The Ship Design Conflict Within WG & A

On the first day of the year 1996, the “Great Merger” officially happened. This brought the fleets and all assets of William Lines Inc. (WLI), Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) and Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (ASC) under one single company and management except for some very old ferries of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation (the likes of Legazpi) and a some ferries and container ships of Aboitiz Jebsens (that was a separate company) which were the container ships acquired from the Ukraine. This was supposedly a preemptive move so local shipping can compete against the purported entry of foreign competition in the inter-island routes which proved to be a bogey or a false story later. How some old shipping families believed that foreigners can enter with a Anti-Cabotage Law in effect that forbids foreign shipping firms from sailing in local routes is beyond me because repeal of any law passes through Congress and our Congress is usually not keen on passing laws that grants free passage to foreigners and if those three liner and container shipping companies are willing, the regional shipping companies and other companies might not be willing and they can also raise a ruckus. But anyway the unlikely merger happened and a very big shipping company was formed from previously competitors.

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Dona Virginia (Credits to Palawan Wildlife Rescue and Conservation Center and Manu Sarmiento)

Any merger usually results in excess assets and in shipping that includes ships aside from management personnel and employees and logistical assets like containers, container yards and buildings. This was easily obvious with the WG&A merger. Since there were excess liners some of it were sent to its regional subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC) like when the Mabuhay 6 (the Our Lady of Good Voyage) and the Our Lady of Lipa were sent there. Meanwhile, all the cruisers liners were offered for sale. They also tried to dispose old and unreliable ROROs like the Dona Cristina, Don Calvino and the Dona Lili that were formerly regional ferries. Actually even some recent liners were also offered for sale. The total was about 10 and that was already about a third of the combined fleet. That also included a handful of container ships.

I knew it early there was a conflict with the disposal of ships when I had as a cabin mate in SuperFerry 7 the cargo manager of William Lines in North Harbor and he was furious because to him it seems that the liners of William Lines were being targeted. Well, that might have been the unintended result of getting Aboitiz Jebsens as fleet and maintenance manager because they will use their old standard in choosing ships (that company was subsequently renamed to WG&A Jebsens to reflect the changed circumstances).

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Don Calvino (Credits to George Tappan and Gorio Belen)

One has to look into recent history to understand this. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation as a liner company did not acquire any liners from 1974 to 1988 and the one they acquired in 1988 was inconsequential as it was just the small and old cruiser liner Katipunan of Escano Lines which became the Legaspi 1. By that time Aboitiz Shipping Corporation had just a few old liners sailing, a combination of former “FS” ships which were on its last legs and a few old cruisers including the pair acquired from Everett Steamship, the Legazpi and the Elcano which were also clearly obsolete already and getting unreliable. It looked to me that without their partner Jebsens Maritime that was influential in their container shipping (which was actually good), they might not have had their blockbuster SuperFerry series.

If one looks at the SuperFerry series of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation, one will easily see its distinguishing characteristics. They are all ROROs (or more exactly ROPAXes) with car ramps at the bow and at the stern, the container vans are all mounted in trailers, trailer caddies hauled them in a fast manner and if possible the two car ramps are both employed so one is dedicated for loading and the other for unloading. Radios are also employed for communication to orchestrate the movement of the container vans so a trailer caddy hauling a container aboard will have a container being unloaded on the way down and markers are used so loading of container vans will not be helter-skelter which can mean difficulty in unloading a container van in an intermediate port.

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Maynilad by Britz Salih

To remedy their serious lack of liners due to non-purchase in the recent years past, Aboitiz Shipping Corporation and Aboitiz Jebsens designed their liners to have short interport hours as in 2 to 3 hours only, the former the preferred time. In Manila and in the endport, the port hours were also very short. With this kind of operation the SuperFerries had a high number of hours at sea on a weekly basis which meant maximum utilization. While a Sulpicio Lines liner will only have a round-trip voyage if the route is Southern Mindanao, an Aboitiz ship will still have a short trip to the likes of Panay within the same week or else do a twice a week Northern Mindanao voyage. With this style, their 4 SuperFerry ships were in practicality the equal of 5 or 6 ships of the competition. Of course with this kind of use of ships a heavy load of preventive maintenance is needed and that happened to be the forte of Aboitiz Jebsens.

When the Chiongbian and Gothong families agreed to the Aboitiz proposal to have Aboitiz Jebsens as fleet and maintenance manager they should have already known was in store and that is the liners should perform the Aboitiz Jebsens way and that meant those which can’t will fall into disfavor and might be the target for culling because with the Aboitiz Jebsens system a lesser number of liners will be needed to maintain their route system and frequencies. Of course at the start WG & A will try to employ all the liners that were not relegated to their subsidiary Cebu Ferries Corporation. But then new liners were still coming onstream, the liners William Lines, Gothong Lines and Aboitiz Shipping ordered when they were still separate companies. WG & A created new routes and frequencies but in a short time they realized what cannot be maintained because there are not enough passengers or cargo like the routes to Tacloban and Dipolog (Dapitan actually) and the Manila-Dumaguete-Cotabato and Manila-Cebu-Surigao-Davao routes.

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Tacloban City (Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen)

With that “weak” and “inefficient” ships will be targets for culling aside from the old liners and there was no question that cruiser liners will be first in the firing line. That type cannot carry much cargo and their cargo handling in the interport is longer as cargo booms are not as fast in loading and unloading unlike trailer caddies. So it was no surprise that the cruiser liners Misamis OccidentalTacloban City and Iligan City, formerly of William Lines were almost immediately up for sale. The small ROPAX Zamboanga City was also offered for sale because her engines were big relative to her size and capacity (16,800-horsepower engines) and she had no ramps at the bow. That also went true for the slow Maynilad (14-15 knots only on 16,800 horsepower). The problem with these is they were all former William Lines ship, the reason why some former William Lines people were upset. But they accepted Aboitiz Jebsens as the fleet manager and so that will almost inevitably be the result.

Some lesser liners survived. The “Our Lady” ships of Gothong Lines survived because for their size and capacity their engines were small and that speaks of efficiency and though while a little slower they were fit for the short routes like the northern Panay routes (Dumaguit and Roxas City) or in the periphery like Masbate and Eastern Visayas. The northern Panay route also became the refuge of the Our Lady of Naju, a former Gothong ship which was also a cruiser. The passengers and cargo of the route were not big and so a big cruiser liner like the Dona Virginia will not fit. But of course all that favored the former Gothong ships. It might just have been a quirk of fate and not necessarily because the Gothong representative to the WG & A Board of Directors who is Bob Gothong is close to the Aboitizes. But then I wonder how the Our Lady of Lipa survived. For her size she has big engines and speed was not really needed in the Dumaguit/Roxas City route. Was it because they wanted to show up their competitor the old but beautiful cruiser liner Don Julio of Negros Navigation? I thought when the old cruiser liner Misamis Occidental was refurbished to become the cruiser ship Our Lady of Montserrat, a former William Lines vessel she might have fitted the route (she was even re-engined and became all-airconditioned like the Our Lady of Naju). Was her speed not really enough for the route? Or WG & A wants a ship that is really superior to the competition?

