The Battle for the Southern Mindanao Ports After The War And Before The Era of RORO Liners

Discussing this topic, the author wishes to clarify that the discussion will be limited to the period after World War II. There are not enough research materials yet before the war and in that earlier period Southern Mindanao was not yet that economically important to the country since the great wave of migration to the region only happened starting in the 1950’s and then peaking in the 1960’s and the 1970’s.

Talking of Southern Mindanao ports, these consisted mainly of Davao, General Santos (or Dadiangas) and Cotabato (which is actually Parang or Polloc port located in another town) and to some extent also Pagadian and Kabasalan in earlier times and also Mati and Bislig. Since ships generally used the western approach, inadvertently Zamboanga port will be included in this since all ships to Southern Mindanao port using the western approach will use that as an intermediate stop since it just lies along the route and it has a good passenger and cargo volume.

1955-apr-6-schedules

Gorio Belen research in the National Library

After World War II, shipping to Southern Mindanao boomed because it was the “new frontier” of the country. There was great migration by Christians from other parts of the country and this was encouraged and supported by the government to ease the “land pressure” in Luzon and Visayas which was the fuel then for the land unrest (read: Pambansang Kilusan ng Magbubukid, Sakdalista movement, Hukbalahap, etc.). The land of Mindanao was being opened through the building of roads and the bounty of the land and the forests were being exploited (without asking the say-so of the native peoples and that fueled the unrest of the latter decades; the Luzon land unrest was “solved” to be replaced by Mindanao unrest and war – what an irony and tragedy!). And so people and goods needed to be transported and in such a situation where “ships come where there is cargo” there was a battle for the Southern Mindanao ports among the local shipping companies. Davao was the primary route and port of Southern Mindanao and almost invariably the Davao ships will also drop anchor in Dadiangas (General Santos City).

At the outset, it was Compania Maritima which led the pack to Southern Mindanao after World War II as she was the biggest liner shipping company then with the most ships, half of which were big by local standards (that means a length of about 100 meters). The company possessed ex-“C1-M-AV1” surplus ships as compensation by the US Government for their ships lost during the war and also big cargo-passenger ships from Europe while the competition had no better than the small ex-“FS” ships from the US Army which have to seek shelter when the seas begin to roil.

1951-dec-18-compania-maritima

Gorio Belen research in the National Library

Among the Compania Maritima competitors to the Southern Mindanao ports in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s were Philippine Steam and Navigation Company (PSNC), Manila Steamship Company, De la Rama Steamship, William Lines Inc. and Escano Lines. Most of the liner shipping companies of the day then shirked from Southern Mindanao routes because it was taxing on the fleet as the ships needed two weeks for the entire voyage. So just to be able to offer a weekly schedule, two ships of the fleet must be devoted to a Southern Mindanao route.

It was Philippine Steam and Navigation Company (PSNC), being backed by Everett Steamship of the United States, which was more competitive against Compania Maritima as it also had ex-“C1-M-AV1” and ex-“Type N3” ships. PSNC was a venture between Everett Steamship and Aboitiz Shipping (and later with the end of “Parity Rights”, it passed on to the latter). Manila Steamship Co. was competitive, too since it also had a big fleet. However, this company quit shipping after the explosion and fire that hit their flagship “Mayon” in 1955. Meanwhile, De la Rama Steamship even quit earlier to concentrate on international shipping and being an agents after some local issues.

The year that Manila Steamship quit shipping, the new liner company Carlos A. Go Thong & Company joined the Southern Mindanao battle, too. In the mid-1950’s, with some shake-out in the shipping industry, there were less competitors and ships in this decade (because some really old ships have already quit along with some very small ones). It should be noted, however, that there were ocean-going liners that were originating from Southern Mindanao that goes to Manila first before proceeding to Japan and the USA. Some of those that provided that kind of service were Everett Steamship and Compania Maritima.

