The MV Maria Gloria

The Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI) is a Batangas-based shipping company founded by Vicente Montenegro in 1978 that plied ships between Batangas and Mindoro. During that time the routes to the current MIMAROPA were still dominated by wooden-hulled motor boats or what is called batel  in the region (lancha in other regions). Vicente Montenegro was one of the batel operators then and that was no shame. During that time there were no ROROs yet although there were already some steel-hulled cruisers. Even the Viva Shipping Lines which dominated MIMAROPA shipping later (when that was not a separate region yet) was also still in the age of the motor boats then.

Montenegro Lines started with the boat Malaya but when I came to know them in the 1990s they had three motor boats already, the Don Vicente, the Don Francisco and the Dona Matilde. They were holding then the Batangas City to the Abra de Ilog route. Abra de Ilog was the gateway then to the province of Occidental Mindoro through the Wawa port. During that time the motor boats were already finding it hard to fend off the ever-increasing ROROs of the Viva Shipping Lines. Well, even the other shipping companies in the area which had ROROs already were also finding it hard to compete with Viva Shipping Lines which they all feared.

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Photo by Nowell Alcancia of PSSS.

Maybe reading the writing the writing on the wall that it is already the age of ROROs, Vicente Montenegro acquired a RORO on September 1994 which they named as the Maria Gloria and the ferry was fielded in the Batangas City-Abra de Ilog route. Initially, she was not very successful but Montenegro Lines persisted (as once there is a competitor, Viva Shipping Lines will immediately try a full-court press and they have a RORO in the Abra de Ilog route, the Viva Penafrancia 8 which came from Sweet Lines).

The Maria Gloria was the former Tenyo Maru of the of the Shimabara Tetsudo of Japan which is actually a railway company. She was built in 1967 by the Kanda Shipbuilding Co. in Kure, Japan and she possesses the permanent ID IMO Number 6726668. The lines and superstructure of the ship are what was common in that period in Japan for small ROROs.

Actually, the Maria Gloria is not a basic, short distance ferry-RORO. A half-deck for passengers was constructed here in the bridge deck, something that cannot be done for a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO. However, the poop deck was not extended. While a half-deck was added, the gross tonnage of the ship of 267 tons was less than its 356 gross register tons in Japan. The Registered Length of the ship is only 39.5 meters which is less than its 42.9 meters LOA in Japan and the Breadth shrank from 11.0 meters to 10.95 meters. Maybe this is part of the reason for the decrease in the gross tonnage.

Maria Gloria (tourist section)

Photo by Raymond Lapus of PSSS.

The Maria Gloria only has two of accommodation classes, the air-conditioned Tourist and usual open-air Economy and that is the usual for small, short-distance ferries to which she belongs. The Tourist is located in the forward section of the lower passenger deck and the Economy sections are located to the stern of that and in the bridge deck. The total passenger capacity is 413 persons and her rolling cargo capacity is some 350 lane-meters divided into three lanes.

Maria Gloria (economy section - lower deck)

Photo by Raymond Lapus of PSSS.

This RORO is equipped with two engines (the basic, short-distance ferry-RORO with one deck usually has one engine only) and her two funnels confirm that. Her two Daihatsu engines produce a total of 1,400 horsepower and the ship’s design speed is 11.5 knots. The current speed of the Maria Gloria is not far off that. As a RORO, the Maria Gloria has ramps in the bow and in the stern.

Maria Gloria (economy section 1 - upper deck)

Photo by Raymond Lapus of PSSS

From Abra de Ilog, the Maria Gloria was also assigned to the various routes of Montenegro Lines and it seems the farthest she went from their base in Batangas is her Dumaguete-Siquijor route of which she spent a long time too. But outside of Batangas, the base of Montenegro Lines, few realize she is the first-ever RORO of the company.

The Maria Gloria might be an old ship now (she is already over a half-century old) but she is still a reliable ship because her owner Montenegro Lines spends on the proper maintenance of their ships and in fact, in the company there are also other old ships which still run very well until now. MARINA, the local maritime regulatory agency, instead of threatening phase-out of old ferries should just use proper classification to weed out the unreliable and unsafe ships. Like the Maharlika ferries of before. Those were not too old but many were marked by unreliability for periods of time and even the paint job is not good. In Montenegro Lines, paint seems not to be a problem and that is also true with the Maria Gloria.

Maria Gloria (cargo deck)

Photo by Raymond Lapus of PSSS

The Maria Gloria is already sailing for 25 years (a Silver anniversary this month) now in our waters (will Montenegro Lines be giving a 25% discount aboard her for the month?). Whatever, at the rate she is going, I think the Maria Gloria still has many good years ahead of her and I am confident Montenegro Lines will make sure of that.

 

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One of the Magic Elixirs of William Lines and Carlos A. Gothong & Co.

The term “magic elixir” refers to a potion that gives one powers and in modern usage it refers to a sort of magic that was the reason for an entity to rise. In this article I am not referring to something illegal but to one of the reasons for the rise of two of the most storied shipping companies of the Philippines where in their peak were contending for the bragging rights of being the biggest shipping company in the country.

Historically, the Chinese mestizo shipping companies were not as blessed as the Spanish mestizo shipping companies which antedated them in the business. The latter not only had a head start but they also possessed powerful political connections and that was very important then in getting loans from the Philippine National Bank (PNB) which dominated commercial banking then as there was almost no other commercial bank big enough in that time able to finance acquisition of ships. It was also crucial in getting ships from the National Development Corporation and earlier in getting surplus ex-”FS” ships from the Rehabilitation Finance Commission that was awarded as war compensation by the US Government.

