RORO Cargo Ships And Vehicle Carriers That Were Converted Into ROPAXes In The Philippines

RORO (Roll-on, Roll-off) Cargo Ships differ from ROPAXes (RORO-Passenger Ships) in that the former are mainly for carrying rolling cargo (vehicles mainly but could also be heavy equipment) with their drivers and crew and as such their passenger capacity and amenities like a restaurant or cafeteria are small. They are mainly designed to ferry vehicles across the sea with the least loading and unloading time. Their sizes vary depending on the distance and the traffic volume. Generally, they have higher sides.

In the Philippines, they are represented currently by the Super Shuttle RORO 7, Super Shuttle RORO 8, Super Shuttle RORO 9, Super Shuttle RORO 10, Super Shuttle RORO 11 and the Super Shuttle RORO 12 of the Asian Marine Transport Corporation (AMTC). They are also represented by the Dapitan Bay 1, Panglao Bay 1 and Batangas Bay 1 of Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI). But this selection is the relatively large ones by RORO Cargo Ship standard. There were smaller versions of it in the past.

Vehicle Carriers are similar to RORO Cargo Ships but instead of acting like commuters they deliver vehicles from the factories to a destination and so they will come back without load unlike the RORO Cargo Ships.  Vehicle Carriers could be smaller or bigger than RORO Cargo Ships but lately they began growing bigger to be more efficient in bringing new cars from the likes of Japan to the United States. Those delivering cars within Japan only were considerably smaller.

In the Philippines, there were several RORO Cargo Ships and Vehicle Carriers that were converted into ROPAXes or what is commonly called as ROROs here and most became RORO Liners of the major liner companies. Per ton, a RORO Cargo Ship or a Vehicle Carrier is cheaper than a ROPAX as it doesn’t have that much equipment and amenities for passengers. Besides, for the same size, they could have smaller engine/engines and so the speed is a bit less.

In refitting, it is possible that in a RORO Cargo Ship or a Vehicle Carrier that metal has to chopped off. Meanwhile, locally, it is normal to add metal to a ROPAX from Japan to add decks for more passenger accommodation. Viewing areas were not considered in the building of RORO Cargo Ships and Vehicle Carriers and that could be one reason for chopping off metal.

I noticed that RORO Cargo or Vehicle Carrier conversion here goes by streaks by shipping lines that has a liking for them for the benefits they offer like a smaller capital cost for the same capacity and I agree with them it is a route worth taking. Maybe the first who took this route was the K&T Shipping Lines which was later known as the Maypalad Shipping Lines after their ferry Kalibo Star sank in Samar Sea in the late 1990s.

Samar Star

Many do not know that K&T Shipping was among the first in the acquisition of ROROs and maybe one reason for that is their ROROs do not look like the traditional ROROs of the other shipping lines. Their first RORO was the Samar Queen that was later renamed into Samar Star which actually became their last ship existing but not sailing. This ship was classified as a Ferry-RORO in Japan but she has the looks a cargo ship like a trio of sister ships K&T Shipping later acquired – the Leyte Star (a.k.a. Leyte Queen), the Cebu Star (a.k.a. Cebu Queen) and the Kalibo Star (a.k.a. Ocean Star). The difference is these four ships have rear-quarter ramps and a car deck and in order for them to carry passengers, K&T Shipping built a passenger deck atop the car deck. In Japan, the trio was classified as Vehicle Carriers.

Leyte Star

The Leyte Star by Edison Sy of PSSS.

The Samar Queen was smaller than the three sister ships at 56.6m x 9.0m x 5.6m and she arrived in 1980 which was just the dawn of RORO (more exactly ROPAX) shipping in the Philippines. Meanwhile, the Leyte Queen arrived in 1984 and the Cebu Queen arrived in 1986. Then the ill-fated Kalibo Star arrived in 1992. All of the three were former Toyo Maru ships in Japan but they have different owners. The external measurement of the Kalibo Star was 72.0m x 10.4m x 4.5m and the measurements of the other two sister ships hew closely to this.

The trio of sister ships were powered by a single 1,250-horsepower Hanshin engine which gave a design speed of 12.5 knots. The Samar Star has a single 1,300 Nippatsu-Fuji engine giving a speed of 13 knots. And this brings up one characteristic of small RORO Cargo ships and Vehicle Carriers. They are generally powered by a single engine only whereas ROPAXes of their size almost invariably have two engines and are faster.

