the 1980’s can no longer be retrofitted in the FS ships. Nor can they be made to run any faster.

As a whole, the FS ships did not suffer from leaky bottoms or holed hulls. In general, they proved to be sturdy and reliable. The FS ships were one of the most significant types of ships to serve Philippine shipping.

The Passenger-Cargo FS Ships in the Philippines:

Aboitiz Shipping Lines/PSNC/Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company:

MV Antonia (FS-280)

MV Carmen (FS-226) [foundered 1987]

MV Mangarin (FS-279) [wrecked 1974]

MV Marcelino (FS-271) [broken up 1992]

MV Baybay (FS-253) [foundered 1980]

MV Davao (FS-200) [sold to William Lines]

MV Kolambugan (FS-194) [sold to William Lines]

MV Kinau (FS-365) [sold to CAGLI]

MV Picket II (FS-167) [broken up]

MV Vizcaya (FS-465) [sold to Escano Lines]

MV Lanao (FS-349)

MV Cotabato (FS-404) [sold]

MV Bais (1) (FS-3190 [wrecked 1978]

MV Baztan (FS-264) [sold to George & Peter Lines]

MV Sorsogon (FS-366) [sold to Rodrigueza Shipping]

MV FS-272 [sold to William Lines]

MV FS-177 [fire, sank 1972]

MV Manuel (FS-165) [converted to barge, 1977]

MV Ormoc (1) (FS-176)

MV Ernest S (FS-147) [sold to Escano Lines]

William Lines:

MV Victor (FS-372) [broken up 1985]

MV Albert (FS-527) [wrecked, broken up 1982]

MV Henry I (FS-196) [sold to Bisayan Land Transport]

MV Don Victoriano (FS-526) [fire, broken up 1982]

MV Edward (FS-224) [broken up 1992]

MV Elizabeth (FS-311) [broken up 1988]

MV Don Jose I (FS-268)

MV Davao City (FS-200) [broken up 1986]

MV Misamis Oriental (FS-194) [fire, sank 1987]

MV Dona Maria (FS-265) [sold to Escano Lines]

General Shipping:

General del Pilar (FS-253) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

General Segundo (FS-273) [sold to Sweet Lines]

General Lim (FS-199) [sold to Sweet Lines]

General Lukban (FS-280) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

General Mascardo (FS-269)

General Luna (FS-346) [sold to Sweet Lines]

General Mojica (FS-271) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

General Capinpin (FS-279) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

General Malvar (FS-226) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

Compania Maritima:

MV Bohol (FS-550) [wrecked 1971]

MV Corregidor (FS-549) [broken up 1988]

MV Leyte (FS-386) [wrecked 1978]

MV Mindoro (FS-393) [foundered 1967]

MV Romblon (FS-166) [fire, beached 1974]

MV Marinduque (FS-159) [broken up 1988]

MV Masbate (1) (FS-144) [sold to Sweet Lines]

MV Don Isidro (FS-160) [sold to Sweet Lines]

Manila Steamship:

MS Vizcaya (FS-405) [sold to PSNC]

MS Lanao (FS-349) [sold to PSNC]

MS Venus (FS-404) [sold to PSNC]

MS Elcano (FS-319) [sold to PSNC]

MS Baztan (FS-264) [sold to PSNC]

MS Sorsogon (FS-366) [sold to PSNC]

MS Marinduque (FS-159) [sold to Compania Maritima]

Philippine President Lines/Philippine Pioneer Lines/Galaxy Lines:

MV Pres. Osmena (1) (FS-309) a.k.a MV Pioneer Iligan/MV Gemini [sold]

MV Pres. Laurel (1) (FS-175) a.k.a. MV Pioneer Butuan/MV Virgo [sold]

MV Pres. Roxas (1) (FS-220) [sold to N&S Lines]

MV Pres. Quirino (1) (FS-275) a.k.a. MV Pioneer Tacloban/MV Odeon [sold to Lorenzo Shipping]

MV Pres. Magsaysay (1) (FS-223) a.k.a. MV Pioneer Cebu [sank 1966]

MV Pres. Quezon (1) (FS-265) [sold to William Lines]

Escano Lines:

MV Tacloban (FS-265) [foundered 1971]

MV Kolambugan (FS-194) [fire, sank 1987]

MV Fernando Escano (FS-178) [sold]

MV Agustina (FS-225) [broken up 1989]

MV Malitbog (FS-403) [broken up 1984]

MV Rajah Suliman (FS-147) [broken up 1984]

Sulpicio Lines:

MV Don Enrique (1) (FS-270) [wrecked 1982]

MV Don Carlos (1) (FS-148) [foundered 1977]

MV Don Alfredo (FS-310) [broken up 1983]