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A 1950 ad of William Lines (Credits to Phil. Herald and Gorio Belen)

Of the two companies, William Lines had an earlier start and it was also blessed by political connections – the founder of the company, William Chiongbian happened to be a powerful Congressman who in his run for the Senator missed by one just slot (and his brother was a Congressman too at the same time but in another province). Carlos A. Gothong & Co. had to start from the bottom as it began almost a decade later than William Lines in liner shipping. But later it was blessed by a good strategic relationship with Lu Do & Lu Ym, the biggest copra concern then when copra was skyrocketing to being the Number 1 cash commodity and export commodity of the country.

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The first liner of Gothong & Co. (Credits to Manila Bulletin and Gorio Belen)

In the national liner scene, after its restart right after the end of the Pacific War, the strongest after a generation were the shipping companies that had routes to Southern Mindanao. Left behind were the shipping companies that just concentrated in the Visayas routes like Southern Lines, General Shipping, Philippine President Lines/Philippine Pioneer Lines/Galaxy Lines and other smaller shipping companies to Eastern Visayas, Bicol and the near routes to Mindoro, northern Panay and Palawan. Actually, in my totem pole of national liner companies in 1972, the Top 5 — Compania Maritima, Gothong & Co., Aboitiz Shipping+PSNC, William Lines and Sweet Lines — all have routes to Southern Mindanao.

What made Southern Mindanao the “magic elixir” of William Lines and Gothong & Co. when the latter was not even a liner company in the latter half of the 1940’s and William Lines was behind many shipping companies that preceded them?

In business, there is nothing better barring the illegal than a customer base that simply keeps growing and growing. And that was what Mindanao then was to the shipping companies Southern Mindanao. Before the war the population of Southern Mindanao was small and was practically composed by natives. That was before the government encouraged and assisted the resettlement of people from other parts of the Philippines to resolve what was called then as the “population pressure” (rapidly growing population in an agricultural economy with not enough land anymore to be divided into the next generation and there were no contraceptives yet then and the average number of children was five).

Northern Mindanao after the war already had Visayan migrants as it was just near the Visayas and the Spaniards was able to establish a strong foothold there even in the 19th century. But Southern Mindanao almost had no transplanted population and it is this part of the Philippines that experienced the greatest population boom after the war with what was called by the Moro National Liberation Front as the “colonization” of Mindanao (well, even some politician used the word “colonization” before that became politically incorrect). Where before in the 1948 Census the transplanted population was just a minority in Mindanao, in the 1960 Census the natives suddenly realized they were already the new minority and in the 1970 Census they saw they were beginning to get marginalized (Sultans and Datus who were once Mayors were even beginning to lose the elections).

This population boom, the opening of land for cultivation and the consequent exploitation of the natural resources of Mindanao needed transport and it was not by air (and not by road definitely) but by ship. And by this all shipping companies that were plying the Southern Mindanao routes benefited a lot. Of course shipping companies serving Northern Mindanao also benefited but not to the same extent as the Southern Mindanao shipping companies. And anyway the shipping companies serving Southern Mindanao were the same shipping companies serving Northern Mindanao (with exception of Escano Lines which has also routes to Northern Mindanao but not Southern Mindanao) and so the benefit of those serving Southern Mindanao were double.

If we analyze the biggest shipping company then which was Compania Maritima, most of its ships were assigned to Southern Mindanao. That was also true for the liners of Gothong & Co. (this company has a lot of cargo-passenger ships then to gather the copra for Lu Do and Lu Ym) and William Lines (which assigned 3/4 of its ships in Southern Mindanao early and Gothong & Co. of to 80% in 1967).

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One will wonder how this small ex-“FS” ship sails all the way to Davao

Although William Lines started ahead of Gothong & Co., the latter vaulted ahead of the former in the 1960’s. I think the reason is William Lines relied too much and too long on the ex-”FS” ships and it was only in 1966 when they acquired other types. Meanwhile, Gothong & Co. acquired ships from Europe earlier and in greater numbers. That does not even include the Type “C1A” ships acquired by Gothong & Co. which were big ships and were really ocean-going plus a lot of small ships the likes of lengthened ex-”F” ships and a host of local-builds. In ports of call, Gothong & Co. simply had too many because of the need to gather the copra of Lu Do & Lu Ym which was exporting a lot (and which Gothong & Co. also carried).

For sure, Compania Maritima which was already the Number 1 right after the war also benefited from the growth of Mindanao. However, their subsequent collapse in 1984 at the height of the financial and economic crisis then besetting the country is of another matter. Sulpicio Lines, the biggest successor company of Gothong & Co. also benefited from Mindanao after their creation in 1972 so much so that later it became the biggest shipping company of the country in the 1980’s.

What happened then to the shipping companies started after the war that just concentrated on Visayan routes? Well, by the 1960’s Southern Lines and General Shipping were already gone from the local scene and a few year later Galaxy Lines, successor to Philippine President Lines, the local operation and Philippine Pioneer Lines was also gone. And the smaller shipping companies like Escano Lines, Bisaya Land Transport (this was also a shipping company) were just in the fringe and barely alive in the 1970’s like the shipping companies that just concentrated in Bicol, Samar and northern Panay. That was also the fate of the shipping companies that was concentrating in what is called MIMAROPA today. After the 1970’s practically only batels survived in the last area mentioned.

