The Fast Cruiser Liners of the Other Shipping Companies Aside From William Lines and Sulpicio Lines

If we adjust the standards a little for fast cruisers in the 1950’s at just below 18 knots then the first “Don Julio” of Ledesma Shipping Lines will qualify a fast cruiser liner. It should be because she was actually the fastest liner of her era! She was the fastest liner of the 1950’s when she was fielded in 1951 and that was true until she was sold to Southern Lines in 1959.

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Credits to Manila Chronicle and Gorio Belen

The first “Don Julio” was an ex-”FS” ship but lengthened in Hongkong when converted to a passenger-cargo ship like many of her sister ships here. She was the fastest in her period because she was re-engined to higher ratings. Two former diesel engines from submarines which were Fairbanks-Morse diesels of a combined 3,600 horsepower were fitted to her and this gave her a speed of over 17 knots. She was the former “FS-286” built by Wheeler Shipbuilding Corp. in Brookly, Newy York USA. As lengthened her dimensions were 66.2 meters by 10.0 meters with a cubic measure of 1,051 gross register tons and she was the biggest former ex-”FS” ship that sailed in the country. Later, when she passed on to Philippine Pioneer Lines she was known as “Pioneer Leyte”. On October 23, 1966, she was involved in a collision in Manila Bay and she was subsequently broken up.

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Credits to Philippine Herald and Gorio Belen

The next fastest liner in Philippine waters came in 1960. She was formerly a seaplane tender named “Onslow” and built for the US Navy by Lake Washington Shipyard in Houghton, Washington, USA in 1943. Continuing service in the US Navy after the war she was known as “AVP-48”, a supply ship. Released from the US Navy, she was converted as a passenger-cargo ship. She measured 94.7 meters by 12.5 meters with a cubic volume of 2,137. This ship has two engines of 6,080 horsepower giving her a top speed of 18 knots. She was first known as “President Quezon” in the fleet of Philippine President Lines and later she was known as “Quezon”. When she was transferred to the fleet of Philippine Pioneer Lines she was known as “Pioneer Iloilo” and when she was sold to Galaxy Lines she became the flagship of the fleet by the name of “Galaxy”. She foundered at her moorings in Cebu while laid up on October 19, 1971.

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Credits to Evening News and Gorio Belen

In 1968, the leading company then Compania Maritima ordered the liner “Filipinas” from Bremer Vulkan AG in Vegesack, Germany. This flagship has the dimensions 121.0 meters by 18.1 meters and her cubic measurement was 4,997 gross tons. She had a single Bremer Vulkan diesel engine of 8,800 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 18 knots. As a fast and modern cruiser liner, she was used by the company in the long-distance route to Davao via Cebu and Zamboanga, a very logical route for her. She served the company until Compania Maritima ceased sailing and she was sent to Taiwan ship breaker. She was demolished on April 5, 1985 after just 17 years of sailing. She was probably not purchased by other companies here because during that time it was already obvious that the period of the ROROs has arrived and she was a cruiser.

In 1970, Compania Maritima acquired another cruiser liner, a second-hand one, the former “Hornkoog” of Horn-Linie GmbH. This ship was built by Deutsche Werft AG in Finkenwerder, Hamburg, Germany in 1959. She was renamed here as the second “Mindanao” and she was actually longer but thinner than the flagship “Filipinas” at 134.6 meters by 16.1 meters. She had the cubic volume 3,357 gross register tons. This liner was powered by a single diesel engine which gave her a top speed of 18 knots. It seems this fast cruiser liner was mainly used by Compania Maritima in their Far East routes where their name was Maritime Company of the Philippines. Incidentally, this ship was the last-ever liner acquired by Compania Maritima. This ship was broken up in Taiwan in 1980.

After the first “Don Julio” from Ledesma Shipping Lines, the coalesced company of Ledesma Lines and Negros Navigation, with the latter as survivor, embarked on a series of orders of new fast cruiser liners which were actually all sister ships. This started with the “Dona Florentina” in 1965. She was built by Hitachi Zosen Corp. in Osaka, Japan and she measured 95.7 meters by 13.9 meters. This liner had a cubic measurement of 2,095 gross register tons and a passenger capacity of 831. She was fitted with a single Hitachi diesel engine with 4,400 horsepower and she had a top speed of 17.5 knots. Since this was still the 1960’s and it was just a shade under 18 knots I already qualify her as a fast cruiser liner. She had a fire while sailing on May 18, 1983 and she was beached on Batbatan Island in Culasi, Antique. She was later towed to Batangas where she was broken up on March 1985.

