The Sister Ships Stephanie Marie and Starlite Annapolis

These are two sister ships with different owners, routes and home ports in the Philippines and probably their paths do not cross and few are aware one has a sister ship or ever more saw both of them. I wrote about them not because they are that superlative but I think they have some uniqueness and I would like to compare them to a sister ship series that has just started arriving in the Philippines. These are mainly represented by the new ships of Starlite Ferries which all arrived here brand-new from Japan from a big loan package and ostensibly a push for shipping modernization in the Philippines.

One thing I noticed about the new Starlite ferries is their breadth which is on the large or wide end. Few are the 60-meter ferries that have 14 meters as breadth (most have breadths just in the 12 to 13 meter range) but the breadth of the new Starlite Ferries is 15.3 meters. There are just a few ferries in the Philippines that are in the 60-meter class that have 14 meters in breadth but the sister ships Stephanie Marie and Starlite Annapolis have the widest breadth at 14.2 meters and so the new Starlite ferries has an extra 1.1 meters over them.

Steph car deck

The car deck of Stephanie Marie (Photo by Mike Baylon)

Now if this extra breadth converts to an extra lane of rolling cargo I am not sure of that. The average width of a truck or bus is just 3 meters and so in the two older sisters ships that might mean 3 buses or trucks abreast as other portions of the breadth consist of the hull and pathways. At their breadth the buses and trucks will not be too near each other which is important in choppy seas to avoid damage.

But rolling cargo loading in the Philippines is generally mixed with smaller vehicles like sedans, AUVs, SUVs, jeeps and light trucks. Now I don’t know if in a mix the new Starlite ferries will have a higher total number of vehicles (the lengths of the two sets of sister ships are almost the same). In a maritime database the declared rolling cargo capacity of the new Starlite ferries is 21 trucks. I don’t know how this was computed. At 3 abreast then it must be a row of 7 trucks. But the LOA (Length Over-all) is only 67 meters. Is this the Japan 8-meter truck standard and not our long trucks?

I am also interested in the breadths of ROROs because that figure is also needed in estimating the rolling cargo and not just the length. A little extra breadth is actually crucial in packing it in. In the new Starlite ferries they advertised that their stairs are wider. Did the extra 1.1 meters just went into that?

Steph stern

Stephanie Marie is more wide than tall

Before the arrival of the new Starlite ferries, I looked at Stephanie Marie and Starlite Annapolis as the benchmarks in the 60-meter class of ROPAXes. Viewed from the outside it is obvious they are a little wide and their bow design even emphasizes that. Even from the stern these two sister ships looks wide than tall and to think they both have three passenger decks. Well, this illusion is true even from the bow.

15207919165_b6e6688897_z

Just how wide is the Stephanie Marie and Starlite Annapolis? Well, let me state that in many 80-meter ROROs 14 meters is the common breadth like in Reina del Rosario, Filipinas Cebu, Filipinas Ozamis, Filipinas Iligan and Filipinas Butuan (well, the last two is just a shade under 80 meters), to name a few more famous ferries. In fact the 14.2 meters breadth of Stephanie Marie and Starlite Annapolis are wider than most Cebu overnight ships. 14.2 meters is even the breadth of the 90-meter Super Shuttle RORO 2. Actually before the arrival of the former Cebu Ferries ships Starlite Annapolis has the biggest breadth in the Batangas to Mindoro and Roxas to Caticlan ROPAXes. But then those three former Cebu Ferries average over 90 meters in LOA and so they are substantially bigger than the sister ships and that is the reason why now those three are already regarded as liners.

Maybe in that count the two sister ships can be considered superlative. And that is also the characteristic of the new sister ship series of Starlite Ferries, their wide breadth. If that translates into a technical advantage I am not sure of that but probably not. Anyway she has bigger engines than most ships of her class at 3,650 horsepower.

The Stephanie Marie of Aleson Shipping of Zamboanga City came earlier than her sister in 1998. She was built as the Marima III in Japan and she has the ID IMO 8427278. This ship was built by Kanda Shipbuilding in Kawajiri, Japan in 1979 which means if 35-year old ships are phased out then she would have to go. She has two masts, a steel hull, cargo ramps at the bow and stern, a single car deck and three passenger decks.