Meanwhile, Gothong & Co. threatened Compania Maritima for Number 1 before their break-up in 1972. Later with the downward spiral of Compania Maritima, Sulpicio Lines and William Lines battled for Number 1. And when Compania Maritima quit and Aboitiz Shipping Corporation also quit Mindanao, Sulpicio Lines (the biggest successor company of Gothong & Co.) and William Lines further benefited. Actually, no shipping company that did not serve Southern Mindanao ever became one the top shipping companies in the country (that was before a lot of liner companies were culled in the crisis of the 1980’s).

That was the importance of Southern Mindanao for the shipping companies of the country. William Lines and successor of Gothong & Co. Sulpicio Lines ended up the Top 2 in Philippine shipping. Know what? They were the only survivors of the Southern Mindanao routes after all the rest quit (of course, Aboitiz Shipping came back later and there were others in container shipping).

Now, there are no more liners to Southern Mindanao, funny. But, of course, that is another story. The magic elixir dried up?

Philippine Ferries That Are Celebrating Their Golden Anniversaries In 2017

There are a few ferries in the Philippines which will be having their golden anniversaries this year because they have already reached 50 years of existence and sailing. That means these were built exactly in the year 1967 and all of these ferries are testaments to their design and engineering. It is also a testament to the Philippine side from the owners to the engineers for their loyalty and belief in their ships.

Not all of these ships are in the pink of health now, of course. In humans they might be the equivalent of our centenarians. But unlike our centenarians these are not exactly laid-up vessels and if not sailing they are being held in reserve. Some of these have hiccups at times but those episodes are not something that cannot be repaired. And unlike planes where there is always an emergency when an engine conks out, in ships even though it loses main engine power they simply become the equivalent of unpowered barges and barges sail day in and day out in all waters of the world.

Here then are our “golden” ferries this year:

Maybe we should start with the Maria Gloria of Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI). This is a notable ship because she was the first steel-hulled ferry of Montenegro Lines. She came to our country in 1994 when she was already 27 years old and she has been a good ship from the time she arrived and is still a very reliable ship until now. It looks like Montenegro Lines is taking care of her very well.

MV Maria Gloria (Ang barko na paborito ko!)

Maria Gloria by Raymond Lapus

The Maria Gloria is a short-distance ferry-RORO and for a long time served the Mindoro routes although at times she can also be found in the route to Siquijor. She was built as the Tenyo Maru for the Shimabara Tetsudo by Kanda Shipbuilding in Kure, Japan. She measures 42.9 meters by 11.0 meters and she has a passenger capacity of 413 persons. She is powered by twin Daihatsu engines with a total of 1,400 horsepower which is still good enough for some 10 knots today.

Another 50-year old ship in the fleet of Montenegro Lines is the ferry Maria Isabel which holds for the company their Iloilo-Cuyo-Puerto Princesa route across the wide Sulu Sea. Now if she is not a reliable ship Montenegro Lines won’t assign her to that route especially since swells can be powerful in her route when the monsoons are acting up.

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Maria Isabel by Carl Jakosalem

The Maria Isabel was originally the Shirakawa Maru in Japan and she was built by Taguma Zosen in Innoshima, Japan. Her external dimensions are 49.0 meters by 13.2 meters and she has a passenger capacity of 427 persons. A two-deck overnight ferry, her Gross Tonnage is rather high for her Length at 836 (this figure has no unit). She is powered by twin Hanshin engines of 1,700 horsepower and her design speed is high at 14.5 knots and maybe this was the reason she was assigned the long Sulu Sea route.

The Maria Isabel arrived in the country in 1997 when she was already 30 years old. Now who said imported surplus ferries should be no more than 20 years old? I say it depends on the condition of the ship. Maria Isabel has two sister ships in the Philippines and both are in the fleet also of Montenegro Lines. These are the Maria Erlinda and Maria Rebecca.

Another “golden” ship in the Philippines is one that has a complicated history and is a survivor. She first arrived in the country in 1982 as the first RORO ferry of Viva Shipping Lines which were formerly operators of motor boats like Montenegro Lines. The ship was 15 years old then, a relatively young age and she was named as the Viva Santo Nino.

The Viva Santo Nino was formerly the Bisan Maru of Sanyo Kisen of Japan. She was built by Kanda Shipbuilding in Kure, Japan and she measures 50.0 meters by 11.8 meters. Originally 665 GRT in Japan but here her GT was deflated. I am not sure of her original engines but later it were two Yanmar engines totaling 1,800 horsepower which was good for 13 knots.

The Viva Santo Nino sailed well for Viva Shipping Lines whose ships were rusty and lacked cleanliness but they don’t sink or conk out because tale says the Captain is under the pain of death if his ship sinks. But when the company stopped operations because of the tightness of competition in the Verde Island Passage and of some family troubles this ship was one of those which was laid up.

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Streamer of Joy-Ruby by Masahiro Homma

In 2003, the ship was sold to Silverio Atienza who was an operator of motor boats called batel in the area. With some modifications and repair, she became the Joy-Ruby, the first steel-hulled ferry of Silverio Atienza which later evolved into the Atienza Shipping Lines. However, once on a voyage to Puerto Princesa she developed a hull in the stern when she was already nearing the port. She continued sailing until she ended up sitting on her stern near the quay with her bow pointing to the sky.

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The Joy-Ruby was subsequently salvaged and sold to Asian Marine Transport Corporation (AMTC) in 2008 where she became the Super Shuttle Ferry 15. For many years she plied the various routes of the company in the Visayas and mainly Ormoc but at times she also experienced some minor problems. This might not really be due to age but to the weakness of her company in maintaining ships. However, her Captain admitted that her engines were not that robust anymore but this is something that could be remedied by re-engining.