Our Lady of Banneux

Credits to Keppel Cebu and Ken Ledesma

It was not surprising then that in the early merger years that former William Lines officers and employees would think it was only their vessels which was on the firing line or chopping block.

The beautiful SuperFerry 11 which was fielded after the merger was also not that favored. Her engines are just about okay for her size, she has the speed but then like the Zamboanga City she has no car ramps at the bow because she also came from A” Lines of Japan. She was also destined for William Lines if the merger did not happen. The beautiful Maynilad would have easily been a SuperFerry in terms of size and accommodations if not for her grave lack of speed. Being excess later the SuperFerry 11 and Maynilad were passed to Cebu Ferries Corporation and they were the biggest ships that company ever had. That was after WG & A created an entirely new route for them, the Manila-Ormoc-Nasipit route which in first report was good. But then along the years WG & A and successor company Aboitiz Transport System (ATS) developed a reputation for being very soft in holding and maintaining routes. In Cebu Ferries the SuperFerry 11 was renamed to Our Lady of Banneux and the Maynilad was renamed to Our Lady of Akita 2 after her top passenger deck was removed. The two happened to be ex-William Lines ships also! Although not clearly disfavored (as she made the SuperFerry grade), the Our Lady of Banneux which can run at up to 19 knots had a grounding incident in Canigao Channel from which she never recovered again.

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The ship Zamboanga by Wilben Santos

So actually the William liners were the great casualties of the merger due to redundancy and incompatibility and that was because they were unlike the original SuperFerry liners and they simply cannot make the SuperFerry grade (well, just like the former “Our Lady” ships of Gothong Lines only one of those made the SuperFerry grade, the former Our Lady of Akita which became the SuperFerry 6). Of course their former Mabuhay 1 and Mabuhay 3 which made the SuperFerry grade lived longer. The former Mabuhay 2 was not lucky as she was hit by fire early which led to complete total loss. In the longer run only the Mabuhay 1 and Mabuhay 3 survived and the Mabuhay 3 as SuperFerry 8 was even leased to Papua New Guinea because of the surplus of liners in WG & A.

The liners of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) were more lucky as they found niche routes and small engines played into their favor. Moreover many of the former Gothong Lines ships were in regional routes and they lived long there including their former small liners the Our Lady of Fatima and the Our Lady of Lourdes which were sister ships. That even included the venerable Our Lady of the Rule and their old Our Lady of Guadalupe which has unreliable engines and I even wonder how she lasted so long. In the regional routes some former ships of William Lines survived like the Our Lady of Good Voyage and the Our Lady of Manaoag.

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Dona Lili (Credits to PNA, Phil. Daily Express and Gorio Belen)

When the Chiongbian family of William Lines divested in 2003 only 2 of their former liners remained in WG & A aside from a few container ships. They were paid off in cash from the passenger and container ships that were scrapped. There were still many Gothong ships in the fleet of WG & A when they divested as most survived the culling but they preferred newly-acquired ships when they restarted independent operations.

And that was the story of the ship design conflict in WG & A which have been one of the reasons why the “Great Merger” unraveled so soon.

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An Unheralded and Unknown Liner

William Lines, one the greatest of Philippine shipping companies rose to probably become the country’s Number 1 entering the 1980’s. That rise to paramount position was fueled by their race with Sulpicio Lines to acquire fast cruiser liners from the Misamis Occidental to Cebu City, Tacloban City, Manila City, Cagayan de Oro City and Ozamis City. When they acquired the last-mentioned ship in 1978, they might have been in parity already with the erstwhile Number 1 which was Compania Maritima. But when they acquired the half-RORO, half-cruiser Dona Virginia in 1979 and they joined the race with Aboitiz Shipping and Sulpicio Lines to acquire container ships starting in 1979 with the ROLO Cargo ship Wilcon 1, few will dispute that they were already Number 1 in our seas. That rise was aided by the non-purchase anymore of further ships by Compania Maritima (and the consecutive losses of ships of the company due to maritime accidents) and the split of the old Carlos A. Gothong & Company in 1972 which produced three separate shipping companies — Sulpicio Lines Incorporated, Lorenzo Shipping Corporation and Carlos A. Gothong Lines, Incorporated (CAGLI).

However, while William Lines was mainly Number 1 in the next decade, the company seemed to overly rely on the fast cruiser lines (of which they had the most among the local shipping companies) and were relatively late in the acquisition of RORO liners. After the half-RORO, half-cruiser Dona Virginia, their first acquisition of a full-pledged RORO liner happened in 1987 already when they bought the Masbate I. By the time they acquired that, their main rival Sulpicio Lines has already purchased 4 ROROs and Carlos A. Gothong Lines even more. Sweet Lines had already procured 3 ROROs and and will add two more in 1987 and Negros Navigation has already bought 2. Among the still existent major liner companies, it was only Aboitiz Shipping and Escano Lines which had a zero total liners until 1987. So when Sulpicio Lines acquired 3 big ROROs in 1988, the Filipina Princess, Cotabato Princess and Nasipit Princess, William Lines lost their Number 1 position in the totem pole of local shipping and again few would dispute that.

William Lines might have seen the handwriting on the wall that the cruiser liners were heading to obsolescence but what I don’t understand was their continued reliance on Arimura Sangyo, the later A” Lines on second-hand liners. To get their RORO liners, Sulpicio Lines did not rely anymore on their old supplier, the RKK Lines and instead diversified their sourcing. In fact, none of the three liners they purchased in 1988 came from RKK Lines and that itself is telling like they really want ROROs fast.

William Lines tried to pursue Sulpicio Lines in the acquisition battle of RORO liners by purchasing their second full-pledged RORO liner in 1989. Just the same their supplier was still A” Lines and what they got was the Ferry Amami (actually many of their further purchases of liners will still come from this company like the Sugbu which was the latter Mabuhay 3, the Maynilad, Mabuhay 2, Mabuhay 6 and what was supposed to be the Mabuhay 7 which turned out to be the SuperFerry 11 and later Our Lady of Banneux). It seems it was the over-reliance of William Lines on A” Lines that doomed her into sliding into the Number 2 position among the local shipping companies and so Sulpicio Lines did well in diversifying their source.

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Photo by Wilben Santos thru PSSS

The Ferry Amami turned out into the ferry Zamboanga City, a ROPAX liner. This ferry was not known by many because she was not a ship with a route to Cebu and instead served her namesake city at first, obviously, and Cebuanos, the most literate among Pinoys about ships normally don’t go to Zamboanga City. This ferry, like many of the ferries of A” Line in the 1970’s had the design of having a stern ramp but having booms in the bow of the ship which is being hybrid also in some way. Most ROROs that came in this country does not have this design. It might have not been so fit here because the other ferries from A” Lines of William Lines had this boom subsequently removed like in Sugbu, Maynilad, Mabuhay 2, Mabuhay 6 and SuperFerry 11 (the later Our Lady of Banneux). When this boom is being operated, the ship also rocks in cargo loading like in cruiser ships and of course the stern ramp will also move and I think that was the contradiction of this kind of design.