30939605590_95c383a9d5_k

Stephanie Marie port profile

Stephanie Marie‘s LOA is 63.2 meters with a Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP or LPP) of 60.9 meters. Her Gross Register Tonnage or GRT in Japan was 910 tons but when that was converted into Gross Tonnage or GT here, the modern measure, it fell to 770 even when an additional passenger accommodations were built. Most likely the “MARINA magic meter” came into play here which shrinks the GTs of the ships for considerations. Her declared Net Tonnage or NT is just 316 and that is probably an underestimation too.

The passenger capacity of Stephanie Marie is 956 and this is high because she is a short-distance ferry-RORO just equipped with benches and there are no bunks. She had a large air-conditioned cabin at the front of the ship for the Tourist Class and the very front is actually a lounge and at the side of that is a sort of an open office. Her route is Zamboanga City to Isabela City, the capital of Basilan which has a distance of 14 nautical miles and she does two full voyages a day. A big ship for the route she is seldom full and that gives the passengers a lot of space. But even then she is a profitable ship and there is space in case there is a rush of passengers and vehicles especially since she holds the last trip to Isabela City.

Meanwhile, her sister ship Starlite Annapolis of Starlite Ferries in Batangas City held the Roxas-Caticlan route for Starlite Ferries for a long time although she is rotated too in the Batangas-Calapan route. Those were not her original routes as when the ship first came here in 1999 her first owner was Safeship/Shipsafe, two legal-fiction shipping companies that just operate as one and she was known as Princess Colleen. Her original route was actually Batangas to Romblon, Romblon. However, when their ship Princess Camille capsized in Romblon port in 2003 the company went into a downward spiral and when she became defunct the Princess Colleen was sold to Starlite Ferries. Princess Colleen was the biggest ship of Safeship/Shipsafe.

Starlite Annapolis

Starlite Annapolis port profile (Photo by Raymund Lapus)

Princess Colleen was built as the Yoshinagawa of the Blue Line by Kanda Shipbuilding in Kure, Japan in 1982 and so she is the younger of the two sisters. Her permanent ID is IMO 8125624. She has the same external dimensions as the Stephanie Marie but her original Gross Register Tonnage was bigger at 946 tons. Unlike her sister, however, Starlite Annapolis reflected the increase in her passenger accommodations and so the declared GT here is 1,176 (GT is a dimentionless number hence “tons” is not used) which is nearer to reality. Like her sister ship, she is a three-passenger-deck ship. In the number of masts, hull material, cargo ramps and car deck, she is like her sister ship and visually it is obvious they are sister ships although the passenger deck lay-out of the two ships is a little different.

The declared passenger capacity of Starlite Annapolis is only 704 passengers which is significantly lower than her sister. The reason is Starlite Annapolis has bunks and maybe that is important for the 4-hour crossing of the Tablas Strait at night. Like the Stephanie Marie, the Starlite Annapolis also has a lounge at the front and the cafeteria is superior than of her sister ship. Maybe that is needed because the transit time of Starlite Annapolis is longer whereas the crossing time of Stephanie Marie is just over an hour and there is no night voyage.

6975735261_7e871373fb_b

Stephanie Marie engine room (Photo by Mike Baylon)

In the engine department both ships are equipped with two Daihatsu engines with a total of 3,200 horsepower which is a little high for ROROs their size (and may I note the engine room is too loud when cruising unlike the more modern ROPAXes). Maybe their owners in Japan wanted a little more speed and so their design speeds are both 15 knots which is higher than the design speed (the maximum that can be sustained) of the new Starlite ferries although its power is greater (is that the penalty of having a larger draft?). Of course after three decades of service there is no way the two sisters ships can still run near those speeds and they will be lucky to develop 13 knots now. They might be old, however, but the two are still reliable and profitable ships. I just worry about Starlite Annapolis because her owner is one of the bashers of old ships and he might just simply decide to retire her if he wants to be true to his words.

If there is no forced phasing-out of old ships unlike what is pushed by those who have vested interests, I am sure both these ships will last 40 years or more if the record of the ROROs older than them is studied when some examples are already 50 years now. That is one blessing of having Daihatsu engines which have proven to be very sturdy and long-lasting and parts are easy to source or to re-manufacture. Regarding the hull, I am sure its integrity is still good especially since anodes are in wide use now and it is easy to replace damaged hull plates.

I will still be watching these sister ships in the next few years for I am impressed with them.

Advertisements

Shouldn’t We Be Downsizing Our Liners Now?