1963-4-29-everett-go-thong

Gorio Belen research in the National Library

In the 1960’s, passenger-cargo ships from Europe that were bigger than the ex-“FS” ships began to arrive in the Philippines and many of these were fielded to the Southern Mindanao routes. Among the users of that type were Go Thong and William Lines. Go Thong was also able to acquire the big World War II surplus “C1-A” ships like the “Manila Bay” and “Subic Bay”. Compania Maritima, however, bought brand-new liners and chartered big reparations cargo-passenger ships from the government-owned National Development Corporation (NDC) and so they held on to their lead in the Southern Mindanao routes in this decade. Meanwhile, Everett/PSNC was not far behind and they even used in Southern Mindanao their new liners from Japan, the “Elcano” and the “Legazpi”. Additionally, there was a new entrant in the late 1960’s, the ambitious Sweet Lines which was one of the beneficiaries of the quitting of General Shipping Company of local routes (the other was Aboitiz Shipping Corporation).

At the start of the 1970’s, Compania Maritima was still ruling the Southern Mindanao routes. But several very interesting developments happened in this decade. First, the big Go Thong/Universal Shipping which already exceeded Compania Maritima in size had broken into three shipping companies and Sulpicio Lines Incorporated, Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated and Lorenzo Shipping Corporation emerged (until 1979 the operation of the latter two were joint). In a few years time, however, Sulpicio Lines grew fast and proved to be a strong competitor. In this decade, it was already slowly becoming obvious that Compania Maritima was losing steam especially as they regularly lost ships in storms. William Lines then was in a race with Sulpicio Lines to dislodge Compania Maritima from its perch. Everett Steamship meanwhile bowed out because of the end of “Parity Rights” of the Americans (and thus they are no longer allowed to do business as a Philippine “national”) and PSNC (their partnership with the Aboitizes) was merged with Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and the latter became the surviving entity. But with no new ships, Aboitiz Shipping Corporation bowed out of Southern Mindanao liner service. However, the combined Lorenzo Shipping Corporation and Carlos A. Gothong Shipping Lines (CAGLI) and Sweet Lines Inc. were still competing heavily in the Southern Mindanao routes in the 1970’s.

Two very important developments happened before the end of the 1970’s. One, containerization began and this changed the game of shipping. Where before it was just practically the liners that carried the cargo, now the carriers split into two, the container ships and the liners. Subsequently, the passenger capacity of the liners grew as they no longer have to devote a lot of space for cargo. By this time, the massive migration of Christians to Southern Mindanao has also boomed its population and consequently more need to travel.

1979-nov-schedules

Gorio Belen research in the National Library

The second development was the introduction of fast cruiser liners that call on just one intermediate port (before a liner to Davao will usually call first in Cebu, Tagbilaran, a northern Mindanao port maybe, Zamboanga definitely and Dadiangas. So where before 10-knot ships like the ex-”FS” and ex-”C1-M-AV1” ships will take two weeks to complete an entire voyage and the faster ex-European passenger-cargo ships cycles every 10 or 11 days, the new fast cruisers complete the voyage in just a week. By my definition, fast cruisers of this period were the liners capable then of 18 knots. Usually, these were not converted cargo-passenger ships from other countries (these were fast cruisers even in Japan, usually). These were also luxury liners in the local parlance and one key feature of that is the availability of air-conditioning. With that truly luxurious suites and cabins became possible.

The fast “Dona Ana” (later “Dona Marilyn”) of Sulpicio Lines which came in 1976 tried to change the game by just having one intermediate port call, in Cebu. William Lines responded with the even faster cruiser “Manila City” (the second) in 1976 which only had Zamboanga as its intermediate port. With their speed and the use of just one intermediate port, the “Dona Ana” and “Manila City” was able maintain a weekly schedule. Although the luxurious flagship “Filipinas” of Compania Maritima was also fast at 17 knots, she dropped by many intermediate ports and so she cannot maintain a weekly sailing. Compania Maritima never dropped the old style of many intermediate ports.