Another ship that was also built in 1967 was the Island Express II of Island Shipping Corporation. This ship is a short-distance ferry-cruiser that runs the Bantayan island route although not recently when Island Shipping was already able to build enough passenger-cargo LCTs and the cruisers of the company were already on the way out as cruisers can no longer compete against ROROs except in Zamboanga.

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Island Express II by Masahiro Homma

The Island Express II was built as the Yuzuru by the Sanriku Shipbuilding & Iron Works in Shiogama, Japan. The ship’s external dimensions are 28.5 meters by 7.0 meters and she is equipped by a single Daihatsu engine of 300 horsepower which means she is a slow craft. This ship came to the Philippines in 1994 when she was already 27 years old. The Island Express II has a passenger capacity of 354 persons all in benches.

Another cruiser ship that was built in 1967 but is an overnight ferry is the Gloria Two of Gabisan Shipping which has fishing vessel origin and was just converted in Leyte. This ferry measures 46.3 meters by 7.7 meters and is now equipped by a single Isuzu Marine engine of 960 horsepower which gives her a cruising speed of 11.5 knots.

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The Gloria Two is a very reliable ship although she suffers now in competition versus RORO ships. She has a passenger capacity of 386 and she has no other route except the route to Hilongos, Leyte. This ferry is declared to have a Gross Tonnage of 246 with a passenger capacity of 386 person in bunks.

There is another highly-recognizable ship that is well-known in Cebu which is the Lapu-lapu Ferry 1 of Lapu-lapu Shipping. This ship was built by Okayama Shipyard in Hinase, Japan in 1967 and she came to Sweet Lines of the Philippines in 1978. In Sweet Lines she was known as the second Sweet Time doing the Cebu-Tagbilaran-Cagayan de Oro and Cebu-Tagbilaran-Larena-Plaridel routes. Her IMO Number is 7315753.

Sweet Time

Sweet Time by Edison Sy

When Sweet Lines collapsed in 1994, she was laid up for a while until she became the Carmelita. Then she came to Lapu-lapu Shipping which renovated her extensively in 2002 in Villono shipyard until she no longer looked like the old Sweet Time, the reason why people can’t connect her to her origin. But IMO Numbers don’t lie and she was traced.

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Lapu-lapu Ferry 1 by Mike Baylon

As Lapu-lapu Ferry 1 her dimensions are 52.2 meters by 8.0 meters by 4.1 meters and she is an overnight ferry-cruiser. Her passenger capacity is 509 and her primary route is Cebu to Cataingan, Masbate. She still has her original Hanshin engine with 1,100 horsepower which is now just good for 8 to 9 knots. To keep up with competition, the ship has an air-conditioned Tourist section.

Another ship built in 1967 is an LCT of E.B. Aznar Shipping of
Danao, the LCT Melrivic 1 which at one time was rumored to be gone but actually was  just hiding in Republic Drydock in Danao City and being re-engined prior to re-fielding. A PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) tour group found her being refitted in that shipyard. This passenger-cargo LCT is a local-build in Manila.

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LCT Melrivic 1 by John Carlos Cabanillas

This vessel’s measurements are 37.4 meters by 8.0 meters which means she is a small LCT and her Gross Tonnage is 321. Originally powered by a single Yanmar Marine engine of 430 horsepower, she is now powered by a Weichai engine of 460 horsepower and her speed increased from 9.5 knots to 11 knots while being more fuel-efficient.

The next ship which is 50 years old now is a respected ship in Bicol but she was not originally a Bicol ferry. In Japan she was known as the Nangokutosa Maru of the Utaka Kokudo Ferry and she was built by Hashihama Zosen in Imabari, Japan. The ship measures 64.0 meters by 11.3 meters with an original Gross Register Tonnage of 904 tons and equipped with twin Daihatsu engines with a total of 2,200 horsepower.

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Princess of Mayon (parsed from a PPA photo)

In 1990, this ship came to United Towage & Salvage of the Philippines when she was already 23 years old. In this company she was known as Horizon but United Towage & Salvage was actually not into passenger shipping. The ship underwent modifications and she was sold to Bicolandia Shipping Lines where she became known as the Princess of Mayon. For a very long time as in two decades, she was the biggest ferry in Bicol and she was always in the strongest route there, the Matnog to Samar route.

When Bicolandia Shipping Lines was sold lock, stock and barrel to Penafrancia Shipping Lines in 2006, the Princess of Mayon became part of the deal and in the new company she was known as the Don Benito Ambrosio II. She had periods of unreliability soon after. The company’s solution was to build one reliable Daihatsu engine from her two Daihatsu engines and a Yanmar engine was mounted as the second engine.

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Now Don Benito Ambrosio II is running well again and she is still in the same route again. The PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) touring group was able to ride her free last December, “Bridge Class” and know what? Her bridge is air-conditioned! Now, tell me, how many short-distance ferries locally can claim that kind of accoutrement?

The last two vessels that were built in 1967 are both local-builds. Both are small because they were ferries of their companies when they was still young. These two are obsolete now being slow, small cruisers and most of the time they no longer sail. The two are the Ever Transport of Ever Lines and the Magnolia of Magnolia Shipping Corporation, both of Zamboanga City.

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The Ever Transport was built in Cebu and just measures 19.2 meters by 5.1 meters with a Gross Tonnage of just 68 and a passenger capacity of just 87 persons. Her engine is an Isuzu diesel of just 135 horsepower but she can reach 7.5 knots when she was still new. I thought then she was already gone and then I saw her being refitted in Varadero de Cawit in Zamboanga City and they said she will sail again.