In the ten years after the end of World War II, the bulk of our liners were ex-”FS” ships with a sprinkling of former “F” ships, former “Y” ships and former small minesweepers of the US Navy which were even smaller ships. The first-mentioned ship was only 55 meters in length. Passenger capacity then of 200-300 were normal. The built capacity was not too high as our population was still small then with a little over 20 million people and besides, the country and the economy were just beginning to recover from the devastation of the Pacific War

MS GEN LIM

An ex-“FS” ship (Photo credits: Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen)

In the next decade after that, there came the lengthened former “FS” ships which are over 60 meters in length with three decks. Passenger capacities then rose a bit. The lengthening of ex-”FS” ships, which was still the dominant liner type then was a response to the growing capacity need because the population was beginning to increase and trade was also on the rise. In 1960, our population already rose to 27 million.

In this period, there were no other sources yet of new liners as the European market was not yet discovered except by Compania Maritima and practically there were no surplus ships yet from Japan. It is true that we then already had some big ships mainly in the form of ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships which were US surplus from the war and former European passenger-cargo ships in Compania Maritima’s fleet. These big liners (by Philippine standards) averaged some 100 meters in length.

1971 MV Samar

An ex-“C1’M-AV1” ship (Photo credits: Philippine Herald and Gorio Belen)

In passenger capacity, however, those big liners then were not even double in passenger capacity compared to lengthened ex-”FS” ships. It was normal for them to have cargo holds in the bow and in the stern of the ship with the passenger accommodations in an “island” at the middle of the ship or amidship. Those big liners normally had only about 500 persons in passenger capacity.

Actually, when the European passenger-cargo ship Tekla came in 1965 to become the Don Arsenio of Carlos A. Go Thong & Co., she was then already tops in the Philippines in passenger capacity at about 700 persons. To think Go Thong has the tendency to maximize and pack it in and that ship was already 110 meters in length and one of the biggest in the country. [Well, liners of the 1990’s of that length already had more than double of that in passenger capacity.]

ELCANO (3)

Elcano by suro yan

In the middle of the 1960’s, big ships from Europe started to arrive for Go Thong and William Lines and also for Compania Maritima which had been buying ships from Europe right after the end of the war. These shipping companies had the long routes then which extended up to southern Mindanao which had many intermediate ports. Hence, big capacity matters to them. PSNC (Philippine Steam and Navigation Company) which also had routes to southern Mindanao was using ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships or if not they were using their luxury liners Legazpi and Elcano which were 87 meters in length (the two were sister ships).

It was the pattern that as the years went by the ships got bigger and its passenger capacities rose. That was a function of our country’s population increasing and hence also its trade because more population needs more commodities and goods. I am actually interested in the trivia which liner first had a 1,000 passenger capacity but right now I don’t have that data. Maybe that ship emerged sometime in the 1970’s.

In 1970, we already had a population of 37 million. And one change was Mindanao was already colonized, its population was growing fast and its new people had to connect to the rest of the country because this time most of the population of Mindanao were no longer native-born as in they were migrants from other parts of the country.

7255459802_91c5092fac_z

Don Sulpicio  (Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library)

One benchmark in capacity was the Don Sulpicio which became the Sulpicio Lines flagship when she came in 1975. She had a passenger capacity of 1,424 (this could be the latter figure after refitting from a fire). But her sister ship Dona Ana has a bigger net tonnage and might had a bigger passenger capacity especially since her route was Davao while Don Sulpicio‘s route was only Cebu. The Don Sulpicio later became the infamous Dona Paz which supposedly loaded 4,000 plus passengers (guffaw!)

These two ships were only in the 90-meter class but one thing that changed with the arrival of the cruisers that were not formerly cargo or cargo-passengers ships is that they had full scantling already so the passenger accommodation stretches from the bridge to the stern of the ship. And one more, the liners became taller with more passenger decks and it is even up to bridge or navigation deck.

Of course, their spaces were not as big as the big 1990’s liners. Riding a 1970’s liner, one would find that all the spaces are “miniaturized” from the size of the bunks to the spaces between the bunks, the tables and the restaurants and the lounges. They were simply a different beast than their counterparts two decades later where spaces and amenities were really ample.