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Photo credits: Times Journal and Gorio Belen

Gothong+Lorenzo was not able to respond well to this challenge (though they tried) as they had no true fast cruiser liners. So, they had to use two ships for a route to maintain a weekly sailing or three ships to maintain a cycle of every 10 days. Sweet Lines also tried but like Gothong+Lorenzo they also have no fast cruisers assigned to Southern Mindanao (they had two though in Cebu, the “Sweet Faith” and the “Sweet Home”). Compania Maritima and Sweet Lines were the users of three ships to the Davao route to be able to cycle a ship every 10 days. Aboitiz Shipping, meanwhile, with no new ships simply dropped out of liner shipping to Southern Mindanao and just concentrated on container shipping.

Although William Lines and Sulpicio Lines already had fast cruiser liners to Southern Mindanao they also still used their old passenger-cargo ships to the region in the late 1970’s in conjunction with their fast cruisers liners. So with them the passengers have a choice of the fast or the slow which was also less luxurious. Fares also differed, of course.

In the container segment of shipping, the battle was toe-to-toe. Aboitiz Shipping rolled out the Aboitiz Concarriers, William Lines had the Wilcons, Sulpicio Lines fielded the Sulcons (Sulpicio Container) and later Lorenzo Shipping sailed the Lorcons (Lorenzo Container). Many of the ships mentioned were once general cargo ships converted into container ships. [The later series Aboitiz container ships were named Superconcarriers and Megaconcarriers.] Lorenzo Shipping then split with Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. and the latter then quit Southern Mindanao routes to concentrate on the Visayas-Mindanao routes. [Later, Lorenzo Shipping quit shipping altogether and sold out to the Magsaysay group before they were reborn as the Oceanic Container Lines.]

1978-compania-maritima

Gorio Belen research in the National Library

In passenger liners, William Lines and Sulpicio Lines continued to battle in the Southern Mindanao ports in the 1980’s using fast cruiser liners. Sulpicio Lines had the edge as they had more fast cruiser liners [William Lines still had to make do with their graying former European passenger-cargo ships]. For a while until they quit in 1984, Compania Maritima was battling Sulpicio Lines more than toe-to-toe. After all, Southern Mindanao was the area of concentration of Compania Maritima and in Davao they even have their own port, the MINTERBRO port. Compania Maritima concentrated their best liners, the “Filipinas”, “Visayas” and “Mindanao” plus their passenger-cargo ships “Leyte Gulf” and “Dadiangas” in the General Santos/Davao route before the company’s life expired. While the three were battling, the other liner companies were not able to respond except for Sea Transport Co. and Solid Shipping Lines which were not operating passenger liners. One independent liner company, the Northern Lines Inc. which had routes to Southern Mindanao also quit at about the same time of Compania Maritima at the height of the political and financial crisis leading to the mid-1980’s.

Before the era of RORO liners, there were already more container ships to Southern Mindanao than passenger liners. That how strong was the growth of that new paradigm. This new dominant paradigm even forced the fast cruisers to carry container vans atop their cargo holds as that was already the demand of the shippers and traders.

In the 1980’s before the advent of RORO liners starting in 1983 there were actually only a few fast cruiser liners doing the Southern Mindanao routes. Among those was the “Dona Ana”, the pioneer fast cruiser of Sulpicio Lines to Davao. This ship was later pulled out to replace “Don Sulpicio” in the Manila-Cebu route as the ship caught fire and she was renamed to “Dona Marilyn”. However, the fast cruisers “Don Enrique” (the later “Davao Princess” and “Iloilo Princess” and “Don Eusebio” (the later “Dipolog Princess”) alternated in the Manila-Cebu-Davao route. In 1981, when the “Philippine Princess” came, “Dona Marilyn” was reassigned to the Cotabato route. She was the first fast cruiser liner in that route.