Meanwhile, the Magnolia was built by Rato Brothers in Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur. Her external dimensions are 26.6 meters by 5.4 meters with a Gross Tonnage of 81 and a passenger capacity of 122 persons. The upper half of her hull is wood and the lower half is steel. The Magnolia is powered by a single Caterpillar engine of 120 horsepower. The last time I saw her was she was laid up in Varadero de Recodo in Zamboanga City.

Both the Ever Transport and Magnolia are clearly obsolete now. In passenger capacity they are not even higher than the big passenger-cargo motor bancas which have the same horsepower as them or even more. However, the two can carry more cargo especially since they have high prows and freeboards so they can deal with the sometimes big swells of the seas near Zamboanga.

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Magnolia by Mike Baylon

So that’s it, folks. A total of eight ferries that will be celebrating their 50 years now. Some are already obsolete especially the cruisers because as they say times and modalities change but they are still alive. Do I hear the tune of the BeeGees, “Stayin’ Alive”?

Not all the ferries mentioned have IMO Numbers and some were not traced initially but the cooperation with Angelo Blasutta of the former Grosstonnage.com bore fruit and so the Don Benito Ambrosio II and Lapu-lapu Ferry 1’s origins were traced and both were actually clear surprises.

I always joke that ferries 50 years old should give a discount of 50%, a celebration for being still alive. Oh, it can be not the whole year. Maybe on the month that they were built, at least. And the crew might even be surprised because I found out over the years that many crewmen cannot trace the history of their vessels because they were not trained to look for the IMO Number.

On a future article I will deal with our our ferries built in 1967 that are no longer around and what has happened to them so the people including the haters of old ships will be more educated.

The Blue Magic Ferries and Starhorse Shipping Lines

These two shipping companies are actually successors of the once-dominant Viva Shipping Lines and its legal-fiction companies Sto. Domingo Shipping Lines and DR Shipping Lines which once dominated the seas of the old Southern Tagalog region before four provinces of it were spun out as the MIMAROPA region. These two companies were founded by the sons of the founder of Viva Shipping Lines, the widely-known Don Domingo Reyes or “DDR” to many. This founder was a powerful man during his time as he was the landsman in the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon of the martial law dictator then. Don Domingo Reyes’ main base was Bondoc Peninsula although most people thought it was Batangas City and Lucena as he has his bases of his shipping there and people did not know of Villa Reyes in San Narciso, Quezon where he built his first wooden motor boats that were called batel in the region.

A laid-up Viva Shipping Line RORO by Edison Sy

The Blue Magic Ferries was first to be established among the two. This came into existence when the operations of Viva Shipping Lines, etc. were already winded down and its ships being disposed already. Almost all of the older ships of the Viva Shipping combine were sold and most to the ship breakers. Maybe that will be the logical fate since the Southern Tagalog region has a surplus of ferries then when two Zamboanga shipping companies (the Aleson Shipping Lines and A.S. Sakaluran) and a Cebu shipping company (ACG Joy Express Liner) even tried their fates there (none was successful, however).

Some fastcrafts of Viva Shipping Lines somehow survived and these combined with the remains of ACG Joy Express Line. This company started in shipping with the Sea Cat vessels that first operated out of Cebu and had routes to Bohol and whose founder is a well-known scion of Cebu who is Alvin C. Garcia (hence the initials). From what I can gather, Blue Magic Ferries is a sort of partnership between two sons of Don Domingo Reyes and Alvin C. Garcia.

Blue Water Princes 2. Blue Magic Feries Blue Line Shipping.

Blue Water Princess 2 by JM Litada

Blue Magic Ferries was able to accumulate at least five ferries with two ROROs and two fastcrafts and a catamaran High Speed Craft (HSC). The ROROs were the Blue Water Princess 1 which was known as ACG Joy 8 in ACG Joy Express Liner before. The other RORO was the Blue Water Princess 2 which was the former Asia Brunei of the Trans-Asia Shipping Lines. The High Speed Crafts of Blue Magic Ferries that I was able to verify were the Blue Water Queen, the Blue Water Lady and the Blue Water Lady II. The first was the former Our Lady of Mt. Carmel of DR Shipping Lines which was purchased from Sun Cruises of Manila. The second was the former Sea Cat 25, a catamaran of ACG Express Liner and the last was the former Our Lady of Fatima of Sto. Domingo Shipping Lines.

Blue Magic Ferries based itself in Lucena, an old base of Viva Shipping Lines, their predecessor company (later Starhorse Shipping Lines based itself too in Lucena). From there they operated routes to Marinduque and Masbate which are also old routes of Viva Shipping Lines. Lucena then was not virgin territory and in fact there were many shipping companies operating routes from there including Montenegro Shipping Lines, Phil-Nippon Kyoei and Sta. Cruz Shipping. Meanwhile, Kalayaan Shipping Lines had a route to Romblon. [Note: Phil-Nippon Kyoei and Sta. Cruz Shipping are both defunct now.]

Blue Water Queen

Blue Water Queen by Edison Sy

Trouble first struck Blue Magic Ferries when the Blue Water Princess 1 was hit by storm waves while on a voyage from Lucena to Masbate which was an old route of Viva Shipping Lines. It seems the ship’s rolling cargo slid unbalancing the ship which then tried to seek refuge in western Bondoc Peninsula but capsized when the ship struck the shallows. This unfortunate incident happened in 2007 and it resulted in some casualties. To a beginning struggling company this type of incident can be hard to surmount especially if the company has other problems.