Cebu Star

Cebu Star by Rex Nerves of PSSS.

These four K&T ships have one of the minimum conversions in this type of ships. At the start, the passengers just have to unroll cots and look for a place that they prefer.  Their main cargo here was not rolling cargo either. Nothing unusual in that as most Cebu overnight ferries carry loose and palletized cargo in the main. In loading and unloading, forklifts are used just like in the other Cebu overnight ferries.

Before I digress further, the first of this type of ships converted into ROPAX might be the Don Carlos of Sulpicio Lines Inc. which arrived in 1977 and was classified as a Vehicle Carrier in Japan. Actually, the Don Carlos could very well be our very first ROPAX that is not an LCT. This ship was formerly the Daiten Maru of the Masumoto Kisen KK in Japan. She also not carried rolling cargo except for some trucks and heavy equipment destined for the South (her route is to General Santos City) and on the return trip livestock was loaded. She suffered a piracy attack in 1978 and later she was just used as a cargo ship.

1978 0508 Hijacked Ship

Research by Gorio Belen in the National Library.

The Don Carlos measured 71.6m x 10.9m x 4.9m which is almost the same of the measurements of the K&T Shipping sistership trio. However, this Sulpicio ferry looks like a regular ROPAX after refitting. She was equipped with a single Hanshin engine of 1,300 horsepower and her design speed was 12.5 knots and that speed was her one weakness as she was sailing a long route.

The second shipping company that had a liking for this type of ship to be converted as ROPAXes was the Carlos A. Gothong Lines, Inc. (CAGLI). This happened when they were building up their fleet so that they can return to their Manila route after her break-up with Lorenzo Shipping Corporation. After the break-up Gothong Lines concentrated on the Visayas-Mindanao routes but they relied on small ROPAXes. For the Manila route, they needed bigger ships and acquiring this type I am discussing was their route.

Their first of this type converted to ROPAX might have been the Our Lady of Guadalupe which was Asaka Maru No.8 in Japan and was classified as a Ferry-RORO. But to me she has the built of a Vehicle Carrier which meant metal has to be taken off rather than added like what happens in the former ROPAXes of Japan brought here. One thing notable in the Our Lady of Guadalupe is the high sides with few viewing areas for passengers. The two traits are traits of Vehicle Carriers.

Our Lady of Guadalupe (2)

Our Lady of Guadalupe by Toshihiko Mikami of PSSS.

The Our Lady of Guadalupe measured 89.7m x 14.4m x 4.8m with a passenger capacity of 674 persons. She was powered by two Niigata engines with a total of 5,400 horsepower and her top sustained speed when new was 16 knots. She was fielded in the Manila route in 1986 before being downgraded by Gothong Lines to the Cebu-Surigao route in the early 1990s and she had the reputation of being unreliable and that helped the new Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc. to survive in the route. Her unreliability was never resolved even when she was passed on to the Cebu Ferries Company after the “Great Merger” of 1996.

In 1990, Gothong Lines acquired a pair of sister ships classified as RORO Cargo ships in Japan. The two are the Shinsei Maru which became the Our Lady of Sacred Heart and the Shinka Maru which became first as the Sto. Nino de Cebu. The latter suffered a fire early on after fielding (how can a ship with such a magical name catch fire?) but she was repaired and she was renamed into the Our Lady of Medjugorje. The two are among the better conversions that I have seen and in the latter I love her verandas and she was among my favorite ships.

OUR LADY of SACRED HEART

Our Lady of Sacred Heart by Chief Ray Smith of PSSS.

The sister ships have already been lengthened in Japan and they measured an identical 123.0m x 18.0m x 12.3 meters and that size was average for many of the liners that came in 1990-92 although their passenger capacity did not reach 2,000 persons. The two were not built in the same shipyard. The Our Lady of Sacred Heart was built by Tsuneishi Shipbuilding in 1978 and the Our Lady of Medjugorje was built by the Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding in 1979. The first had a single 9,000 horsepower Mitsui engine while the latter had a single 8,000 horspower engine but both had a design speed of 17 knots which became 16.5 knots in the country. In the “Great Merger” they were transferred to WG&A and they continued to ply a route from Manila and sometimes pairing with each other as they have the same speed (sometimes with SuperFerry 3 too that also has the same speed with them).

Our Lady of Medjugorje (Aboitiz)

Our Lady of Medjugorje by Albritz Salih of PSSS.