MV Don Jose (1) (FS-318) [sank 1967]

Sweet Lines:

MV Sweet Trip (1) (FS-273) [wrecked 1978]

MV Sweet Ride (1) (FS-346) [broken up 1985]

MV Sweet Hope (1) (FS-199) [wrecked 1984, broken up]

MV Sweet Town (FS-144) [broken up 1982]

MV Sweet News (FS-160) [broken up 1968]

Southern Lines/Visayan Transport:

MS Governor Gilbert (FS-194) [sold to Escano Lines]

MS Governor Smith (FS-314) [sold]

MS Governor Wright (1) (FS-287) [sold]

MS Governor Wright (2) (FS-365) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

MV Don Julio (FS-286) [sold to Philippine Pioneer Lines]

Bisaya Land Transport:

MV Don Mariano (FS-260) [broken up]

MV Don Filomena (FS-201) [broken up]

MV Dona Remedios (FS-284) [broken up]

MV Don Mariano (2) (FS-196) [sold to Alma Shipping]

North Camarines Lumber/NCL/NORCAMCO:

MV Sirius (FS-265) [sold to Philippine President Lines]

MV FS-387

MV Taurus (1) (FS-365) [sold to PSNC]

MV Vega (2) [sold to N&S Lines]

N&S Lines:

MV Venus (FS-220) [foundered in 1984]

MV Odeon (FS-275) [sold to Lorenzo Shipping]

MV Vega (2)

De La Rama Steamship:

MS Don Esteban (FS-166) [sold to Compania Maritima]

MS Don Isidro (FS-160) [sold to Sweet Lines]

MS Don Vicente (FS-199) [sold to General Shipping]

Pan-Oriental Shipping:

MV Oriental (FS-318) [sold to Carlos A. Go Thong & Co.]

MV Occidental (FS-350) [sold to Carlos A. Go Thong & Co.]

MV Continental (FS-197) [sold]

Lorenzo Shipping:

MV Don Francisco (FS-350) [wrecked 1978]

MV Don Jolly (1) (FS-275)

Juliano & Co.:

MV Zamboanga-J (FS-178) [sold to Escano Lines]

MV Cotabato-J (FS-279) [sold to General Shipping]

Rodrigueza Shipping:

MV Neptuno (FS-379)

MV Sorsogon (FS-366)

Gothong Lines:

MV Don Benjamin (1) (FS-365) [broken up 1980]

Ledesma Shipping:

Don Julio (FS-286) [sold to Southern Lines]

De Oro Shipping:

MV Insular de Cebu (FS-178) [wrecked 1978]

Philippine Sea Transport:

MV FS-194 [sold to PSNC]

South Sea Shipping:

MV Neptuno (FS-389) [sold to Rodrigueza Shipping]

Sta. Mesa Machinery:

MV Ernest-S (FS-147) [sold to PSNC]

Philsin:

MV Philsin (FS-364)

[Research Support: Gorio Belen]

[Database Support: Jun Marquez, Angelo Blasutta, Mike Baylon]

[Edited and reprinted from an article in the old Philippine Ship Spotters Society website.]

The Flagship Wars in the Manila-Cebu Route

In the first 15 years after World War II there was not much of what was later called “the flagship wars”. How can there be flagship wars when it was an ex-”FS” ship battling another ex-”FS” ship? The ex-“FS” ship were just small World War II surplus ships from the US Navy that were slow and lumbering just like the freighters. And with the basicness of the ex-”FS” ships, there was really no “luxury” to talk about when there was no airconditioning, no real amenities, no entertainment (unless one brings out a guitar and croons), no true lounges or even enough space to walk about. There were bigger ships like the Type C1-M-AV1 which were also war surplus ships from the US Navy but they were also basic ships and also lack speed (both the two mentioned types only sail at about 11 knots which was also the sailing speed of the general cargo ships). As general rule, cargo ships converted for passenger use do not produce luxury liners. If ever, it would be the former refrigerated cargo ships that can be made into luxury liners or else the best is to buy former luxury liners from Europe.

The Manila-Cebu route was and is still the premier shipping route in the Philippines. This route connects the primary metropolis and manufacturing center to the secondary metropolis and manufacturing center of the country. Hence, the movement of people and goods would be highest in this route. If there is a next premier route it would be the Manila-Iloilo route. The Manila-Cebu route is also the gateway to the routes to Northern Mindanao while the Manila-Iloilo route is the gateway to the routes to Western Mindanao and Southern Mindanao.