From a TV grab of Sydney Morning Herald

Starhorse Shipping Lines came later than Blue Magic Ferries around 2008 and started by leasing ships from DBP Leasing Corporation, the government’s ship leasing company. They named these into a series called “Virgen de Penafrancia”. That name is not surprising since Viva Shipping Lines originally started with the “Penafrancia” series of batels and then into a series of ROROs called the “Viva Penafrancia”. It was able to secure a route by accepting the promoted but harebrained route of MARINA (Maritime Industry Authority, the Philippines maritime regulatory agency). That route is from Laiya, San Juan, Batangas to Marinduque which does not make sense on two counts. One, the distance is double than that of from Lucena and those who know the sea knows it will not be able to compete in rates and fares with the ferries from Lucena. Second, the direction of the route means the ferry will be broadsided by the habagat (southwest monsoon) waves, the same problem usually encountered by the Lucena-Masbate ships which once nearly capsized a ferry in the Pasacao-Masbate route. Starhorse Shipping Lines was founded by Victor Reyes, the eldest son of Don Domingo Reyes. [Victor Reyes was recently deceased.]

Soon, as expected, Starhorse Shipping Lines was able to secure a transfer to the Lucena-Marinduque route and they chartered more ferries from DBP Leasing Corporation until their series reached the numeral “VIII” (however there was no “III” and “IV” but reports then said they purchased the Don Martin Sr. 6 of the defunct Palacio Lines of Cebu and Samar but this is missing now). So for a time, Starhorse Shipping Lines was able to accumulate more ferries from DBP Leasing Corporation, most of which were LCTs. This time around Starhorse, the successor, emphasized cleanliness and passenger service, two terms that were unknown in the predecessor company. However, they were in the route where the new dominant shipping company of Southern Tagalog and MIMAROPA, the Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. was operating. In the early days of Montenegro Lines, their predecessor company Viva Shipping Line applied the pressure on them, shall we say. This time around, it was already the pleasure of Montenegro Lines to return the favor.

M/V Pinoy Roro-1 Folio

From a folio by Irvine Danielles

Greater trouble erupted for Blue Magic Ferries at the same time Starhorse Shipping Lines started operations. It seems they found out then that they have no Certificates of Public Convenience (CPC or franchise) which supposedly should still be in the possession of the Reyes family. Actually, things are really puzzling for me. From records I can gather, some 24 ships of the Viva Shipping Lines combine were confirmed sold (I can name the 24 individually) and some was as late as 2006. However, the family can show nothing for it in terms of ability to purchase new ships (especially by Starhorse Shipping Lines). And what happened to the franchises? These thing do not disappeared in an instant as it is the residual of any defunct transportation company and can even be sold for cash or hoarded. Were the proceeds returned to a “patron saint”?

Blue Magic Ferries stopped operations in 2008. The Blue Water Princess 2 was sold to Navios Shipping Lines where she became their first vessel, the Grand Unity. Blue Water Lady II was sold to DIMC Shipping of Dumaguete where she became the Delta III. The fates of the other ships are unknown to me. Some might still be laid up and one was reported to be in a Navotas yard.

Starhorse Lines M/V Peñafrancia II

Virgen de Penafrancia II by Arnel Hutalla

Starhorse Shipping Lines isn’t doing too well lately. They have returned to DBP some ships (ironically some is already with their competitor Montenegro Shipping Lines) and now they are down to two, the Virgen de Penafrancia I and Virgen de Penafrancia II which are both LCTs. Heads-on, LCTs are usually at a disadvantage against short-distance ferry-ROROs although their Korean-made LCTs seem to be better than the ordinary LCT.

One of the two, Blue Magic Ferries is now out. I wonder if Starhorse Shipping Lines can hold on and i hope they can. They are trying but sometimes the death of the founder proves insurmountable.

Blue Magic Ferries and Starhorse Shipping Companies are two successor companies I have a hard time figuring out. I wonder if there are smokes and mirrors even in the predecessor company.

LG Flatscreen TV for Entertainment

Starhorse Shipping goodluck charms by Irvine Kinea

As a last note, I have learned that Viva Shipping Lines still have some ships in storage in Lucena and San Narciso, Quezon. Will there be a rebirth? Or is it already too late and the family is too fractured now?

I am still interested in the further developments of these successor companies of Viva Shipping Lines.

Some Musings on Ship Sinkings

Lately, there have been rumors that ferries of over 35 years old will be phased out and supposedly one of those pushing that is the current Secretary of Transportation which is Arthur Tugade and also supposedly involved is Alfonso Cusi, Secretary of Energy who is a shipping owner (Starlite Ferries). I do not know what Tugade knows about ships. He is a lawyer. Cusi, meanwhile has vested interest in the issue. Shipping owners got so alarmed that a meeting between them was called and attended by different shipping companies and they voiced opposition to such move which is also supported by the regional director of MARINA Central Visayas.