The Zamboanga City is not a big RORO liner but it is comparable to most of the RORO liners that came to the Philippines in the period between 1987 and 1992 which were near 100 meters in length up to a little over 120 meters in length. Among that came in this period were the Our Lady of Fatima, Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Sacred Heart, Sto. Nino de Cebu (the later Our Lady of Medjugorje) of Carlos A. Gothong Lines, the Masbate I, the Tacloban Princess and Manila Princess of Sulpicio Lines, the Sta. Ana and Princess of Negros of Negros Navigation. To this the Our Lady of the Rule of Carlos A. Gothong Lines can be added but she was not used in a Manila route. The notable exceptions were the 3 big liners that came to Sulpicio Lines in 1988 and the Sugbu, Maynilad, Mabuhay 1, Mabuhay 2 of William Lines and the SuperFerry 1 and SuperFerry 2 of Aboitiz Shipping. However, these small RORO liners of 1987-1992 had passenger capacity from over 1,200 to just over 2,000 and the Zamboanga City itself has a passenger capacity of 1,875. It was the period when the country’s economy was recovering, there was a shortage of liners and ferries in general because of lack of acquisitions in the previous years because of the economic crisis and former surplus World War II ships were already being retired. That was the reason why shipping companies tended to push to the limit the passenger capacities of their ships. And it can get full in the peak season and passengers have to be turned away (I have seen this personally many times).

The Zamboanga City was built by Niigata Shipbuilding & Repair in 1975 in Niigata, Japan as the Emerald Amami of and she had the IMO Number 7435527. The ship’s external dimensions were 117.1 meters in length over-all (LOA), a length between perpendicular (LPP) of 105.0 meters and a beam of 19.0 meters and gross cubic measurements was 4,188 in gross register tonnage (GRT). The ferry originally had two and a half passenger decks and its route was to Amami Oshima in Japan. Emerald Amami had a quarter stern ramp leading to its car deck. The ship already has a bulbous stem which was still a novel design in 1975 and that feature aids the speed of the ship. The big cargo boom dominates the front of the ship.

Emerald Amami was equipped with twin Niigata engines with a total horsepower of 16,800 which were the same engines powering the bigger Akatsuki of A” Line also (the Akatsuki became the Maynilad of the same company). With that powerplant, the Emerald Amami had an original sustained top speed of 20 knots (and the Akatsuki 18 knots because it is bigger). It was an unfortunate choice of engines as the Maynilad was only able to generate 15 knots here (because a lot of metal was added) and the Zamboanga City 17 knots (and William Lines suffered in the process). And because of the two, my respect for Niigata engines went down because the other ships of the size of Emerald Amami here can produce the same speed with just about 10,000 horsepower (like the SuperFerry 3, San Paolo and Princess of Negros). And ships of the size of Akatsuki with that engine horsepower can do much better speeds (like the SuperFerry 2 and SuperFerry 5).

In 1987 Emerald Amami was renamed to Ferry Amami. In 1988, when the new Ferry Amami arrived she was put up for sale and in the next year she came to the Philippines for William Lines which then refitted her for Philippine conditions and that means adding decks to increase passenger capacity and to provide for open-air Economy accommodations (the added decks in her were what became the Economy sections). With that the gross tonnage of the ship increased to 5,747 with a net tonnage of 1,176 which is an understated figure (was this the net register tonnage in Japan?). It does not even meet the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requirement that the net tonnage should be at least one-third of the gross tonnage. The deadweight tonnage of the ship meanwhile remained at 2,082. The Call Sign of Zamboanga Ferry was DUZI. This Zamboanga City was the third ship to carry that name in the fleet of William Lines (and at other times she was only referred to as Zamboanga).

Zamboanga City became the replacement ship for the burned Manila City of William Lines in 1991 and thus held the Manila-Zamboanga-Davao route. She was also tried in the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-Cotabato route later to challenge the Cotabato Princess there when Sulpicio Lines transferred the Filipina Princess to the Davao route and the Maynilad was used by William Lines in that route in 1992. When the Mabuhay liner series started arriving for William Lines, the Zamboanga City was shunted to the Manila-Puerto Princesa route without passing Coron and that was her route until William Lines coalesced with Gothong Lines and Aboitiz Shipping at the end of 1995 to form the super-company WG&A.

In WG&A among the ROROs it was Zamboanga City which was subjected to ignominy. She was assigned the route Manila-Zamboanga-General Santos City early in 1996, a route where her relative lack of speed will show. At this time she was only capable of 16 knots when Maynilad was just capable of 14 knots. Her competitor there was the Princess of the Pacific of Sulpicio Lines which can do 18 knots. In mid-1996 she was assigned the Manila-Dipolog (actually Dapitan)-Ozamis route that was held before by another slowpoke, the 16-knot Our Lady of Good Voyage, the former Ferry Kikai of A” Line which first became the Mabuhay 6 (I noticed a lot of former A” Line ships that came to William Lines this period was afflicted with slow speed).

In 1997 Zamboanga City disappeared from the schedules and she was offered for sale together with the Maynilad. The two were the only RORO liners offered for sale by WG&A. The Maynilad I can understand the reason because there is really no liner that just runs at 14 knots and passengers to Zamboanga when she was still with William Lines complained of the too long transit time even though she does not dock at Iloilo port. But at 16 knots the Zamboanga City was just in the league of SuperFerry 3, the Our Lady of Sacred Heart and just marginally below the Our Lady of Medjugorje. When WG&A started pairing of ships on routes, the three were often paired. All were mechanically reliable just like Zamboanga City but Zamboanga City was always left out. What was her jinx, the cargo boom at the front? Ferry Kikai also had that also but was removed and a deck ahead of the bridge, a Tourist accommodation was created. If that was the problem that could have been done also for Zamboanga City. Or was the 16,800 horsepower engine the real killer that was why she was disliked by WG&A Jebsens that manages the fleet? At least Our Lady of Good Voyage only has 7,600hp engines, the Our Lady of Sacred Heart had 8,000hp engine, the Our Lady of Medjugorje had 9,000hp engines and SuperFerry 3 just had 9,300hp engines. And their speeds were the same. Do the math.

I was wondering then why the cruiser Our Lady of Naju which has the length of 111.4 meters was retained. Its cargo capacity was measly but her route of Dumaguit and Roxas City had minimal cargo anyway and so maybe her 10,000hp engines is what made her acceptable and she was even marginally faster than Zamboanga City. But why the Our Lady of Lipa with 18,800hp engines on 124.2 meters length survived? Well she at least had the speed and she could be used for the speed wars in Cebu-Cagayan de Oro route if needed. Maybe it was really the big engines with no speed that was the albatross on the neck of Zamboanga City. Now maybe if only Dumaguit and Roxas had more cargo then she might have survived instead of the Our Lady of Naju.