Don Sulpicio, Dona Ana and Don Ricardo

Photo by Jon Uy Saulog

On another noteworthy trivia and clarification, Sulpicio Lines also fielded the third “Don Carlos” in the General Santos route in 1977. This ferry was a former vehicle carrier in Japan and so she had a cargo deck and a ramp. However, she was not used as a RORO ship. The ramps were just used to ease the loading of livestock from Gensan. This city sends a lot of those live commodities to Manila. She was actually a “WOWO” ship (Walk on, Walk Off). However, she also takes in heavy equipment and trucks bound for Gensan dealers. So technically “Don Carlos” was the first RORO to Southern Mindanao. But she did not use container vans.

For William Lines, the second “Manila City” (the first “Manila City” was an ex-”FS” ship) was their only fast cruiser to Southern Mindanao for a long time in this decade. Most of the passenger ships they were using in the region were former European passenger-cargo ships like what Sweet Lines were using (the company was also using the “Sweet Grace” to Southern Mindanao which was a brand-new liner in 1968 but was not that fast). Approaching the end of the decade only three national shipping companies were left sailing liners to Southern Mindanao – Sulpicio Lines, William Lines and Sweet Lines. One of the reasons for that was the crisis spawned by the Aquino assassination halved the number of liner companies in the Philippines. It was not because the traffic to Southern Mindanao dropped considerably. In container shipping to Southern Mindanao before the RORO liners came there were six players – Aboitiz Shipping Corporation, William Lines, Sulpicio Lines, Lorenzo Shipping Corporation, Sea Transport Company and Solid Shipping Lines.

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MV Don Carlos (Gorio Belen research in the National Library

In 1983, a new paradigm arrived in the Southern Mindanao routes and it ushered a new era. These are the RORO (or ROPAX) liners which were even bigger and just as fast as the fast cruiser liners. And they can carry more container vans than the fast cruisers. Later, RORO liners were even faster as they can already sail at 20 knots. Can anyone hazard a guess which was the first RORO liner of Southern Mindanao?

I will discuss the era of RORO liners in Southern Mindanao in a subsequent article (as I do not want this article to be too long and unwieldy). With that, it will be a discussion of the recent history of the Southern Mindanao routes and liners.

The State of Philippine Shipping at the Start of 1990

The start of decades are many times an opportune way to take stock of things. Many countries do that by holding their censuses and we likewise do that. I want to focus on the year 1990 because the decade previous to that was very difficult and dangerous for the country and the economy. That decade was marked by many crises and turmoils and as a result our economy suffered tremendously. Economically and financially, the 1980’s was our second worst decade in the last century after the 1940’s in which World War II occurred. In that war decade, we were subject to invasion, occupation and devastation and our economy therefore shrank.

The crisis decade of the 1980’s was calamitous to our shipping. In terms of damage, it was even worse compared to the 1940’s. After the war, the United States of America (USA) replaced our ships that they requisitioned for the war (and which were lost). Later, Japan also paid reparations for the shipping damages they caused, in terms of new ships and soft loans, among other goods. In the 1980’s, we had none of such free replacements and we were not able to recover the wealth pillaged by the Marcos dictatorship. Our peso also lost so much value that acquiring ships became very difficult (in fact we can’t even buy new ships anymore unlike before). And that difficulty was reflected in the size and quality of our shipping fleet.

At the start of 1990, our biggest shipping company in the previous three decades, the Philippine President Lines or PPL (they also used the company United President Lines or UPL) was practically dead already. They were just acting as shipping agents and they were no longer sailing ships. And then their main rival in size, the Galleon Shipping Corporation which was a crony company was already bankrupt even before the end of the 1980’s. Another company of similar size, the Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Company Overseas, the ocean-going company of Compania Maritima quit shipping at the middle of the 1980’s. These three companies, our biggest, were all in the foreign trade. The ships of these three companies which were mainly chartered from the National Development Corporation or NDC (a government-owned and controlled corporation) were all seized by or returned to the Philippine Government. Those were then sold one by one to international buyers at bargain prices. These three ocean-going companies all had well over 100,000 gross tons of ships in their fleet, a size only a very few reached in all our decades of shipping.