The proposal to phase out ferries is rooted in the belief that it is old age that sinks ships. Unfortunately, that is simply not true, that is just an assumption by those who have no true knowledge of shipping and empirical evidence do not support that. As one knowledgeable Captain said, it is human error that is the most common cause of sinking and I agree to that.

normand

Photo Credit: Dr. Normand Fernandez

I just wish when media and government officials discuss ship sinking that they be more specific and don’t use the term generically. Sometimes a ship is simply wrecked as in it lies on the shore incapable of sailing but it is not under water. Some of these can still be refloated and still sail later. This happened to many ships caught by the storm surges of super-typhoons like the Typhoon “Ruping” of 1990 and Typhoon “Yolanda” of 2008. Old age was not the cause of the capsizing or wrecking of those caught in those typhoons as most were actually in shelter and not navigating. In maritime databases they call these events “wrecking”. They will even indicate if it was refloated and indicate “broken up” when that was the subsequent fate of the wrecked ship.

philstar-gorio

Photo Credit: Philippine Star and Gorio Belen

Sometimes a ship loses buoyancy and capsize but not all of them sink to the bottom of the sea. Those on their side or even upside down but located in ports or in shallow waters can still be righted and salvaged and maybe it will still be capable of sailing after repairs if it is not Beyond Economic Repair (BER). Most of these cases are results of accidents like errors in unloading cargo (like Ocean Legacy or Danica Joy 2) or even ramming like Dingalan Bay and not from the age of the ship. Some had their rolling cargo shift due to rogue waves but reach port, and subsequently capsize like what happened in Ocean King II in Benit port. Some capsize in port due to action of other ships like what happened to Ma. Angelica Grace in Cabahug wharf. In maritime databases these are simply called “capsizing”. They contrast it when ships lose buoyancy while sailing which they call “capsizing and sinking”.

jgv

Photo Credit: James Gabriel Verallo

The most terrible and most straightforward sinking is when ships are caught in storms and sink. Maritime database call these “foundering” and that means more than enough water filled the ship making it lose buoyancy. There could be many causes of that. One is the pumps simply failed for several possible reasons and that is a possibility in smaller ships in stormy seas. The motor might have died in a storm and so the ship cannot maneuver and list. Foundering is the most terrible fate of a ship like the hull breaking in half (but this is rare and there is no local case like this here in recent memory) as casualties in a ship that failed to beat the storm is terrifying (remember Princess of the Stars). Holes in the hull might even afford a ship enough time to seek the coast and beach the ship like what happened to Wilcon IX. If the ship was beached, maritime databases call it “beached” and such an act avert loss of lives.

If it is a collision and the hull was breached, maritime databases are specific. They indicate “collision” or “collision and sinking” if that was the case. It might even be “collision and beached”. Collision and sinking was the case of St. Thomas Aquinas and that sank not because she was old (she was 39 years old when she sank). Cebu City was rammed too and sank and she was only 22 years old then. Her sister ship Don Juan was only 9 years old when she sank after a collision. Dona Paz was 24 years old when she was rammed then burned and sank. Collision and sinking are usually navigation errors which means human errors and the age of the ships is not a factor. The ramming hull of the other ship won’t ask first if the hull it is ramming is old or young or what is the age.

sf6-paf-jethro

Photo Credit: Philippine Air Force and Jethro Cagasan

When a ship catches fire, hull losses are sometime inevitable. It will not be certain if the cause of that is age and sometimes that does not in outright sinking because the ship can still head for the nearest land and beach itself like what Don Sulpicio did. SuperFerry 6 when it caught fire did not sink and was towed to Batangas. SuperFerry 14′s fire was not contained early too but she was towed and just keeled over when she was already in shallow waters and the fire out. Some caught fire in shipyards or in the docks and some of them were SuperFerry 3, SuperFerry 7, Philippine Princess, Iloilo Princess, St. Francis of Assisi, Manila City, Cagayan de Oro City and Asia Thailand. Again, it cannot be assumed that happened because of old age as some burned due to the sparks of welding. None of that four were over 35 years of age when they were destroyed by fire. Some others assume more morbid intentions that can’t be proved anyway.

britz-sf14

Photo Credit: Britz Salih

Ferry sinking is not common on short-distance ferries maybe because its routes are short and their transit times are not long. The only exception to this is Besta Shipping Lines which lost half of its fleet (four out of eight) to accidents. However, only their Baleno Nine sank outright. Baleno Six was wrecked by a typhoon (that wrecked other ships too like the Sta. Penafrancia 7), Baleno Tres grounded in rocks and was wrecked (a clear case of human error) and Baleno 168 capsized near the port because of water ingress due to a broken propeller shaft but she did not sink (and maybe this was because of old age; but then it is also possibly because of its propellers repeated hitting bottom in the shallow San Jose, Occidental Mindoro port when she was with her previous shipping).

b168-mark-anthony-arceno

Photo Credit: Mike Anthony Arceno

In the past, I remembered two shipping companies notorious for being dirty and rusty. The Viva Shipping Lines combine had some 36 ships two decades ago and some of those were wooden-hulled. Only two of those sank, the Viva Penafrancia 2 which hit the wharf or a fish corral and was holed (which is navigation error and not old age) and the San Miguel Ilijan which was hulked by fire but did not sink. The feared owner of the shipping company had supposedly told his ship captains he will bury them if their ship sink and his reputation is good enough it will be believed. Well, those two ships did not sink outright and maybe the captains’ lives were spared.

In more recent years it was the Maharlika ships which was notorious for being dirty and rusty (but not as rusty as Viva). Yet for many years their ships do not sink even though it can’t sail because both engines failed or the ramp fell off. Maharlika Dos only sank because after four hours of wallowing dead in the water and with Maharlika Cuatro failing to come to the rescue she finally capsized and sank. It was a disservice to the original Maharlika ships which were fielded brand-new. However, the government is notorious for not taking care well of things and that continued under Christopher Pastrana who is infamous for making still relatively new ships look old and worn like the Maharlika Uno, Maharlika Dos, Maharlika Tres and Maharlika Cuatro. He also made the Grandstar ROROs look aged fast. And he will wail against the old ships (with crossed fingers) to promote his FastCats. What gall!