Mind you the accommodations of Zamboanga City are decent and comparable to liners of her period and I can say that because I have ridden her when she was substituted to the Iligan route. I don’t know maybe that was just her role then in WG&A before she was sold – to be a reserve ship. Maybe her size and engine size was really not fit for the Visayas-Mindanao route. Or maybe WG&A prefered the Maynilad there (also known as Our Lady of Akita 2 after one passenger deck was removed). This ferry had better accommodations and bigger cargo capacity and 14 knots can be hidden in a Cebu to northern Mindanao route). Otherwise, she would have taken the slot of the 104.6-meter Our Lady of Manaoag, the former Masbate I. But then that ship only had small engines with 7,600 horsepower.

An unwanted ship, in 2000 the Zamboanga City was finally sold to China breakers. Too unknown, too unheralded that few remember her.

The Flagship and Great Liner Wars Going Into the Middle ’90s

If the deadly-for-shipping decade of the ’80s ended in 1990, in 1992 and more so in 1993 there was a palpable change of mood in the local shipping industry. There was optimism, a new outlook and the surviving shipping companies were raring to go instead of just trying to keep their heads above water. There was a new administration ruling in Malacanang under President Fidel V. Ramos which has called for shipping modernization (it was not just modernization but also to address our lack of ferries then). It rolled out incentives for shipping including a program to acquire new ships. The power crisis and the coup d’etat attempts against the previous administration were over and business was picking up. An uptick in business is also a call for shipping expansion, so it was thought then.

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I remember that 1992 and 1993 were signal years for Philippine shipping. That was when great liners (Frank Heine and Frank Lose defined this as liners of over 10,000 gross tons) started arriving in local shores and the flagship wars of the local shipping companies began in earnest. It took the competitors of Sulpicio Lines four or five years before they were able to respond to the knock-out punch delivered by Sulpicio Lines in 1988 when they acquired the trio of Filipina Princess, Cotabato Princess and Nasipit Princess. William Lines, then the closest competitor of Sulpicio Lines for the bragging rights of which is Numero Uno rolled out the splendid-looking with impressive interiors, the tall Maynilad in 1992. However, she had an Achilles heel which cannot be remedied – she severely lacked speed, a requirement for great liners and she was just in the 140-meter class, no matter how much superstructure they tried to build into her.

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Maynilad by Britz Salih

Aboitiz Shipping Corporation fielded the SuperFerry 2 in 1992. She was much like in the interiors and size of the SuperFerry 1 at being in the 130-meter class also but her passenger capacity was maxed. However, she was not in the 20-knot class unlike the SuperFerry 1 and Filipina Princess. Twenty knots was already the speed considered necessary then for great liners locally, if they wanted bragging rights. Negros Navigation fielded the San Paolo in 1992 and the Princess of Negros, their new flagship, in 1993. But both were just in the 110-meter class and their speeds were just about equal to SuperFerry 2 at most. Aboitiz Shipping Corporation also fielded the SuperFerry 3 in 1993 but she was also in the 110-meter class like the San Paolo and the Princess of Negros. Moreover, her speed was a little inferior to the two.

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Mabuhay 1 by Britz Salih

In 1993, William Lines and Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) showed two great liners that were a direct challenge to Sulpicio Lines. William Lines fielded the great Mabuhay 1 which was also in the 180-meter class like the Filipina Princess but was more modern-looking. The Our Lady of Akita of Gothong Lines was not as sleek-looking but she was also big being in the 160-meter class. When the two arrived, it was only Filipina Princess which was breaching the 150-meter mark among local liners in length.

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Our Lady of Akita by Britz Salih

News of incoming liners to the Philippines usually become rumors in Japan shipping circles even before the ships prepare to leave Japan waters and that could even be months in advance. After all, it is just a small, close-knit circle and news of a newbuilding of a ship that will replace a sailing one on the same route are also known by the time the keels are laid. And that is about half a year or more before they are even delivered. So speculations are always rife as to where the ships that will be replaced will be headed (in terms of country) and who is the agent and the buyer.

In Japan, a company bet big on the “Highways of the Sea”, the big, fast overnight ROROs which connected the northern and southern parts of Japan to its central part and metropolises. The Terukuni group and its shipping company Nihon Kosoku Ferry built the all-big (only one is less than 180-meters length in a series of seven) Sun Flower series of luxury liners successively between 1972 and 1974. Not only all were grand but all were very well-appointed and tops in comfort. Like floating “hotels of the sea”, they were the Japan equivalent of the legendary Stena series of luxury ferries in Sweden and in Europe.

Terukuni and its shipping company did not earn money from the series and became financially distressed and so changes in the ownership structure came about. Even so, the Sun Flower series became highly regarded. At times, the more important thing was the impact, the lasting impression and the regard created in the public’s mind. The Sun Flower series was well-remembered in Japan to almost the equivalent to being able to lay down a template.

The Philippines was lucky we had Japan connections and so a few of these great and grand liners of Japan came to our shores. Some will notice that the great liners that came later like SuperFerry 20 and SuperFerry 21 (the two were also Sun Flowers) and St. Michael The Archangel and St. Francis Xavier (which are sister ships of the first pair) are no longer as luxurious. Tastes and conditions have changed. In the 1990’s, the new “Highways of the Sea” were just functional ferries and no longer offered First Class. They might rival their 1970’s predecessors in size and speed but they were no match in the arena of appointments and luxury.

Two of these 1970’s beautiful Sun Flower ships came at the same year in the Philippines – amazingly to compete with each other! Sun Flower 5 came to William Lines and became her Mabuhay 1, the progenitor of the highest class of William Lines liners. At 185 meters, she was of the same size as the former reigning queen of Philippine shipping, the Filipina Princess of Sulpicio Lines. But Mabuhay 1 was more-modern looking and she had better appointments. Both were 20-knot class in speed but Filipina Princess was still speedier. After all, she still has an edge of nearly 6,000 horsepower in power output.

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Princess of the Orient by Britz Salih

But Sulpicio Lines was not to be denied. The biggest of the Sun Flower series which was the Sun Flower 11 came to Sulpicio Lines and became the Princess of the Orient in 1993. This ship had that distinctive two funnels in one line in the center of the ship, a feature not present in the other Sun Flowers. She was also in the 195-meter class. As such, she will hold the title of being the biggest liner in the Philippines at that time. However, she might have been bigger and taller but she cannot do 20 knots unlike the Mabuhay 1. [As a footnote to this class, another one of the Sun Flowers came in 1999, a true sister of Mabuhay 1. That was the Princess of New Unity of Sulpicio Lines which was the Sun Flower 8 in Japan].

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Princess of Paradise by Aris Refugio

And it was not only the Princess of the Orient that came for Sulpicio Lines in 1993. That year she also acquired the big, fast, tall and well-appointed Princess of Paradise from China (but she was originally sailing in Japan). With her fielding, she will be the next holder of the title “Speed Queen” among the liners, the successor to the Filipina Princess in this category.