A related company, the Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC) acquired in 2009 and 2010 two ships, the Asakaze and Esan which became the Cebu Ferry 2 and Cebu Ferry 3. In Japan they were classified as Ferry-ROROs but they do not look like the type. They might have a small passenger capacity but both featured open car decks and so plenty of metal has to be added in them to become ROPAXes. I do not consider the two part of the type I am discussing.

When Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. divested from WG&A, their first acquisition in 2001 when the divestment was not yet complete was actually a RORO Cargo ship, the Koyo Maru of Keiyo Kisen which became the Butuan Bay 1 in their fleet. At 114.8m x 19.0m x 9.6m, she was not a small ship. What are striking about her was her height and the length of her ramp. The ship was built by Iwagi Zosen in 1989 and she is powered by a single Mitsubishi-MAN engine with 9,600 horsepower that gave her a speed of 17.5 knots.

Butuan Bay 1 in Iligan City

Butuan Bay 1 by Josel Nino Bado of PSSS.

However, her refitting was not first-class (two passenger decks were just added atop her decks) and so when she was sold to Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI) in 2010 after an engine room explosion, TASLI remodeled the ship comprehensibly and she became a looker as the Trans-Asia 5. However, when MARINA took exception to her conking out and wallowing in water (the disadvantage of a single-engine design), she was reverted into a cargo ship and parts of her superstructure were removed. Still, she is a good-looking ship.

Trans Asia 5

The old Trans-Asia 5 by Michael Roger Denne of  PSSS.

Trans-Asia 5

The new Trans-Asia 5 by Mike Baylon of PSSS.

Recently, another shipping company took as liking for this type to be converted into ROPAXes. This is the Asian Marine Transport Corporation (AMTC) which also operates many RORO Cargo ships for their cargo liner operations. Their conversions started their Super Shuttle RORO series but it stopped at three as it seems they found out they were not really good in passenger liner operations.

Their first ship converted was the small RORO Cargo ship Cebu Trader which became the Super Shuttle RORO 1. This ship was built in 1978 by Trosvik Verskted in Norway and has passed into many hands already which is normal in Europe especially for this type. She measured 97.2m x 16.6m x 6.4m and she was powered by two Hedemora engines with a low total of 2,600 horsepower but still her design speed was 14.5 knots (which is a little doubtful).

Super Shuttle Roro 1

Super Shuttle RORO 1 by Fr. Bar Fabella, SVD of PSSS.

AMTC acquired this ship in 2011 and she was tastefully and even moderniscally refitted in Ouano port for ASR in Mandaue, Cebu which showed none of her age. However, she did not serve long as in 2012 she caught fire in heavy downpour while taking shelter from a tropical storm in Looc Bay in Tablas Island, Romblon on a route from Batangas to Dumaguit via Odiongan. She was never repaired.

The next in the series actually came in 2010 and was a small Vehicle Carrier. This was the former Koyo Maru No. 23 in Japan which became the Super Shuttle RORO 2 for AMTC after conversion. The ship measures 90.0m x 14.2m x 11.6m and she is powered by a single Hanshin engine of 3,200 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 14.5 knots when was still new.

Super Shuttle Roro 2

Super Shuttle RORO 2 by Raymond Lapus of PSSS.

However, even with an equal design speed it was said she was faster than the Super Shuttle RORO 1 in the same route to Dumaguit port in Aklan. Well, this ship was built later in 1987 by Imamura Shipbuilding in Japan and that could be a difference. Super Shuttle RORO 2 still sails in the same route but sometimes she takes long breaks.

The last ship in the series is the biggest of the three at 128.8m x 19.9m x 6.6m which is already not small for a liner but she was not developed well and her Tourist section was not even finished. This ship was the Vehicle Carrier Atsuta Maru in Japan that was built by Kanda Shipbuilding and she was named as the Super Shuttle RORO 3 in AMTC. Her route is Batangas-Masbate-Mandaue-Cagayan de Oro and with unfavorable arrivals and departures she never became popular with the passengers especially when her departure times became hard to divine as the company gave priority to cargo. However, her cargo load is always good.

Super Shuttle Roro 3

Super Shuttle RORO 3 by Aris Refugio of PSSS.