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Credits to Gorio Belen

The beautiful “Don Julio” followed “Dona Florentina” in 1967 and she became the flagship of the Negros Navigation fleet. She was built in Maizuru Shipyard in Maizuru, Japan and she had the same length and breadth of “Dona Florentina”. She was however a little bigger at 2,381 gross tons and she had a higher passenger capacity at 994. She had the same engine and the same horsepower as “Dona Florentina” and her speed was the same, too. This liner had a long career and she even became part of the transfer of Negros Navigation ships to Jensen Shipping of Cebu. She had her final lay-up sometime ins 2000’s and now her fate is uncertain. Her namesake congressman was however still looking for her several years ago, for preservation purposes. Most likely she is gone now.

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Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

In 1971, Negros Navigation rolled out a new flagship, a sister ship to “Dona Florentina” and “Don Julio” but with a bigger engine and a higher top speed. This was the “Don Juan” with the same length and breadth as the two but fitted with 5,000-horsepower B&W engine which gave her a top speed of 19 knots. Her cubic measure was 2,310 gross register tons and she had a passenger capacity of only 740 because she had more amenities. She was built by Niigata Shipbuilding & Repair in Niigata, Japan. This fast cruiser liner did not sail long because on the night of April 22, 1980, she was hit by tanker “Tacloban City” on her port side while cruising in Tablas Strait at night. She went down quickly with a claimed 1,000 number of lives lost. She was reckoned to be overloaded at that time.

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Credits to Times Journal and Gorio Belen

In 1976, Negros Navigation procured a second-hand fast cruiser liner, the “Don Claudio”. During that time, because of the fast devaluation Philippine shipping companies can no longer afford to acquire new liners. This ship was the former “Okinoshima Maru” of Kansai Kisen KK. She was built in 1966 by Sanoyas Shoji Company in Osaka, Japan. Her dimensions were 92.6 meters by 14.4 meters and her cubic dimensions was 2,721 gross tons. Originally, her passenger capacity was 895. She was equipped with a 3,850-horsepower Mitsui-B&W engine that gave her a top speed of 18.5 knots.

All the fast cruiser liners of Negros Navigation were mainly used in the short routes to Bacolod and Iloilo. Later, some were assigned a route to Roxas City, another short route.

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Credits to Philippinje Herald and Gorio Belen

The last shipping company to have a fast cruiser liner was Sweet Lines. She purchased the “H.P. Prior” from Det Forenede in Denmark in 1970 and when they fielded this they ruled the Manila-Cebu route. She was the legendary and first “Sweet Faith” which later battled in that route the equally-legendary “Cebu City” of William Lines. “Sweet Faith” was built by Helsingor Vaertft in Elsinore, Denmark in 1950. She measured 104.0 meters by 14.9 meters and 3,155 gross register tons as cubic measure. This fast cruiser was equipped by two Helsingor Vaerft diesel engines with a total of 7,620 horsepower which provided her a top speed of 20 knots sustained. She was actually the first liner in the inter-island route capable of 20 knots, a magic threshold. She only sailed for ten years here and in 1980 she was broken up in Cebu.

Sweet Lines had another liner capable of sailing at 18 knots when she was still new. This was the former “Caralis” of Tirrenea Spa di Navale of Italy which was built by Navalmeccanica in Castellamare, Italy. She was the second “Sweet Home” of Sweet Lines and she measured 120.4 meters by 16.0 meters and 5,489 gross register tons in cubic capacity and she can carry 1,200 persons. Sweet Lines advertised her and the “Sweet Faith” as the “Inimitable Pair” and the two were paired in the premier Manila-Cebu route. Sweet Lines sold her in 1978 and she became a floating hotel. She capsized and sank while laid up in Manila on November 24, 1981. She was subsequently broken up.

These were the eight other fast cruiser liners that came to the Philippines which were not part of the fleet of William Lines and Sulpicio Lines in which I had an earlier article.