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St. Francis of Assisi (saved from the net by ‘rrd80’)

The Princess of Paradise was also in the 160-meter class like the Our Lady of Akita but the former was more modern-looking. The two will battle not only in the Cagayan de Oro route and also the Cebu and Nasipit routes. Meanwhile, the Mabuhay 1 and Princess of the Orient will battle in the premier Cebu route (with Filipina Princess still calling in Cebu on the way to Davao). Mabuhay 1 will also show her colors once a week in Iloilo. It is to this challenge to their home port that Negros Navigation responded in 1994 with the equally-impressive and fast St. Francis of Assisi, their next flagship. She was not that big at 140-meter class but she can also do 20 knots and she was very well-appointed, too.

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Princess of the Pacific by Britz Salih

The third ship that came to Sulpicio Lines in 1993 for its wars for the Number 1 position among our shipping companies was the Princess of the Pacific. She was made tall but she was only 137 meters in length, about the length of the new Aboitiz liners. She had the same speed of 18.5 knots like the Princess of the Orient (and better than SuperFerry 2) but she was not that well-appointed. She also docked in Iloilo on her way to Zamboanga and General Santos City. It seems that like in 1988, to fend off competition Sulpicio Lines acquires a bunch of impressive, new liners.

When Mabuhay 1 came to take over flagship duties for William Lines in the premier route to Cebu, in a short time their former flagship Sugbu previously holding that route quietly disappeared. She headed to Singapore for reincarnation as the third ship of the Mabuhay series in 1994, the Mabuhay 3. When she came back, few were able to recognize her as she was lengthened and the superstructure changed and with modifications she was now capable of 20 knots.

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Mabuhay 3 as Super by Vincent Paul Sanchez

Suddenly, in 1993 we truly had great liners in size and in appointments. They all breached 160 meters in length and they were all in the 10,000-gross ton class. In amenities, luxury and passenger service they were a step ahead of the previous big liners. With their more modern design, even the great Filipina Princess suddenly looked old (but not in speed!).

In this year, we were beginning to reach the pinnacle of local passenger liner shipping. More liners will then come together with a “Great Merger” that produced WG&A. From a lack of bottoms at the start of 1990, it seemed to me that before the decade was out we already had a surplus of liners. This can be shown when older liners especially the cruiser liners were sent to the breakers. Some, however, were acquired by regional shipping companies like the Sampaguita Shipping of Zamboanga. This was also apparent in sending old RORO liners to the overnight routes of Cebu Ferries Corporation.

It was not a one-alley fight, however. Intermodal buses were beginning to muscle in especially in the eastern seaboard and a new budget airline, the Cebu Pacific Air was born. On the cargo side, forwarding and trucking companies were mushrooming powered by the arrival of fast surplus trucks in the Subic free port. And this included the wing van trucks which will soon be the bane of the container vans.

From the pinnacle, where is one headed especially if blind to parallel competition?

When the RORO Liners Came to Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao

The ROROs (Roll-on, Roll-off ships) first came to the Philippines at the end of the 1970’s and in the 1980’s it began to multiply in Luzon and the Visayas. From the moment the ROROs arrived it was already obvious that they were superior to the cruiser ships and that a new paradigm has arrived and the cruiser ships were already headed to obsolescence. However, the ROROs did not multiply fast in general in the 1980’s because it was a decade of great economic and political crises when the value of the peso plunged and inflation was unchecked. At the height of the crisis of the 1980’s almost no loans were available, few foreign currency was available (that it even lead to the creation of the “Binondo central bank) and the interest rates were skyhigh that it was almost suicide to take a loan especially at foreign-denominated one.

That difficulty was reflected in that the first RORO liners and overnight ferries in the country acquired at the peak of this crisis up to 1986 were small and were generally just in the 60 to 70-meter length class only and barely over 1,000 gross tons. Among the examples of those were the Surigao Princess, Cagayan Princess, Boholana Princess, Sta. Maria (of Nenaco and not Viva Shipping Lines), the Viva Sta. Maria and Marian Queen of Viva Shipping Lines and the many ROROs acquired by Carlos A. Gothong Lines like the Dona Lili, Don Calvino, Dona Josefina, Don Benjamin, Dona Casandra, Dona Cristina and the third Sweet Home of Sweet Lines. The notable exceptions in this period were the Sweet RORO and Sweet RORO 2 of Sweet Lines and the Sta. Florentina of Negros Navigation but the three were not really that big (as in 110 to 120 meters LOA). Many liners shipping companies did not bother to purchase a RORO ship in this period like William Lines, Aboitiz Shipping, Lorenzo Shipping, Escano Lines and the moribund Compania Maritima, the erstwhile biggest passenger shipping company.

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Cotabato Princess c. 1988 by Britz Salih

However, if Luzon, the Visayas and Northern Mindanao already had RORO ships in this period described, Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao did not see a RORO liner until 1988 when Sulpicio Lines fielded the Cotabato Princess in the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-Cotabato route and Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. fielded the Asia Korea (the latter Asia Hongkong and the Reina del Rosario of Montenegro Shipping Lines) on the Cebu-Iloilo-Zamboanga-General Santos City route and that RORO ship is actually 82.8 meters in length which is about the size of small liners then like the Our Lady of Guadalupe which arrived in 1986 for Carlos A. Gothong Lines and was 89.7 meters in length. With the overthrow of the dictatorship in 1986 and the general bettering of the economic conditions starting in 1987 the RORO ships being purchased were beginning to get bigger and more many as the difficulty of lending from banks and the interest rates eased and there was new economic optimism.

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Asia Korea (TASLI photo)

The fielding of RORO liners in Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao was not fast at first. In 1989, the Zamboanga City of William Lines came when it did the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga route before replacing their burned (in the shipyard) Manila City in the Manila-Zamboanga-Davao route. In 1992, the big but slow Maynilad of the William Lines came and replaced the Zamboanga City in that route and the Zamboanga City was given the Manila-Iloilo-Cotabato-General Santos City route instead to battle the Cotabato Princess (with she bypassing Zamboanga port her travel time to Cotabato was shorter).

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Maynilad (Photo credits: William Lines and Britz Salih)

Sulpicio Lines only fielded their second RORO liner in Southern Mindanao when the Manila Princess came in 1992 to replace their cruiser Davao Princess in the Manila-Cebu-Davao route. Actually during that time the only shipping companies with passenger service still remaining to Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao were Sulpicio Lines, William Lines and Sweet Lines. Such was the effect of the political and economic crises of the 1980’s and the coming of the container ships. Among those who quit Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao then in passenger shipping were Compania Maritima, Aboitiz Shipping and Lorenzo Shipping.

The slowness of the coming of the RORO liners in Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao can be counted this way. In 1992, four years after the first coming of the RORO liners, the southernmost portion of the country only had 4 RORO liners, the Manila Princess and Cotabato Princess of Sulpicio Lines and the Maynilad and Zamboanga City of William Lines (Sweet Lines only had the cruiser Sweet Glory in the route). Well, actually there were not that many liners here compared to the Visayas and Northern Mindanao as most cargo in the region was actually carried by the container ships which outnumber the RORO liners. However, Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao RORO liners were generally bigger than the Visayas and Northern Mindanao RORO liners, on the average.