Recently, she no longer takes in passengers. Before she was a cheap, direct ride to Batangas but the passengers have to bear hardships. I was lucky I was able to ride her when she was still taking passengers. There were times too when she became unreliable and can’t sail for extended periods of time. She has a single 8,000 horsepower Hitachi engine which powers her to 18 knots when still new. Her unreliability seems to stem from maintenance problems.

Roble Shipping Inc. also tried this type of conversion when they acquired the Vehicle Carrier Taelim Iris from South Korea in 2015. They did not immediately do work on the ship and when work commenced it was just done in their wharf in Pier 7 in Mandaue, Cebu. A lot of metal was added but after the work was finished a beautiful Oroquieta Stars emerged which became their pride. Originally meant for Misamis Occidental, she became a regular to Baybay, Leyte where she is a favorite.

Oroquieta Stars

Oroquieta Stars by James Gabriel Verallo of PSSS.

The Oroquieta Stars measures 77.4m x 12.0m x 8.1m and she is equipped with two Akasaka engines with a total of 4,900 horsepower. Her design speed is 16 knots and that is more than enough for a Leyte overnight ship. She was built by Sanyo Shipbuilding in Japan in 1994.

Another company which tried this conversion route was the Aleson Shipping Lines of Zamboanga. They acquired the Ariake Maru No.18 in 2016, a Vehicle Carrier in Japan built by Honda Shipbuilding. This ship has high sides and to have passenger viewing areas and access, metal has to sloughed off. In the Aleson fleet, this ship became known as the Antonia 1 and named after the matriarch of the company.

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Antonia 1 by Albritz Salih of PSSS.

The Antonia 1 measures 103.6m x 15.5m x 11.5m and she is powered a single Akasaka-Mitsubishi engine of 4,000 horsepower. Her design speed is 15 knots. Presently, the ship’s route is Zamboanga-Sandakan, our only international passenger ship route.

The last company which tried this route of conversion is the Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI). They acquired the Warrior Spirit in 2016 and even earlier than the Antonia 1. While the Antonia 1 sailed in 2017, the Warrior Spirit which was renamed into the third Trans-Asia still can’t sail as a host of ailments that defied easy solutions bugged her especially in the engine department.

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Trans-Asia by C/E John Nino Malinao Borgonia of PSSS

The ship was built by Nouvelle Havre in France in 1980. Trans-Asia, the third, measures 126.2m x 21.0m and her design speed is 19 knots. With high sides and being tall, this ship is the biggest-ever of Trans-Asia Shipping Lines. And I hope that finally they will be able to solve her problems.

I am not too sure if my list is complete. But I would want to see in the future what other ships of this type will be converted into ROPAX in our country again.

 

 

 

The Start and Impact of Containerization on Local Shipping

Containerization or the use of container vans to transport goods began in the Philippines in 1976, a decade after containerization began to take hold internationally. The new method was started by Aboitiz Shipping Corporation when they converted their 1,992-gross ton general cargo ship “P. Aboitiz” into a container carrier. This was followed by the conversion of their general cargo ship “Sipalay” in 1978. These first two container ships had limited capacity in terms of TEU (Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit) which is the common measure of container capacity that can be carried by container ships but it more than showed the direction of cargo loading in the future. And it also showed that general cargo ships can be converted container carriers.

By 1978 and 1979, containerization was already in full swing in the Philippines when major competitor shipping companies William Lines Inc., Sulpicio Lines Inc. and Lorenzo Shipping Company also embraced the new paradigm and competed. This new wave was also joined at the same time by two other small and new shipping companies, the Sea Transport Company and Solid Shipping Lines. Except for these two, our pioneers in container shipping were passenger liner (which means there are fixed schedules and routes) shipping companies.

The leading liner shipping company then which was Compania Maritima declined to follow suit into containerization along with Gothong Lines while the others like Sweet Lines, Negros Navigation and Hijos de F. Escano followed a little later in the early 1980’s. Gothong Lines, however, was into small ROROs early and these can also load container vans. Sweet Lines later founded a separate cargo-container company, the Central Shipping Company.

Like Compania Maritima, Madrigal Shipping, another old shipping company also did not follow into containerization. The smaller passenger liner companies also did not or were not capable into going to containerization. Among them were Galaxy Lines, N & S Lines, Northern Lines, Bisayan Land Transport, Newport Shipping, Cardinal Shipping, Dacema Lines, Rodrigueza Shipping, etc. Soon all of them were gone from Philippine waters and one reason was that they failed to adapt to the new paradigm and shippers were already demanding for container vans.