Another shipping company that was once big, notable and well-connected, the American-owned but Philippine-based Luzon Stevedoring Company (LUSTEVECO) also went under. But this has a myriad of reasons aside from the crisis of the early 1980’s and that included the end of the so-called “Parity Rights” (where Americans were given business and commercial rights in the Philippines as if they were Philippine nationals and they can repatriate profits to the USA 100%). This was due to the Laurel-Langley Agreement taking effect in 1974. This company was practically broken up (under pressure, some said) and its assets and ships went to different companies including the Philippine Government which then passed on its assets to its government-owned shipping companies like the Philippine National Oil Company or PNOC.

Our biggest inter-island shipping company for nearly 90 years, the Compania Maritima which has Spanish origins and which started when Spain was still ruling the Philippines was also gone by the mid-1980’s. They quit at the height of the political and financial crisis then when everybody was panicking and many companies were going bankrupt or otherwise illiquid. The owners, the Fernandez brothers who were dual citizens packed up their bags and headed back to Spain (and to think one of them was a former Senator of the Republic!). Compania Maritima was so big – aside from local ahipping they also had an international shipping line (the Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Overseas Company as mentioned before) plus they owned ports and they had stevedoring and forwarding operations.

A host of our smaller shipping lines with foreign routes also went belly up or quit in the 1980’s. These included General Shipping Corporation, Northern Lines Inc., Transocean Transport Corporation, Philippine Ace Shipping Lines, Philippine Transmarine Carriers, Triton Pacific Maritime Corporation, etc. Actually, so many (as in about three dozens) of our big freighters, refrigerated cargo ships and bulk carriers owned by the National Development Corporation that were chartered to Philippine shipping companies doing overseas routes (especially Galleon Shipping Corporation, Philippine President Lines/United President Lines and Maritime Company of the Philippines/Maritime Company Overseas) were broken up in the 1980’s because they were no longer sailing. About the same number were also sold to foreign shipping companies and usually at bargain prices. The decade of the 1980’s witnessed the practical end of our ocean-going fleet and after that we only had half a dozen ships remaining doing foreign routes and those were mainly below 100 meters in length.

Along with Compania Maritima, the graveyard list of our inter-island shipping companies is really long and so I will just enumerate the them. These companies did not even make it out of that horrendous decade for Philippine shipping:

Galaxy Lines (an offspring of Philippine President Lines)
Northern Lines (referring to their inter-island operation)
North Camarines Lumber Company/NCL/NORCAMCO (they changed names)
N & S Lines
Bisayan Land Transport
Newport Shipping
Cardinal Shipping
Rodrigueza Shipping
May-Nilad Shipping
Javellana Shipping
Visayan Transportation
Corominas, Richards Navigation
Royal Line
Veloso Shipping
Visayas Lines
MD Shipping
Tomas del Rio & Co. (formerly Rio y Olabarrieta)
Balabac Navigation

This is far from a complete list as there were many regional shipping companies which went down quietly and it is hard to enumerate them all for many are indistinct.

In the liner front, two old liner companies were no longer carrying passengers at the start of 1990. These were the Escano Lines, a pre-World War II shipping company and Lorenzo Shipping, a spin-off of the old Carlos A. Go Thong & Company. Both decided to just stick to cargo and container shipping. Maybe refleeting for passenger service with liner ships was already too much for them after that crisis decade of the 1980’s.

William Lines and Sulpicio Lines seem to have been the healthiest and definitely the biggest strongest at the start of 1990. Among the shipping companies they were in the best position to take advantage of the fall of erstwhile leader Compania Maritima and the retreat of Lorenzo Shipping and Escano Lines from passenger shipping along with the withdrawal and dissolution of many other various shipping companies in the 1980’s because the two truly had national routes unlike the other liner shipping companies.