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Princess of the Pacific (Photo credits: Sulpicio Lines and Britz Salih)

It was starting in 1993 that fielding of RORO liners to the southernmost part of the country accelerated. More RORO liners were actually coming in the country because of the incentives laid by President Fidel V. Ramos. The Princess of the Pacific of Sulpicio Lines came and did the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-Dadiangas route. Aboitiz Shipping came back to Southern Mindanao when they fielded the SuperFerry 1 in the Manila-Iloilo-General Santos-Davao route and their SuperFerry 3 did the Manila-Zamboanga-Cotabato route to the protest of William Lines in the latter which when not resolved resulted in the withdrawal of the liner Zamboanga City and subsequent reassignment of that ship to the Puerto Princesa route. Meanwhile, the super-big former flagship of Sulpicio Lines, the Filipina Princess replaced the Manila Princess in its route and this ship was subsequently assigned to the Manila-Zamboanga-Davao route to compete with the slow but bigger Maynilad.

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Photo credits: Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen

In 1994, the lengthened and rebuilt Sugbu which became the Mabuhay 3 of William Lines did the Manila-Davao-Dadiangas route. In 1995, just before the merger that produced WG&A no more further RORO liners came but Manila Princess was plagued by unreliability and was just being used as a reserve ship.

When WG&A started sailing in 1996 there were heavy changes to the schedules and routes. Early in the merger, the Maynilad was doing the Manila-Dumaguete-Cotabato route and SuperFerry 3 was assigned her old Manila-Zamboanga-Cotabato route. The Dona Virginia was fielded to the Manila-Zamboanga-General Santos City route and competing head-on with the Princess of the Pacific but she was only a half-RORO, half-cruiser. The SuperFerry 6 was doing the Manila-Surigao-Davao route in contest with the Filipina Princess. And the SuperFerry 1 was doing her old Manila-Iloilo-General Santos City-Davao route. There were more RORO liners now and RORO liners that have not been previously assigned to Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao reached ports here like the Our Lady of Akita of Gothong Lines which became SuperFerry 6 and the old flagship Dona Virginia of William Lines. It was exciting because new ships coming are exciting and because it is a new experience for the passengers.

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SuperFerry 3 by Chief Ray Smith

Along the years there were constant adjustments in the routes and fielding of ships of WG&A as more RORO liners came to their fleet and some liners were disposed off or were lost. Later, WG&A also turned into pairing of ships to do the same route. But it would be hard to mention here all the WG&A routes and schedules as it often changed and I will just risk accusations of inaccuracies and listing many by month will be too tedious.

There was one more change in the area when Negros Navigation invaded Zamboanga and Southern Mindanao in their desire to become a national liner company and compete toe-to-toe with WG&A and Sulpicio Lines. The San Ezekiel Moreno was assigned the Manila-Iloilo-Zamboanga-General Santos route and competing against the Princess of the Pacific. And the San Lorenzo Ruiz (theirs and not the Viva Shipping Lines ship) was fielded to the Manila-Iloilo-General Santos-Davao route in competition then with the SuperFerry 1/SuperFerry 8/SuperFerry 10 pairing.

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San Lorenzo Ruiz by Britz Salih

In the new millennium the RORO liners slowly disappeared from Southern Mindanao and almost too in Zamboanga. Passenger shipping slowly but continuously weakened with the onslaught of the budget airlines (and the intermodal bus too from Davao) whose fares were already in parity with the liners. Soon, even the hoi polloi were also taking the planes and a new generation of passengers deemed the liners as too slow and wouldn’t want to spend two-and-a-half days of their lives cocooned in a liner although they are fed free. The RORO liners soon became for the ship lovers only and for those who feared taking a plane.

In the second decade of the new millennium the Aboitiz Transport System RORO liners to Southern Mindanao disappeared. That was preceded years earlier by the withdrawal of Negros Navigation. Now there are no more liners in Southern Mindanao and in Zamboanga only one liner is left.

Soon RORO liners will just be distant memories in Southern Mindanao.

When Polloc Port Lost

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Photo from REZA-ARMM

Many times a reader will read “Cotabato Port” when it comes to shipping and many of them will think of the great but now conflict-ridden city of Cotabato. They will not realize that the “Cotabato Port” referred to is actually the Polloc port in Parang town in Maguindanao province which is about kilometers from the city. The true Cotabato Port is actually a river port near the mouth of Cotabato River hence it is shallow and can just accommodate small and shallow-draft vessels.

So when ships became bigger, the government decided to develop a new port for Cotabato City but this was not located in the city but in the nearby town of Parang. Actually the port was between Cotabato City and Parang and its name is Polloc port and the national government promoted and supported it well.

1980 0921 Port of Polloc

Credits to Philippine Daily Express and Gorio Belen

In the past, Polloc was a viable port when the roads in the region were still terrible. Sulpicio Lines and Aboitiz Shipping made good sailing there and they even had dedicated passenger-cargo ships and container ships to Polloc port. Sulpicio Lines used the Dona Marilyn (the former Dona Ana) which was a good fast cruiser liner then. They then fielded the RORO liner Cotabato Princess when it arrived and she served the route here well.

Aboitiz Shipping tried this route with a newly-fielded ship here, the SuperFerry 3, smaller that her fleetmates but more fit for this route. When the merged shipping company WG&A was formed a slew of ships served the route including the former William Lines flagship Dona Virginia and a host of ROPAXes including the very well-regarded SuperFerry 1 and SuperFerry 8. The respected sisters SuperFerry 2 and SuperFerry 5 also served Parang port along with the Maynilad. Doesn’t that line-up tells one that Parang port and the Cotabato route was once good then?

1980 1022 Polloc Port

Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

Of course Parang will not be as strong a port like Dadiangas or what is later known as Gensan. South Cotabato was able to develop agribusiness (think Dole) and a hog industry and that was what supported the port. Cotabato and Parang had no such equivalent especially since the area became conflict-ridden at the approach of the 1970’s and in the aftermath the area sank into a certain degree of lawlessness which is a deterrent for trade, investment and tourism.

When the conflict and lawlessness abated a little, Cotabato and Parang did not rise even though the government tried to pour in money and promoted Parang port especially when the SPDA (Southern Philippines Development Authority) was created. And the support continued under the banner of the ARMM (Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao) and it tried to attract Malaysian businessmen and other businesses and promoted Polloc as a free port and ecozone.

Ironically, what doomed Polloc was actually the opening of two new highways, the Narciso Ramos Highway which connected to Malabang, Pagadian and a route to Marawi and Iligan or Ozamis and the paving of the old Sayre Highway which connected the area to Cagayan de Oro via Bukidnon. Where before a shipper will have to wait for the weekly ship, now he can truck his goods to Cagayan de Oro, Iligan or Ozamis and the combination of the three means the availability of daily ships plus a shorter sailing time with a lower shipping cost. And for passengers there are many direct commuter vans now from Cotabato to Iligan and Cagayan de Oro. They can just take the ship there and travel time and costs will be less. Conversely, when they arrive in those ports there will commuter vans waiting for them.