Before the advent of container vans, dry cargo were handled bulk or break-bulk. Bulk is when the whole ship is loaded with grains or copra. But bulk shipment is not possible in the passenger-cargo ships then as major parts of the ship is devoted to passengers and its requirements. Along with passengers, the passenger-cargo ships then carried various merchandise as in finished goods from the city like canned goods, “sin” products and construction materials. On the return trip, it would carry farm products like copra, abaca, rice, corn or dried fish. Since it was mixed, it was called break-bulk. It was mainly handled by cargo booms and porters and stowed in the ships’ cargo holds. Since it was mixed and has no containers aside from boxes the handling was long and tedious and it was vulnerable to pilferage and damage by handling and by the weather.

With the coming of container vans the weaknesses of the old way of loading that led to damage and pilferage were minimized by a big degree. Actually, the arranging of the goods was even passed on to the shipper or trader and all the container shipping company had to do was haul aboard the container. The new system needed much less labor (who can be balky at times and disputes with them can lead to delays or intentional damage) than before and the loading is faster because containers can simply be stacked one atop the other. This was difficult with breakbulk because of possible contamination and because the cargo had no containers it was difficulty to simply stack them and this even led to lost cargo spaces.

One initial result of containerization was the need for dedicated container ships as the passenger-cargo ships of that era, the cruisers were not meant for the loading of container vans (although they can carry a few and loaded LOLO). Since our local volume was low, our shipping companies preferred not to order purpose-built container ships. Instead, the discovered path was just to convert general cargo ships into container ships. The needed conversion was actually minimal and since these ships were already equipped with cargo booms then it was easier for everything. Only, the booms needed to be more stout as in it has to have more lifting capacity because of the added weight of the steel of the container van. Container vans were handled LOLO or Lift-On, Lift Off.

With the coming of ROROs with its ramps and car decks starting in 1980, cargo handling became easier. Break-bulk cargo especially the heavier ones can now be handled by the forklifts and transferred to the car decks (which then became cargo decks also but not as cargo holds). Shipping companies have used forklifts before but mainly just in the ports. Now, the first ROROs also carried forklifts in the car decks and the stowing of container vans in the car decks of the ROROs began. These were mainly XEUs (Ten-Foot container vans) which can easily be handled by medium-sized forklifts. Still many of cargoes in the first ROROs were break-bulk.

Some liners of the 1980’s had cargo booms at the front of the ship while having RORO ramps at the stern like the “Zamboanga City” and the “Dona Virginia” of William Lines. It carried container vans at the front of the ship and those were handled LOLO while at the stern they loaded container vans. Actually, some big cruiser liners of the late 1970’s can carry container vans on their upper decks at the stern like the “Don Enrique” and “Don Eusebio” of Sulpicio Lines, the “Cagayan de Oro City” of William Lines and the “Don Claudio” of Negros Navigation”. It was handled LOLO by the cargo booms of those ships.

At the tail end of the 1970’s and at the start of the 1980’s what was prominent was the race of the leading liner shipping companies to acquire general cargo ships and convert it to container ships. Aboitiz Shipping Company was the early leader and they fielded thirteen container ships between 1976 and 1989. Their series was called the “Aboitiz Concarrier” and latter additions were called the “Aboitiz Superconcarrier” and “Aboitiz Megaconcarrier”. William Lines rolled out in the same period eight container ship plus two Cargo RORO ships which can also carry passengers. They named their series as the “Wilcon”. Sulpicio Lines was not to be outdone and they fielded fourteen and these were dubbed as “Sulpicio Container” or “Sulcon”.

In the same period, Lorenzo Shipping, a former major, also rolled out eleven container ship in a series called “Lorenzo Container” or “Lorcon”. Some of these were former general cargo ships of theirs. Sea Transport Company were also able to field eight with place name of their ports of call followed by “Transport” like “Davao Transport”. None of the other liner shipping companies which followed into containerization like Sweet Lines and Negros Navigation had half a dozen container ships. Instead, they began relying on their new RORO ship acquisitions but that was also done by Sulpicio Lines, William Lines, Aboitiz Shipping and Gothong Lines.