4391898574_cf71fcb3b9_z

Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library

In the early 1980’s, passenger capacities of over 1,000 was already commonplace with the biggest liners in the 110 and 120 meter class and with some featuring four passenger decks already. Actually as early as 1979 with the arrival of the sister ships Don Enrique and Don Eusebio which were southern Mindanao specialists, their capacities already touched 1,200 and yet they were only in the 110 meter class. The two were the latter Iloilo Princess and Dipolog Princess, respectively.

Actually, passenger maximization was already the game then as even 70-80 meter liners built in the 1970’s and early 1980’s, both cruisers and ROROs, already had capacities averaging 800 or so persons. These were the pocket liners in the 1980’s when the former smallest, the lengthened “FS” ships were already bowing out. In 1980, the country’s population already reached 48 million. With the development of the roads even the people of the interior were already traveling.

1980 Dona Virginia

Photo credits: Daily Express and Gorio Belen

On December of 1979, the first ship to reach 2,000 in passenger capacity arrived. This ship was the flagship Dona Virginia of William Lines. It was also the longest liner then in the country with a length of 143 meters, the longest then in our ferry fleet. And to think the Dona Virginia was not even a tall ship.

In 1988, further bigger liners arrived in the country. The Cotabato Princess which was also a southern Mindanao liner also reached 2,000 in passenger capacity. Its sister ship Nasipit Princess also had the same capacity. Both were 149 meters in length. But the new champion was the very big Filipina Princess which had a passenger capacity of over 2,900. This great liner had a length of 180 meters.

11076724433_901eb256e7_z

In the 1990’s, liners of 2,000-passenger capacity or a little less became commonplace. The liner with the biggest ever capacity that existed here was the Princess of the Orient with a passenger capacity of 3,900. It was the longest-ever ship that sailed here at 195 meters. Other ships of this era that had passenger capacities of over 3,000 were the Princess of the Universe and the Princess of Paradise. Both were over 165 meters in length. All the ships mentioned from Cotabato Princess up to Princess of Paradise were liners of Sulpicio Lines.

Even with these high capacities of 2,000 and over the liners were able to pack it in in the 1990’s. I was once a passenger of the Princess of the Paradise on a Christmas trip when all bunks were taken (maybe if there were vacancies it was in the cabins). I also had a same experience on a June trip aboard the Our Lady of Akita (the latter SuperFerry 6) and the crew had to lay mattresses in the hallways because the ship was overbooked. And that ship have a passenger capacity of over 2,600. [Maybe we were technically not “overloaded” as there might have been vacancies in the cabins.]

Princess of the Orient(SLI)FS

Princess of the Orient from Britz Salih

But things began to change in the new millennium. Maybe there was already a surplus of bottoms because there was a race then to acquire liners in the term of President Fidel V. Ramos as it was encouraged and supported. But budget airlines also came along with the intermodal buses. The demand for ship bunks began to slacken and the liners can no longer pack it in like before.

This trend was reflected in the liners fielded starting in 2000. Among the liners of the new millennium only SuperFerry 17 and SuperFerry 18 reached 2,000 in passenger capacity and just barely. And to think they are 174 meters in length. The new liners of Aboitiz Transport System already had two wagon decks instead of four passenger decks. But on a look-back the two wagon decks were also not fully loaded.

4069208088_7978db031a_z

Photo credit: port of douglas

The liner acquisitions of Sulpicio Lines in the new millennium both did not reach 2,000 passengers in capacity. Not even the very big Princess of the Stars, the Philippines’ biggest liner ever. So even Sulpicio Lines recognized that passenger demand was already declining. But unlike Aboitiz Transport System (ATS), they did not convert liners to have two cargo decks. Well, unlike ATS, Sulpicio Lines have many container ships to carry the container vans.

After 2005, only Aboitiz Transport System, Negros Navigation and latter 2GO still acquired liners (excepting Romblon Shipping Lines). None had a passenger capacity that reached 2,000. Some even had passenger capacities of less than 1,000. Most had two wagon decks that does not get full.

6045010093_3b08390717_z

SuperFerry 21 by Nowell Alcancia

If liners can no longer get full in passengers and in container vans then what is the use of acquiring liners of 150 meters length and with over 20,000 horsepower? It is useless. Liners should have lower horsepower now because fuel is the number one expense in shipping. There is also no use now running them at 19 or 20 knots. The overnight ferries have shown the way. Even though their ships are capable of higher speeds they just use economical speed now. No more racing.