The Sweet Grace and Sweet Faith and Their Impact for Sweet Lines

The “Sweet Grace” and “Sweet Faith” were two luxury liners that came for Sweet Lines in 1968 and 1970, respectively. These two liners had a lot to do in establishing Sweet Lines not only as a legit liner shipping company in the Philippines but also as one of the majors. As a liner company, Sweet Lines was a relative latecomer in this field as they only ascended to this in 1965. Their competitors Compania Maritima, Philippine Steam and Navigation Company (the partnership of Everett Steamship and Aboitiz Shipping), Escano Lines, William Lines , Carlos A. Go Thong & Co., Madrigal Shipping and Philippine President Lines started way early than them. But Sweet Lines’ rise was fast and this was helped by some astute moves like the purchase of “Sweet Grace” and “Sweet Faith” (this is the first “Sweet Faith”, a clarification since another liner of theirs also carried that name later). This was also helped by the acquisition of “Sweet Rose” locally and by the first “Sweet Home” from Italy.

Sweet Lines actually had pre-World War II origins as the Central Shipping Company. They originated in Bohol and they only changed their name in 1961. Actually, almost anyone who knew them always thought of them as a Bohol shipping company and so Bol-anons were always proud of them. After the war, the company grew to be a regional major with lines from Bohol to Northern Mindanao and Cebu and lines from Cebu to Leyte and Northern Mindanao. But they were not a multi-day liner company yet then as they were just sailing overnight and short-distance routes.

Then in 1965, the liner company General Shipping Company decided to quit local routes and just engage in shipping to the Far East after a board room squabble. With that, General Shipping began to dispose of their liners and franchises and half of those went to Sweet Lines (and the other half went to Aboitiz Shipping Corporation). Three of those liners were ex-FS ships and there is nothing noteworthy there but the fourth one was noteworthy. It was the former “General Roxas” (the second to carry that name in the fleet of General Shipping) and this was one of the two brand-new local-built liners from NASSCO in Mariveles, Bataan that was ordered in 1960 and 1961. The two were sister ships.

They were relatively big for a liner during those early days with the “General Roxas” at 84.7 meters by 12.3 meters. In cubic capacity she had 1,757 gross register tons and 968 net register tons. What was notable was they were already equipped with airconditioning when the very common ex-World War II ships then were not airconditioned like the ex-FS ships and bigger ex-C1-M-AV1. “General Roxas” became the “Sweet Rose” in the Sweet Lines fleet after coming over in 1965. For most of her career in Sweet Lines, this liner held the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban route for the company (yes, that was still an important liner route in those days; now that is bread and butter for the intermodal buses).

In 1968, from a soft loan by West Germany through the Philippine Government, Sweet Lines was able to order the “Sweet Grace”, a brand-new liner. This ship was built by Actiengessellschaft ‘Weser’ Seebeckwerpt in Bremerhaven, Germany with the ID IMO 6806951 at a cost of PhP 6.4 million (no typo there; now that money will just buy a high-end BMW). She was a cruiser with two masts, two passenger decks and a cargo boom at the front. The ship had a raked stem and a cruiser stern and a single center funnel. She measured 88.0 meters by 12.8 meters with a depth of 7.1 meters. Her cubic measures was 1,489 gross register tons and her load capacity was 1,590 deadweight tons. Her net tonnage was 690 and her passenger capacity was 18 persons in first class cabins and 650 persons in second class and third class.

The “Sweet Grace” was billed as a luxury liner (most liners then were actually converted cargo-passenger ships). She had an airconditioned lounge and dining salons, a lounge, a bar, piped-in music, TVs and movies – those were what defined a luxury liner then and especially the presence of airconditioning. The ship also had modern navigational aids and those were mainly radar and LORAN then. That is a take against the ex-FS ships which had no radar and which mainly relied on the old compasses and astrolabes. This liner had a single Atlas-MAK engine developing 2,950 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 15.5 knots. She was first deployed to the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban and Manila-Cebu routes.

In 1970, Sweet Lines acquired the luxury liner “H.P. Prior” from Det Forenede Dampskibs-Selskab A/S, which is more commonly known as DFDS, a major Danish and European shipping company. She was built by Helsingor Vaerft in Elsinore, Denmark in 1950 and she had the permanent ID IMO 5139131. She had two masts, three decks and a prominent single center funnel. The ship had a raked stem and a retrousse stern. She was bigger than Sweet Grace at 104.0 meters by 14.9 meters with 3,155 gross register tons. She also measured at 1,814 net register tons and 903 deadweight tons. This liner had a passenger capacity of 1,166 with 310 of that in cabins and the rest in airconditioned dormitories including third class. Her superstructure was practically untouched when she came here. She was equipped with two Helsingor-B & W engines with 7,620 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 20 knots, a speed she carried on even here, the first local liner to have that speed. She was our fastest liner in 1970, displacing from the throne the liner “Galaxy” of Galaxy Lines.