William Lines Inc. had nine liners at the start of 1990 and that included two old former FS ships still surviving. Their liners were the Dona Virginia, Manila City, Ozamis City, Cebu City, Tacloban City, Misamis Occidental, Masbate I, Don Jose I and Edward. The last two were ex-FS ships on their last legs. Their overnight ferry was the Iligan City, a former liner then just doing the Cebu-Iligan route. They also had two RORO Cargo ships that can take in passengers and these were the Wilcon I and Wilcon IV. Their other container ships were the Wilcon II, Wilcon III, Wilcon V, Wilcon X and Wilcon XI.

Sulpicio Lines Inc. had eight liners and these were the Filipina Princess, Philippine Princess, Davao Princess, Don Eusebio, Cotabato Princess, Surigao Princess, Cebu Princess and Dona Susana. Their overnight ferries were the Nasipit Princess, Cagayan Princess and Butuan Princess. Their container ships were the Sulpicio Container II, Sulpicio Container III, Sulpicio Container IV, Sulpicio Container V, Sulpicio Container VI, Sulpicio Container VII, Sulpicio Container VIII, Sulpicio Container IX, Sulpicio Container XI, Sulpicio Container XII and Sulpicio Container XIV. Aside from liners, Sulpicio Lines had more ships than William Lines in the other categories (overnight ferries and container ships).

Sweet Lines Inc. had six liners at the start of 1990, the Sweet Baby, Sweet RORO 2, Sweet Glory, the second Sweet Sail and Sweet Hope. Their liner Sweet RORO I was no longer running reliably then and would soon be broken up. Their overnight ships were Sweet Pearl, Sweet Hope, Sweet Marine, Sweet Heart, Sweet Home and the second Sweet Time which sailed Visayas-Mindanao routes. They had a separate cargo-container liner company then which was the Central Shipping Company with the ships Central Mindoro, Central Visayas, Central Cebu and Central Bohol. Another cargo shipping company they had was the Casas Navigation Corporation with the ship Casas Victoria.

Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had three old liners then, the Legazpi, Ormoc and Legaspi 1 (the former Katipunan of Escano Lines) and these were just sailing their two remaining liner routes to Capiz and Leyte. They had four overnight ships, the Elcano, Ramon Aboitiz, the first Aklan, and the ex-FS ship Picket II, which were all old, former liners in their last legs. They also had the Marcelino, an ex-FS ship and Guillermo in the subsidiary Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had the most container ships locally with twelve: the Aboitiz Superconcarrier I, Aboitiz Superconcarrier II, Aboitiz Superconcarrier III, Aboitiz Megaconcarrier I, Aboitiz Concarrier I, Aboitiz Concarrier II, Aboitiz Concarrier IV, Aboitiz Concarrier VI, Aboitiz Concarrier VIII, Aboitiz Concarrier X, Aboitiz Concarrier XI and Aboitiz Concarrier XII. Container shipping was the strength of Aboitiz Shipping because they concentrated on this when for 14 years they did not buy any liners, the reason their liner fleet wilted.

Negros Navigation Company had five liners sailing then, the Sta. Florentina, Sta. Ana, Don Julio, Don Claudio and Sta. Maria. These were just sailing five routes then – Romblon, Roxas City, Iloilo, Bacolod and Cagayan de Oro. They also had two Iloilo-Bacolod ferries, the cruisers Don Vicente and the Princess of Panay which was a former liner. This shipping company also had four cargo/container ships, the San Sebastian, Connie II, Aphrodite J and Athena J. The last two were local-built cargo ships.

Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) had three liners then, the Our Lady of Fatima, Our Lady of Lourdes and the Our Lady of Guadalupe. Their overnight ships on Visayas-Mindanao routes were the Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, Dona Cristina, Don Calvino, Dona Lili, Don Benjamin and the RORO Cargo ship Our Lady of Hope, their only cargo ship. Together with Sweet Lines and Trans-Asia Shipping Lines, CAGLI was the dominant Visayas-Mindanao regional shipping company at the start of 1990.