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Now there is no more liner to Parang and cargo ships and container ships are few although the regional government tries to promote it mightily. However, it does not rise because there are simply better alternatives in shipping out cargo or bringing it in. Long-distance cargo trucks from even Cebu already penetrate the area and the main point of departure is Cagayan de Oro. Davao or General Santos City can also be the entry point especially if the goods are from abroad and there is no problem in trucking in the goods to the Cotabato area (talking of the city and not the old province).

The experience is actually what some say that the left hand does not know what the right hand is doing. It is okay and good to open the Narciso Ramos Highway and the Sayre Highway to connect Central Mindanao to Western and Northern Mindanao but then the unintended consequence is the sinking of Cotabato and Parang port.

I just hope the oil facility invested in by the Malaysians in Parang will somewhat make up for the fall. Hopefully they will allow goods from Singapore to be brought in tariff free under the ASEAN Free Trade Zone (which in Philippine bureaucratic definition means a lot of restrictions since they never care to read the dictionary and there are vested interests hiding behind those restrictions and bureaucrats and politicians protecting them). But then the local Nestle operation will balk because Nestle products from Singapore actually lands cheaper in Zamboanga (and that is even with grease money).

Wither Parang? No, actually I don’t have a good idea. It will be another locality whose fate is dependent on decision makers in Manila even though they don’t know much of local or regional realities.

Federalism, anyone?

The Mabuhay 2 (SuperFerry 7)

The “Wilines Mabuhay 2” was the second liner in the luxury series “Mabuhay” of William Lines that was designed to compete with the luxury liners of Sulpicio Lines and the SuperFerries of Aboitiz Shipping. In terms of size, she was not as big as the great liners already existing then like the “Princess of the Orient”, the “Mabuhay 1” and the “Princess of Paradise” and neither was she that fast. In terms of match-ups, she was more the match of the SuperFerries in terms of size, speed (except for “SuperFerry 1”) and amenities. All around everybody called her simply as the “Mabuhay 2”.

The “Mabuhay 2” was born as the “Naminoue Maru” in Japan in 1980. Incidentally, the earlier “Naminoue Maru” built in 1962 also came to William Lines where she was known as “Tacloban City”. This “Naminoue Maru” of 1980 with the ID IMO 7920871 was built by Towa Shipbuilding in Shimonoseki, Japan for Arimura Sangyo or A” Line. She had raked stem and a cruiser stern, two masts, two funnels, a high bridge and two passenger decks. She had a deck crane at the front which was used for lifting container vans and two quarter ramps at the stern leading to a car deck so making her a RORO ship.

The ship measured 140.5 meters by 20.5 meters in length and breadth with 4,886 gross register tons as cubic measure and 3,119 deadweight tons in load capacity. She was powered by two Niigata diesel engines with a total of 15,600 horsepower and that gave her a top speed of 20 knots when new. She had a sister ship here, the former “Akitsuki” also from A” Line which also came to William Lines where she was known as the “Maynilad”.

The “Naminoue Maru” was sold by A” Line to William Lines in 1994. She was refitted in Singapore and a deck was added to her. The cargo boom at the front was also removed and three foredecks in a terraced design were also added and above that a promenade deck was made. This made the ship look great and modern. The mezzanine deck for sedans was also converted into added passenger amenities. With this renovation, her gross tonnage rose to 4,996 which looked to be an underestimation (her sister ship Maynilad had a gross tonnage of 6,538) and the net tonnage was 2,009 which seems to be an underestimation, too. The new passenger capacity of the ship was 2,015 which was significantly lower than sister ship “Maynilad” and that meant there were more passenger spaces and amenities aboard her. With more steel now and with 15 years of sailing mileage already her sustained top speed here was reduced to 17.5 knots which was about average for liners brought out in the 1990’s. Her container capacity was 110 TEUs. These container vans were aboard trailers and moved by trailer caddies so loading and unloading was fast.

In sailing for William Lines starting in 1994, she was assigned the Manila-Surigao-Butuan (Nasipit)-Tagbilaran-Manila route and within the same week she sailed a second route, the Manila-Tagbilaran-Cagayan de Oro-Tagbilaran-Manila route which were completely new sets of routes of William Lines. She was being made to run like the SuperFerries with just a few in-port hours. One unusual twist of their routes was the lack of intermediate ports of call and in obviating a Cebu docking. She was mainly a Northern Mindanao liner for William Lines.

She left Manila for Surigao every Thursday at 7am (which I remember was the earliest departure from North Harbor) and this was a direct route and that was unusual for Surigao ship. She left for Tagbilaran every Sunday at 12mn. For the direct Tagbilaran route she took 27 hours for the 429-nautical mile route. This was not at full speed as she arrives at early dawn anyway. For the 459-nautical mile Surigao route, she took 27 hours of sailing. Its Surigao route was the fastest then in the local shipping industry. Before the fielding of Mabuhay 2, William Lines did not have Surigao as a port of call. So that was actually an expansion in the route system of William Lines.

She had seven classes of accommodations – the Special Suite, Suite, Cabin for 2, Cabin for 4/6, Deluxe Cabin for 4/6/8, Deluxe Tourist and the usual and popular Economy. Her Deluxe Tourist was nice for a Tourist but that was the Tourist I remember that had the biggest gap from the next class Economy at almost double. The difference between First Class and Deluxe Cabin was the latter had only a wash and no toilet and bath. The Special Suite was bigger and more opulent than Suite. Economy was the only class without airconditioning and it was the cheapest.

All passage classes in the ship were entitled to free meals and there were three restaurants – the First Class restaurant, the Tourist restaurant and the Economy restaurant. The restaurants were located on the stern or rear of the ship. But like in the rest of the shipping industry Suite passengers can opt to take their meals in their cabins and it will be served there. The cabin telephone is available for that purpose along with other requests.

She had the usual amenities for liners like lounges, lobbies, front desk and promenade areas/viewing decks. Aside from viewing decks on the side which was limited to the open-air Economy class because she was fully built-up to the sides, she had that viewing deck above the terraced foredecks ahead of the bridge. She also had another viewing deck at the front ahead of the Tourist section and below the row of Suites. Those two were probably built as compensation for the lack of viewing platforms on the side because she had no outside passageways. The restaurants also functioned as additional lounging areas.She also had kiosks and a game room/arcade plus a grooming salon.

The “Mabuhay 2” did not sail long as a liner for William Lines b ecause the merger of William Lines, Gothong Lines and Aboitiz Shipping happened which resulted in the creation of the shipping line WG&A Philippines. This came about on the first day of 1996 although the agreements and preparations for the merger were already underway in the last quarter of 1995. In the new combined fleet, she was designated as the SuperFerry 7. In this new company she was given a new route route assignment which was a twice a week Manila-Tagbilaran-Iligan route and she left Manila every Thursday 12 midnight and every Monday at 9 in the morning.