The early postwar liners calling on Cebu did not have an exclusive route to Cebu much like the prewar liners. From Cebu they will still go to Northern Mindanao ports or even sail to Southern Mindanao ports via Zamboanga. It was not unusual then for liners to have five ports of call in a voyage. That was why complete voyages then to Cebu and Northern Mindanao took one week and complete voyages to Cebu and Southern Mindanao took two weeks. In the latter a liner might have seven ports of call. As they say, “the better to pack ’em in.”

When luxury liners first came they funnily have the code “airconditioned” (airconditioning was rare then). And the word “luxury” also began to be bandied about. In terms of speed they were significantly better than the basic ex-”FS” ships and ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships. Some of the earliest local liners were the trio from Everett Steamship being sailed by Philippine Steamship and Navigation Company (PSNC), the Elcano, Legaspi and Cagayan de Oro which all came in 1955, the Luzon (1959) and Visayas (1963) of Compania Maritima which were doing dual local and foreign routes, the General Roxas (1960) and General del Pilar (1961) of General Shipping Corp., the President Quezon (1960) of Philippine President Lines (which became the Quezon of Philippine Pioneer Lines in 1963 and later the Pioneer Iloilo of the same company in 1965), the Governor B. Lopez (1961) of Southern Lines Inc., the Fatima of Escano Lines (1964).

If one will notice, there is no mention here of a ship of Go Thong & Co. or William Lines and definitely there is no error in the list. In that roost, the President Quezon ruled in speed department at 18 knots and the next fastest to her sailed at only 16 knots with the tailender at 12 knots which was just about the same as the ex-”FS” ships and the ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships. That was the picture of the luxury ship sector of the Philippines two decades after World War II.

In that era, there was no “flagship wars” as understood a decade later. Maybe if the better ships were all doing long routes it will be a wonder where and how they will compete. This is especially true for the luxury liners sailing to Cebu and then proceeding to many southern ports up to Davao. I noticed the tight “flagship wars” started only when there were already true fast cruisers and when the route was exclusively limited to Manila-Cebu.

It was Sweet Faith of Sweet Lines, a newcomer in liner shipping which started the true “flagship wars” in 1970. They were able to acquire that ship which was a luxury liner even in Europe and she was really fast. When she came she became the new postwar benchmark in speed at 20 knots and beating handsomely all the other contenders by at least 2 knots. Maybe she only did the Manila-Cebu route because she had to stress the capture of passengers because she can’t take in a significant amount of cargo. And with her accommodations all-airconditioned that was really more fit for the Manila-Cebu route which not only had more sector passengers and the better-off passengers were also there including the Cebu and Central Visayas rich who were afraid to take planes then. With such a kind of ship Sweet Lines really had to stress in ads her speed, her amenities and her brand of passenger service to capture more passengers.

She was very successful in that strategy and her repute spread far and wide and she earned many praises. It was really a paradigm change in how to do sailing and maybe that was a little too much for the older shipping companies to swallow the noise and swagger of the newcomer. William Lines had a brand-new ship, the Misamis Occidental in the same year she was fielded but she was clearly outmatched by the Sweet Faith because maybe when they finalized the design of the ship they did not see Sweet Faith coming to upset the chart.

The biggest shipping company then, the Compania Maritima, which had the resources to compete did not react and continued their stress on the route passing through Cebu before sailing for Western and Southern Mindanao up to Davao. That was also the response (or lack of response) and strategy of the Philippine Steamship and Navigation Co. which would be later known as Aboitiz Shipping Corp. and besides their luxury trio were already 15 years and outmatched and so maybe they thought they really have no option at all except to not really compete. Meanwhile, Escano Line’s priority was not really Cebu at all, its ships cannot really compete as they did not stress speed when they ordered their brand-new ships. Go Thong & Co. might have been too busy in their European expansion through Universal Shipping and maybe they thought getting all the copra in all the ports possible made more sense (they had lots of small ships for that purpose). General Shipping Corp. and Southern Lines Inc. were also gone and Galaxy Lines, the successor to the Philippine Pioneer Lines was also near to floundering already. Negros Navigation Company, meanwhile, was not competing in the Cebu route and it is in the Manila-Iloilo route where they were flexing the muscles of their brand-new liners.

For two years until 1972 Sweet Faith ruled the Manila-Cebu route. It will be up to a shipping company which long relied solely on ex-”FS” ships (until 1966) to challenge Sweet Faith with their upcoming newbuilding which will turn out to be the liner Cebu City. A sister ship of the liner Don Juan, the flagship of Negros Navigation Company, she was fitted with bigger engines. Since Don Juan can only do 19 knots maybe they decided on bigger engines to be able to compete with the 20 knots of Sweet Faith. Cebu City came in 1972 that began the battle royale of the two flagships whose intensity passed the two ships to shipping folklore long after both ships were gone (only the millennials would not have heard of their battles).