She was a luxury liner in the truest sense of the word and her comfort and amenities were higher than the liners which came before her. There was an airconditioned dining salon, an airconditioned economy cafeteria and all the passenger areas were airconditioned. For entertainment there were TVs and a mini-theater with movies (this was not common then), stereo music (also not common then) and a supper club (it was an sundown to midnight relaxation/lounging area with drinks, “pulutan” and entertainment by a band which was called a “combo” then). There were four third class dormitories which were all airconditioned (no, that was not an innovation by Aboitiz Transport System). And there was even a two-level sundeck which was popular for passengers for sightseeing, catching the breeze and for socializing. “Sweet Faith” defined what was a luxury liner then. She also defined what was “fast”.

In 1973, another European luxury liner came to Sweet Lines, the former “Caralis” of Tirrenea Spa di Navale of Italy which was built in 1957 by the Navalmeccanica in Castellamare, Italy. In the Sweet Lines fleet she became the second “Sweet Home”. She was a bigger liner than “Sweet Faith”, just as luxurious but not as fast. She was then paired by Sweet Lines with “Sweet Faith” in trying to dominate the Manila-Cebu route. The two were dedicated ships there and they sailed four times a week to Cebu and four times a week to Manila. Sweet Lines advertised them as the “Inimitable Mates”. “Sweet Home” measured 120.4 meters by 16.0 meters with 5,480 gross register tons (GRT) and 3,043 net register tons (NRT) in cubic measurements. Her NRT alone was already bigger than most of the liners of that era and that is just the measurement of the area dedicated to the passengers. The ship had a single Ansaldo engine of 6,200 horsepower which was good for 18 knots when new. Here she was only good for about 16 knots or so. “Sweet Home” had a passengers capacity of 1,200 which was probably the biggest in that era.

All these four liners had a big role in establishing Sweet Lines quick in the passenger liner field. There were other shipping companies that had bigger fleets than them. But what degraded them was that they were still reliant on the small, slow and vulnerable ex-FS ships even on the long routes like the routes to Davao and General Santos City (Dadiangas). These kind of ships were even still in use then in primary ports like Cebu and Iloilo while Sweet Lines began retiring their ex-FS ships from Manila routes when they had already these good liners. So Sweet Lines might not have had a big fleet then but their fleet spoke of quality. Actually if their primary liners then had a weakness it was that they can’t carry much cargo.

Sweet Lines liners were known for prompt departures while many other competitors gave priority to cargo. That means if there was still cargo to be loaded then the ship will still not leave even though it was already past departure time. And that was actually oppressive to most of the passengers as it can be hot in the third class sections of the ships especially during summers. Sweet Lines actually led in airconditioning in that liner era. So while Sweet Lines (not “Sweat Lines”) might have been gone now, many people still remember them for comfort and also the size of their liners then.

In the 1970’s, the fast cruiser liners came and that was the new flag bearer of that era offering shorter travel times in the major routes. Being old ships already when they came here “Sweet Faith” and “Sweet Home” did not last very long. Sweet Lines did not acquire fast cruiser liners like what William Lines, Sulpicio Lines and Negros Navigation did. “Sweet Grace” was still relatively new then but she was not fast in the first place. In the 1970’s, 18 knots already became the definition of what was “fast”.

I noticed in shipping that those who failed to follow the new paradigm lose their place in the hierarchy and that was what happened to Sweet Lines (and to some other liner companies like Compania Maritima, Philippine Steamship and Navigation Company and Aboitiz Shipping Company, Escano Lines and Madrigal Shipping). They tried a shortcut to the RORO era like what Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. did. But then maybe, both did not have enough steam for that leap. Other competitors also acquired RORO liners but they still also had their fast cruisers which Sweet Lines did not have. Still, overall, the 1970’s was a good decade for Sweet Lines. And to think they only came in the liner field in 1965. It was in the 1980’s when they started falling back. But then again that is another story….

[Photo Owner: Karsten Petersen]
[Research Support: Gorio Belen]
[Database Support: Jun Marquez/Mike Baylon/PSSS]