In WG&A, her accommodation designations also changed. Enumerating low to high, it is now Economy, Tourist, Business Class for 2/4, Cabin for 2/4, Stateroom and Suite. Comparing rates for the common Tagbilaran port of call, the rates for all classes except two actually dropped. However, one purchases the Stateroom and the Suite as a room and not by individual. There was not much change inside the ship as the Mabuhay series was approximately equal in furnishings and comfort to the SuperFerry series.

One major change though in WG&A was all ships initially started with no free meals like in the SuperFerries before the merger and one had to pay a la carte. However, this caused such a furor and even outrage and a lot of protests. Passengers after all since the early times of shipping here were used to free meals and meals that led to contentment at that. I was witness to how noisy were the protests and I saw how the ship management caved in and gave free meals to the more vociferous ones. After that, it was like the dam had burst and there was no holding back in giving free meals again. But what I noticed was the rice portion was too small because they were selling extra rice! Still there were protests why there was no free soup! And no free desserts like in Sulpicio Lines! I can only watch in pity and amusement how harassed were the restaurant crews in the early days of the WG&A liners (I was a frequent traveler in those days and I happened to sail with SuperFerry 7 many times).

SuperFerry 7 did not sail long for WG&A and she actually was not assigned to any other route because of that. On March 26, 1997, an unfortunate incident happened and the ship was hit by fire while docked in Pier 4 in Manila North Harbor. There were no more passengers left as the ship had already finished discharging them. She was towed out of Pier 4 so that the fire will not leap to the other WG&A ships docked in Pier 4 like “SuperFerry 12” and the “Our Lady of Medjugorje”. However, the fire completely gutted her superstructure and she capsized near the ports after the pumps failed. Later, the formal investigation concluded it was an electrical fire that started the conflagration. In a few months. her insurer paid for the coverage of the ship and they even announced it in a local daily. The remains of SuperFerry 7 was then raised up and she was subsequently demolished by the salvors.

Mabuhay 2 only sailed here for three years. Very short. She was the first hull loss incident in the fleet of WG&A.

[Photo credits: Gorio Belen and Manila Chronicle]

The “MV Maynilad”

The liner “Maynilad” of William Lines was named as such because she was the replacement ship for the liner “Manila City” (the second in the fleet to hold that name) which was destroyed by fire in a Cebu shipyard on February 16, 1991 and which was subsequently broken up in 1992. “Manila City” was the cruiser-liner that held for William Lines the Manila-Davao route from 1977 until 1991 when the fast cruiser wars happened in the routes to Davao. So when “Maynilad” succeeded in that route it was not really a surprise.

There was a surprise, however. While the second “Manila City” was a fast cruiser capable of over 19 knots service speed especially when she was newly-arrived, the “Maynilad” was only capable of a little over 14 knots, a speed no longer acceptable for liners of the 1990’s. And to think her sister ship “Mabuhay 2” which came a little bit later in 1993 but which was capable of 17.5 knots service speed.

Akatsuki ©Toshihiko Mikami

“Maynilad” was born as the “Akatsuki” of A” Lines of Japan. She was built by Towa Shipbuilding in the Shimonoseki shipyard. She was launched on May of 1981 and completed on July of 1981. Her measured length over-all (LOA) was 140.5 meter with a moulded breadth of 20.5 meters with a Depth of 7.1 meters. Her original Gross Registered Tons (GRT) was 4,997 and her Deadweight Tonnage (DWT) was 3,128 and her original passenger capacity was 1,032. “Akatsuki” had only 10,200 horsepower from her two Niigata engines and her maximum speed when new was 18 knots. Her unique IMO Number was 8106630.

In 1992, “Akatsuki” came to William Lines of the Philippines to become the “Maynilad”. In refitting two passenger decks were added to her passenger capacity rose to 2,511. Her new GT (Gross Tonnage) was 6,835 and her NT (Net Tonnage) was 4,059. Her DWT was 2,800 and her Depth was 11.9 meters. Her route was Manila-Zamboanga-Davao. Most liners of the era would pass by Iloilo and/or General Santos City but with her lack of speed “Maynilad” cannot afford that.

Maynilad (WLI)
Maynilad ©britz777

“Maynilad” was one of the tallest liners around with five passenger decks. Her accommodation classes ranged from Special Suite, Suite, First Class Cabin for 6, De Luxe, Special Economy and Economy.

Like other A” Line ships of the era, the former “Akatsuki” had cargo booms at the bow or front of the ship and a RORO ramp at the stern or rear. Unlike her sister ship “Mabuhay 2” this cargo loading arrangement was no longer changed. One disadvantage of that aside from the slower loading/unloading rate was the ship swayed every time a container van was lifted by the cargo boom and this was felt by the passengers that already boarded.

With her slow speed for a liner one feedback from passenger of the era was the very long time without seeing port as the Manila-Zamboanga transit time took 37 hours and the Zamboanga-Davao leg took 23 hours. However, she was comfortable enough for liners of the era except when compared to former deluxe liners from Japan. Moreover, especially in William Lines livery she looked good from the outside.

With the merger of William Lines, Gothong Shipping and Aboitiz Shipping in 1996 that created the William, Gothong & Aboitiz she came to the WG&A fleet. Although big and with accommodations good enough she was not renamed a “SuperFerry”. When I asked why the reason given was her lack of speed. Meanwhile, her sister ship “Mabuhay 2” became the “SuperFerry 7”.

In the WG&A fleet she initially retained the Manila-Zamboanga-Davao route. Soon, however, she was removed from that route when faster liners was fielded by WG&A in that route including the new route passing through the eastern seaboard of Mindanao. She bounced through routes where speed was not a premium but there was really no good fit as those routes usually have a smaller traffic and “Maynilad” has a big passenger capacity. She was too big for the routes of Cebu Ferries and soon in 1997 she was advertised for sale together with six other ships of the fleet.

Our Lady of Akita 2 ©via James Gabriel Verallo

There were no takers especially since her tag price was high especially if compared to her Gross Tonnage. When WG&A and Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC) culled ships in 2000 she was initially transferred to Cebu Ferries and she was renamed the “Our Lady of Akita 2”. This name change caused confusion including in maritime databases. There was a former “Our Lady of Akita” which became the “SuperFerry 6” which was burned and lost in the same year.

However, she was not a good fit in the CFC routes like the “Our Lady of Banneux” which was also handed down to the CFC fleet as they were simply too big for the routes being full-pledged liners. Soon she was packaged for sale to China along with many other WG&A/CFC ships that included container ships so the Chiongbian and Gothong families who were divesting divesting then from the merged shipping company can be paid.

In September 2003, the former “Maynilad” was broken up in China, a sad end for a ship barely over 20 years old in age and with a service less than a decade in the Philippines if her lay-up period were deducted. Ultimately, her lack of speed, which was a big consideration in WG&A, lessened her use and eventually doomed her.