Madrigal Shipping Corporation, a very old shipping company with pre-World War II origins was then attempting a comeback in liner shipping with the cruiser liners Madrigal Surigao and Madrigal Tacloban (but these were registered with the Cortes Shipping Company of Zamboanga which I never heard of). With the routes they were sailing they were, in effect, the partial replacement of the abandoned passenger routes of Escano Lines because they sailed the same routes. By this time, Madrigal Shipping had already shorn off their old liners, cargo ships and routes. They, however, had one big cargo ship sailing an overseas route, the Madrigal Integrity.

For brevity, I shall no longer mention all the cargo shipping companies for they are long because they are many. I will just enumerate and describe the cargo companies which were in the more advanced and more important container liner operations (as distinguished from the general cargo ships and those that were in tramper operations). Only three companies without passenger operations were into cargo-container operations at the start of 1990 – Lorenzo Shipping, Escano Lines and Solid Shipping. Among these three, it was Lorenzo Shipping Corporation which was the biggest with a cargo-container fleet that can match the biggest cargo-container shipping companies that had passenger operations. In their fleet they had the Lorcon I, Lorcon IV, Lorcon V, Lorcon VI, Lorcon IX, Lorcon XI, Lorcon XII (the former liner Sweet Grace which was converted into a container ship), Dona Anita, Euney, Dadiangas Express and Cagayan de Oro Express.

Escano Lines had in their fleet the Virgen de la Paz, Foxbat, Kiowa, La Lealtad, Greyhound, Harpoon, Squirrel, Terrier, Wolverine and two or three other freighters. However, only the first four were container liners (liners have fixed routes and schedules) while the rest were general cargo ships in tramping duties (let it be clarified they can substitute for the first four since practically speaking any general cargo ship can also carry container vans). Moreover, Escano Lines normally carry a mixed breakbulk cargo and container vans in their ships. Meanwhile, the Solid Shipping Lines only had the Solid Uno, Solid Dos and Solid Tres in their fleet. I am not sure if their Maligaya was still with them then. They were small because they were just a new shipping company then. However, one which was bigger than Solid Shipping and had container operations before, the Sea Transport Company, also did not make it to the 1980’s. They quit just before the end of the decade and sold their ships to other shipping companies.

From about two dozen passenger liner companies at the start of 1980, we just had a total of seven passenger liner companies left at the start of 1990 and the seventh was the comebacking Madrigal Shipping Company. Because of the fall in the number of shipping operators and with a fast growing population and the economy reviving, the Philippines at the start of 1990 had a severe lack of inter-island passenger ships. In the international front, there was almost no longer ocean-going ships to speak of. Aboitiz Shipping Company and Eastern Shipping Company were practically the only Philippine shipping companies still trying to do foreign routes then but their number of ships might just add to half a dozen and those were much smaller than the ships of Philippine President Lines, Galleon Shipping Company and Maritime Company of the Philippines. That was how precipitous was our drop in shipping in a span of just ten years because of the crisis decade of the 1980’s.

To think conditions in the other fronts were favorable for shipping as there were no budget airlines yet and so air fares were still high. There were also just a few intermodal buses then and there was a general dearth of bus units too. Because of such factors cited there were a lot of passengers for the ships. Maybe this is what some remember that liners then were full to to the brim and there were many well-wishers in ports during departures (and of course many fetchers too during arrivals). There were always tales of passengers being left behind because there were no more tickets left (I have seen that myself). And there were tales of overloading too, of course. The decade of the 1990’s was actually characterized by new great liners having a passenger capacity of over 2,000. Probably, that was the response to our lack of liners and liner shipping companies then.

And that is the story of our shipping in the 1980’s which was reflected at the start of 1990. In a future article, I will discuss in detail our failure in cargo shipping in the same period. Abangan!

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