The main effect of the rush to acquire container ships was the slowing down of the acquisition of passenger ships. Actually, this might even had an effect on their purchase of RORO passenger OR ROPAX ships. With the collapse of many shipping companies in the crisis decade of the 1980’s, this resulted in a lack of passenger ships at the end of that decade. But there were many container ships as in about sixty and that fleet pushed many shipping companies in the cargo trade out of business in the 1980’s. Two main factors pushed them into the precipice – the economic crisis which made it hard to acquire ships and the loss of patronage because the paradigm in cargo handling had changed. Break-bulk was now already marginalized and frowned upon. Shippers and traders have had enough of pilferage and goods damaged in transit.

With marginalization, the other cargo liner companies had more difficulty filling up their cargo holds. Voyages became fewer and sailing times ballooned. They became dead duck for the container vans loaded into the fast RORO liners which had fixed schedules. Soon they were on the way out or they had to move to tramper shipping where there are no fixed routes and schedules. During this period cargo liners were even included in the schedule boards of the passenger liners. Their only deficit compared to passenger liners was as cargo ships they had less speed. And since cargo is handled LOLO they also spent more time in the ports.

Now, long-distance break-bulk shipping is almost gone. It is only lively now in the regional routes like the routes originating from Cebu and Zamboanga. In many cases, places and routes they have already evolved into intermodal shipping – the use of trucks which are loaded into short-distance ROROs. In this mode the trucks are the new “containers” or “vessels”. Since that is in competition with container shipping, it is now container shipping which is beginning to be marginalized by the intermodal truck especially if it is supported by the cheap Cargo RORO LCT.

Things change. Always.

The Passenger-Cargo ex-“FS” Ships of the Philippines

Right after World War II, the former FS ships of the US military dominated the Philippine shipping industry. FS means “Freight and Supply”. Their earlier designation was “FP”. The FS series is one of the many types of transport-supply ships used by the US armed forces in World War II.

The FS ships proceeded from one basic design, with variations. There were many contracted shipbuilders in the US that built them. Higgins Industries and Wheeler Shipbuilding were the dominant FS shipbuilders. The FS ships that reached the Philippines were about 54 meters in length with a beam of 9.8 meters. It is about 560 gross tons. Many manufacturers supplied engines for the FS ships from the basic General Motors-Cleveland design.

The bulk of the FP/FS ships were built in the year 1944 and a few were built in 1945. Most were built for the US Army and it was mainly employed in the Pacific theater of operations of the US armed forces. That was one of the reasons why so many FS ships found its way to the Philippines.

As military surplus ships which the US no longer needed anymore after the war, the FS ships were plenty, readily available and very cheap. Many were just given as reparations for the ships requisitioned by the US during the war or were replacements for the ships that were deliberately scuttled during the early phase of the Pacific war to prevent them from falling into enemy hands.

The first batch that came was directly given to the Philippine government for its disposal. Later, some FS ships given to other countries found its way to the Philippines, mainly in the 1950’s and these were private transactions. Even much later, some former FS ships converted by the US Navy for post-war uses (the “AKL” series) found its way to the Philippines as late as the 1960’s. This batch was cornered by the well-connected Philippine President Lines.

Some of FS ships were used unconverted and served as cargo ships carrying a few passengers. Most, however, were converted to true passenger-cargo use. About half were later lengthened in Hongkong and Bataan shipyards and some were even re-engined. Aboitiz Shipping Lines and William Lines were notable for this.

Converted and/or lengthened FS ships added passenger decks and accommodations. But compared to later standards those were still very spartan and meager. Third-class was really hardship class as one has to sleep among the cargo in the lowermost deck which is hot and noisy as it was just above the engine deck. Second class accommodations meant foldable cots and being located a deck above third class. First class is usually located in the bridge deck and is not accessible by the other classes. However, for all classes air-conditioning is non-existent.

Originally running at 12-13 knots, converted FS ships generally ran at 10-11 knots and sometimes even slower as they aged and got heavy. A route in general had many ports of call with long in-port hours due to the slow loading and unloading operations using porters and booms. Southern Mindanao voyages took two weeks to complete, round-trip. Visayas and northern Mindanao routes took one week. In a few short routes to Panay, Palawan, Mindoro, Romblon and Marinduque, a twice a week sailing was possible.

The FS ships generally didn’t have radar and ship masters became versatile in reading the weather and in looking for coves to take cover when the waves became rough for comfort and safety. The FS ships were known for rolling in heavy seas and being slow it cannot outrun a coming typhoon. Many were caught in the seas by storms and foundered or were wrecked.