In 1973, the liner Sweet Home of Sweet Lines arrived to form a “tag team” to battle Cebu City. She was not as fast as the two at 18 knots but she was bigger and as luxurious as the Sweet Faith because she was already a luxury ship in Europe when she was still the known as the Caralis.

In 1975, Sulpicio Lines joined the Manila-Cebu “flagship wars” when they acquired the second Don Sulpicio from RKK in Japan. Unlike their previous ships this liner had no cargo ship origins. A fast cruiser at 18 knots and with accommodations much like the Cebu City she was also a legit contender. In this wars it is not only speed that was advertised but also punctuality of departures. That is aside from the food, the amenities and the passenger service.

In 1976, the newly-arrived Dona Ana also joined this fray. She was a sister ship of Don Sulpicio but faster at 19 knots and newer. However, she was a Manila-Cebu-Davao ship and she only competed in the Manila-Cebu leg as a “tag team” too with the second Don Sulpicio. Dona Ana also started a new paradigm on her own, the fast cruiser to Davao which she can do in only three days compared to nearly a week of the others. The flagship of Compania Maritima, the liner Filipinas was forced to respond by cutting ports of call and announcing they will sail the Davao route in only 4 days. In a sense this was also a “flagship war”. Later, the Dona Ana became a replacement flagship in the Manila-Cebu route when Don Sulpicio was hit by a bad fire in 1979 and her repairs took two years. By that time, it was another new fast cruiser of Sulpicio Lines, the Don Enrique (later the Davao Princess) that was battling the flagship Filipinas of Compania Maritima in the Davao route along with the liner Manila City of William Lines [there will be a future article on these Manila-Davao fast cruiser battles].

Sweet Faith and Sweet Home lasted just less than a decade in the Manila-Cebu “flagship wars” because they were already old ships when they first came here. Sweet Home quit earlier about 1978 and Sweet Faith quit in 1980. However, even before she quit, the new flagship of William Lines, the Dona Virginia has already arrived. She will be linked in an epic battle not with a flagship of Sweet Lines but with a flagship of Sulpicio Lines. This liner is the Philippine Princess which came in 1981. Dona Virginia had the upperhand as she was faster, bigger and more beautiful-looking and she ruled the Manila-Cebu route. Both were exclusively Manila-Cebu ferries and like those that came in the 1970s they had no cargo ship origins. In this decade Compania Maritima was no longer in the running as they no longer had new ship acquisitions and in fact they quit when the financial and political crises spawned by the Ninoy Aquino assassination broke out.

After an interregnum of two years without a dedicated Manila-Cebu liner, Sweet Lines brought out their new challenger, the luxurious Sweet RORO but she was smaller and her speed was slightly inferior to the flagships of William Lines and Sulpicio Lines. However, she was as luxurious if not more so and she trumpeted an all-airconditioned accommodations and she was a true RORO which was the new type and paradigm that was gaining already. Meanwhile, Aboitiz Shipping Corp. gave up all semblance of a fight and just concentrated in container shipping. The Carlos A. Gothong Lines and Lorenzo Shipping Corp. also withdrew from the Cebu route for practical purposes. Escano Lines were also not buying ships like Aboitiz Shipping and also were not contenders. Negros Navigation Company, like before was not competing in the Manila-Cebu route.

Suddenly, in 1988, Sulpicio Lines did what was equivalent to exploding a grenade in the competition. They were able to acquire the Filipina Princess which broke all local records in size and speed. It was far bigger and far faster than the Dona Virginia of William Lines and was a true RORO. Even though William Lines was able to acquire the RORO liner Sugbu in 1990, she was not a bigger or a faster ship than the Dona Virginia she was replacing as flagship. To rub salt on wound, in the same year Sulpicio Lines also acquired the Cotabato Princess and the Nasipit Princess which were also bigger than the Dona Virginia (and Sugbu) though not as fast. So for few years, in terms of size, Sulpicio Lines possessed the No. 1, 2 and 3 position in terms of ship size.

As to the others, in 1987, Sweet Lines was able to acquire the Sweet Baby but she was not as big as the William Lines and Sulpicio flagships nor can she match them really in speed. Soon, Escano Lines would be quitting liner shipping. There was really a big “consolidation” in the liner shipping industry, a euphemism to cover the fact that a lot of liner shipping companies sank in that horrendous decade for shipping that was the 1980’s. Again, Negros Navigation Company was not competing in the Manila-Cebu route.

With this “consolidation” it just became a mano-a-mano between Sulpicio Lines and William Lines in the Manila-Cebu route with the others reduced more or less to bystanders….

[There is a sequel to this describing the “flagship wars” of the 1990’s.]