Actually, the new overnight ships like what Cokaliong Shipping Lines is acquiring could be the new liners. These average 80 meters in length. Or maybe ships a little bigger than those could be acquired. And that will be like the former Cebu Ferries that were pulled out from the Visayas-Mindanao routes. Their length averages 95 meters. The engine power of all of these are all not topping 9,000 horsepower and yet they are capable of 17-18 knots if needed and that was the range then of many liners in the 1990’s.

24765782775_ac83aa4215_z

Our Lady of Lourdes by Ray Smith

I think the new size paradigm of the liners should just be about 100 meters maximum with a horsepower of 10,000 or less and a speed of no more than 18 meters. That will be like the smaller liners of the late 1980’s like the Our Lady of Fatima and the Our Lady of Lourdes of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (CAGLI) which were 101 meters in length and had 8,200hp. The Tacloban Princess of Sulpicio Lines in that era was 98 meters in length had engines of 8,000hp total. Yet, all three were capable of 17 knots here.

Maybe another and probably better paradigm were the former Our Lady of Medjugorje and the Our Lady of Sacred Heart also of CAGLI. Both were former RORO Cargo ships in Japan but were beautifully refitted here. Both were 123 meters in length but only had 9,000 and 8,000 horsepower, single-engined. The passenger capacity of the two even averaged over 1,500 passengers. They might not be too speedy at about 16 knots but we have to be practical and have to scale back. In amenities and space, the two were good. The former SuperFerry 3 of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation is also a good model. At 118 meters, 9,300 horsepower, 16 knots she was a credible liner then with a passenger capacity of 2,000 . All the quoted speed were when they were already running here when they had additional metal and the engines were no longer new

3161695017_35e7a960d1_z

Our Lady of Medjugorje from Britz Salih

But technology has improved and for the same engine horsepower a ship can be faster. Take for example the Trans-Asia 3 of Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Incorporated. At only 9,000 horsepower and 110 meters in length, she is still capable of 18 knots here.

If liners are smaller with smaller engines then maybe weaker routes abandoned might be viable again. I think Aboitiz Transport System and 2GO had to scale back on routes because their liners and its engines were too big for the weaker routes. They tried to shoehorn a 150-meter liner in the like of Tagbilaran. No liner of that size did a Tagbilaran route before. Like even at the peak of passenger shipping no shipping company sent a liner of that size to Roxas City.

But government also has to help. Maybe, one possible step maybe is to limit the number of container ships. There might be too many of them sailing already. It is growing at a rate much ahead of our trade and production growth. So it simply diminishes the capability of a liner to be viable.

In the past before 1978, our cargo is being carried by the passenger-cargo ships. That was the reason why there was so many liners then as in over 60 in total and even 90 in the 1960’s when ships were smaller and ex-”FS” ships still dominated. What happened next is while our inter-island container fleet is growing, our liner fleet was also growing smaller because cargo is also being carried by the container ships.

1979 Nov Schedules.jpg

Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library

On the same route there is no way a liner can carry cargo cheaper than container ships. For the same length the container ships have much less smaller engines, the acquisition cost is much less, insurance is smaller and crewing is much smaller too and there is less regulation. Of course, they are slow. But let upon liners in competition they can practically sink the liners. I heavily doubt if our government functionaries understand this relationship and history.

It might be anti-competitive but if the government does not intervene I think our liner sector will sink and be wiped out. One possible intervention even is to decree that vehicles can only be carried by the liners. This will be added revenue for the liners. Or that liners should have fuel that is cheaper. Of course some will balk at that and suspicions of fuel diversion will always be aired. But good controls can be put in place. Unless we as a people is really that corrupt and bribable.

As it is, 2GO is profitable now when the world market prices of oil plummeted. But then one thing that worries me is their fares on the average are not lower than the budget airlines and the intermodal buses. With longer time of travel they cannot compete with budget airlines in the long run. And with frequencies that are not daily the passengers will not really wait for them.

9250636562_d1ef0c6613_z

Maybe we should go back to this size

If the government wants the liner sector to stay it cannot just be verbal encouragement. Press or praise releases and promises are also next to nothing. There should be concrete steps and a program if they really want to save this sector. But is there anybody in government high enough that really understands this sector?

The government can put out all the verbal encouragement for other entities to enter this sector but I don’t think those who know shipping will enter this segment as things stand now. Downsizing is maybe one step that can arrest the downslide of passenger liner shipping.