The FS ships served longer than they were intended or expected to. Most were still sailing in the 1970’s and having completed three decades of service. But by the 1980’s, only the sturdiest of the class survived. A few of the FS ships served until the early 1990’s. It is a matter of conjecture which was the last FS ship sailing in our waters. That FS ship was probably a vessel running cargo somewhere among the lesser-known routes.

Usually death of the engine is the main cause of the retirement of the FS ship. Others were retired because they were no longer competitive in terms of speed and comfort. Many long-surviving shipping companies sold and broke up FS ships late in its life to be able to buy newer replacement ships. However, other lesser companies sold and broke up ships in the economic crisis of the mid-1980’s and went out of the shipping business.

By the mid-1990’s, the FS ships were already history. At the age of 50 even the sturdiest of machineries begin to fail and can no longer be retrofitted. Radar and air-conditioning, musts of the 1980’s can no longer be retrofitted in the FS ships. Nor can they be made to run any faster.

As a whole, the FS ships did not suffer from leaky bottoms or holed hulls. In general, they proved to be sturdy and reliable. The FS ships were one of the most significant types of ships to serve Philippine shipping.

The Passenger-Cargo FS Ships in the Philippines:

Aboitiz Shipping Lines/PSNC/Cebu-Bohol Ferry Company:

MV Antonia (FS-280)

MV Carmen (FS-226) [foundered 1987]

MV Mangarin (FS-279) [wrecked 1974]

MV Marcelino (FS-271) [broken up 1992]

MV Baybay (FS-253) [foundered 1980]

MV Davao (FS-200) [sold to William Lines]

MV Kolambugan (FS-194) [sold to William Lines]

MV Kinau (FS-365) [sold to CAGLI]

MV Picket II (FS-167) [broken up]

MV Vizcaya (FS-465) [sold to Escano Lines]

MV Lanao (FS-349)

MV Cotabato (FS-404) [sold]

MV Bais (1) (FS-3190 [wrecked 1978]

MV Baztan (FS-264) [sold to George & Peter Lines]

MV Sorsogon (FS-366) [sold to Rodrigueza Shipping]

MV FS-272 [sold to William Lines]

MV FS-177 [fire, sank 1972]

MV Manuel (FS-165) [converted to barge, 1977]

MV Ormoc (1) (FS-176)

MV Ernest S (FS-147) [sold to Escano Lines]

William Lines:

MV Victor (FS-372) [broken up 1985]

MV Albert (FS-527) [wrecked, broken up 1982]

MV Henry I (FS-196) [sold to Bisayan Land Transport]

MV Don Victoriano (FS-526) [fire, broken up 1982]

MV Edward (FS-224) [broken up 1992]

MV Elizabeth (FS-311) [broken up 1988]

MV Don Jose I (FS-268)

MV Davao City (FS-200) [broken up 1986]

MV Misamis Oriental (FS-194) [fire, sank 1987]

MV Dona Maria (FS-265) [sold to Escano Lines]

General Shipping:

General del Pilar (FS-253) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

General Segundo (FS-273) [sold to Sweet Lines]

General Lim (FS-199) [sold to Sweet Lines]

General Lukban (FS-280) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

General Mascardo (FS-269)

General Luna (FS-346) [sold to Sweet Lines]

General Mojica (FS-271) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

General Capinpin (FS-279) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

General Malvar (FS-226) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

Compania Maritima:

MV Bohol (FS-550) [wrecked 1971]

MV Corregidor (FS-549) [broken up 1988]

MV Leyte (FS-386) [wrecked 1978]

MV Mindoro (FS-393) [foundered 1967]

MV Romblon (FS-166) [fire, beached 1974]

MV Marinduque (FS-159) [broken up 1988]

MV Masbate (1) (FS-144) [sold to Sweet Lines]

MV Don Isidro (FS-160) [sold to Sweet Lines]

Manila Steamship:

MS Vizcaya (FS-405) [sold to PSNC]

MS Lanao (FS-349) [sold to PSNC]

MS Venus (FS-404) [sold to PSNC]

MS Elcano (FS-319) [sold to PSNC]

MS Baztan (FS-264) [sold to PSNC]

MS Sorsogon (FS-366) [sold to PSNC]

MS Marinduque (FS-159) [sold to Compania Maritima]

Philippine President Lines/Philippine Pioneer Lines/Galaxy Lines:

MV Pres. Osmena (1) (FS-309) a.k.a MV Pioneer Iligan/MV Gemini [sold]

MV Pres. Laurel (1) (FS-175) a.k.a. MV Pioneer Butuan/MV Virgo [sold]

MV Pres. Roxas (1) (FS-220) [sold to N&S Lines]

MV Pres. Quirino (1) (FS-275) a.k.a. MV Pioneer Tacloban/MV Odeon [sold to Lorenzo Shipping]

MV Pres. Magsaysay (1) (FS-223) a.k.a. MV Pioneer Cebu [sank 1966]

MV Pres. Quezon (1) (FS-265) [sold to William Lines]

Escano Lines:

MV Tacloban (FS-265) [foundered 1971]

MV Kolambugan (FS-194) [fire, sank 1987]

MV Fernando Escano (FS-178) [sold]

MV Agustina (FS-225) [broken up 1989]

MV Malitbog (FS-403) [broken up 1984]

MV Rajah Suliman (FS-147) [broken up 1984]

Sulpicio Lines:

MV Don Enrique (1) (FS-270) [wrecked 1982]

MV Don Carlos (1) (FS-148) [foundered 1977]

MV Don Alfredo (FS-310) [broken up 1983]

MV Don Jose (1) (FS-318) [sank 1967]

Sweet Lines:

MV Sweet Trip (1) (FS-273) [wrecked 1978]

MV Sweet Ride (1) (FS-346) [broken up 1985]

MV Sweet Hope (1) (FS-199) [wrecked 1984, broken up]

MV Sweet Town (FS-144) [broken up 1982]

MV Sweet News (FS-160) [broken up 1968]

Southern Lines/Visayan Transport:

MS Governor Gilbert (FS-194) [sold to Escano Lines]

MS Governor Smith (FS-314) [sold]

MS Governor Wright (1) (FS-287) [sold]

MS Governor Wright (2) (FS-365) [sold to Aboitiz Shipping]

MV Don Julio (FS-286) [sold to Philippine Pioneer Lines]

Bisaya Land Transport:

MV Don Mariano (FS-260) [broken up]

MV Don Filomena (FS-201) [broken up]

MV Dona Remedios (FS-284) [broken up]

MV Don Mariano (2) (FS-196) [sold to Alma Shipping]

North Camarines Lumber/NCL/NORCAMCO:

MV Sirius (FS-265) [sold to Philippine President Lines]

MV FS-387

MV Taurus (1) (FS-365) [sold to PSNC]

MV Vega (2) [sold to N&S Lines]

N&S Lines:

MV Venus (FS-220) [foundered in 1984]

MV Odeon (FS-275) [sold to Lorenzo Shipping]

MV Vega (2)

De La Rama Steamship:

MS Don Esteban (FS-166) [sold to Compania Maritima]

MS Don Isidro (FS-160) [sold to Sweet Lines]

MS Don Vicente (FS-199) [sold to General Shipping]

Pan-Oriental Shipping:

MV Oriental (FS-318) [sold to Carlos A. Go Thong & Co.]

MV Occidental (FS-350) [sold to Carlos A. Go Thong & Co.]

MV Continental (FS-197) [sold]

Lorenzo Shipping:

MV Don Francisco (FS-350) [wrecked 1978]

MV Don Jolly (1) (FS-275)

Juliano & Co.:

MV Zamboanga-J (FS-178) [sold to Escano Lines]

MV Cotabato-J (FS-279) [sold to General Shipping]

Rodrigueza Shipping:

MV Neptuno (FS-379)

MV Sorsogon (FS-366)

Gothong Lines:

MV Don Benjamin (1) (FS-365) [broken up 1980]

Ledesma Shipping:

Don Julio (FS-286) [sold to Southern Lines]

De Oro Shipping:

MV Insular de Cebu (FS-178) [wrecked 1978]

Philippine Sea Transport:

MV FS-194 [sold to PSNC]

South Sea Shipping:

MV Neptuno (FS-389) [sold to Rodrigueza Shipping]

Sta. Mesa Machinery:

MV Ernest-S (FS-147) [sold to PSNC]

Philsin:

MV Philsin (FS-364)

[Research Support: Gorio Belen]

[Database Support: Jun Marquez, Angelo Blasutta, Mike Baylon]

[Edited and reprinted from an article in the old Philippine Ship Spotters Society website.]