However the ship loss percentage of the two companies is low. As I have said before, the looks and lack of maintenance of the ships is not an automatic ticket to the bottom of the sea and Maharlika is the clear proof of that. And to think their ships are in the more notorious waters of the Philippines. Seamanship is actually probably more important. In Lucio Lim’s version (he of Lite Ferries Ferries), it is manning that is most important.

am

Photo Credit: Mike Baylon

Overnight ships are also not wont to sink if one looks at their record. Uh, maybe not Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. which has lost 4 ferries, the first Asia Singapore (capsized and sank), the Asia Thailand (hulked by fire while not sailing), the Asia South Korea (grounded, capsized and sank but they claimed terrorist action) and the Asia Malaysia (holed and sank). But over-all, not many overnight ferries were lost in the previous decades. It is actually liners which are more prone to sink and it is funny because these are our biggest ferries and many of them carry international certifications. Many will bet that Sulpicio Lines leads in this infamous category. Well, not too fast because their rate of sinking is just about the same as William, Gothong & Aboitiz (WG&A) and Aboitiz Transport System (ATS). In a comparative period from 1996 to 2007 before the incident that forced out Sulpicio Lines from passenger shipping, WG&A lost SuperFerry 3 (fire in shipyard), SuperFerry 6 (fire while sailing) and SuperFerry 7 (fire while docked in North Harbor). And they had serious grounding incidents. Dona Virginia quit sailing after a grounding incident off Siquijor and Our Lady of Banneux also quit sailing after a grounding in Canigao Channel.

In the same period Sulpicio Lines lost the Philippine Princess (fire while refitting), Princess of the Orient (foundered in a storm), Princess of the Pacific (grounding leading to wrecking) and Princess of the World (fire while sailing, did not sink). Pro rata, the two biggest shipping companies were even in hull loss (my preferred term) rate until 2007. But with the so-infamous wrecking of Princess of the Stars in a storm, pro rata Sulpicio Lines exceeded WG&A/ATS in maritime hull losses. Then later for a much-reduced liner fleet losing St. Thomas Aquinas (collision and sinking) and St. Gregory The Great (grounding leading to BER) is also a high percentage for 2GO. Few in these cases of liners lost can be attributed to the age of the ships.one-way-bike-club

Photo Credit: ONE WAY BIKE CLUB

It is actually our wooden-hulled motor boats or batel which might have the second highest rate of sinking. And maybe that is the reason why MARINA is pressuring San Nicholas Shipping Lines to retire their batel fleet and convert to steel-hulled ships. But the Moro boats are not well-known for that. Bar none, it is actually the passenger motor bancas which have the highest loss rate. Every year a passenger motor banca will be lost to storms especially in the Surigao area. But this is due to rough waters and not to old age.

So, why cull ships after 35 years of age when it is still seaworthy? The examples of maritime hull losses I mentioned shows it was not old age which made them sink. I have a database of over 300 Philippine maritime hull losses dating back to the end of World War II (while the government authorities can barely list 50). The list of mine does not include motor bancas and fishing vessels. It will be more if that is included. I can show it is not old age which was the primary factor in the sinking of the 300+.

All sinking are investigated by the Board of Marine Inquiry (BMI). But after some time maybe they donate the investigation papers to the termites or throw them away to Pasig River. That is why they can’t complete the list and argue against abogados like Maria Elena Bautista or Arthur Tugade when they are the true mariners. Talo talaga ng abogado ang marino kahit pa commodore o admiral at kahit maritime issues pa ang pinag-uusapan.

If the Supreme Court will be asked, their definition of seaworthiness is simply the ships having relevant certificates. To them it does not matter if the ship gets holed in deep seas while sailing. This is the gist of their most recent decision on a cargo ship of Aboitiz Shipping Corporation that sank in the late 1970’s. See how idiotic? The dumbies want to rewrite maritime concepts, that’s why.

If I will be asked maybe the culling of Tugade which should be raised first. The reason is old age.

It is in the Philippines where I noticed that the decision-makers are often those who don’t know a thing about the issues they are deciding on.

Experts do not matter in this land.

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Photo Credit: Lindsay Bridge

The Hijos-1

The motor launch Hijos-1 is one of the country’s smallest steel-hulled ferries, if not the outright smallest (the Anrans of Golden Star Manning and Management is smaller but it might not be steel-hulled). The comparison does not include what the Philippine Ship Spotters Society (PSSS) call as Moro boats which are concentrated in Zamboanga (anyway, the bulk of them are bigger than Hijos-1). Generally, the batels (wooden motor boats) of Luzon and Visayas (also called lancha here) which were once called as “motor boats”, officially, are also bigger than Hijos-1, in the main. That is how small Hijos-1 of Hijos de Juan Corrales, the shipping company owning and operating the passenger motor launch.

Hijos-1 was built in Mambajao, Camiguin by local shipbuilders. The hull design was very simple – it was an outright motor launch design but only bigger than what can be found in most US marinas. There is only a single passenger deck with benches in an open-air Economy class. The pilot house is above the passenger deck and it has a little extension to accommodate additional passengers. The roof of the passenger deck can also be used for stowing things including life rafts. There is a single mast and two funnels. The passenger accommodation is also used for loose cargo.

The external measurements of Hijos-1 are only 19.5 meters registered length. At that length the big motor bancas are longer than her by 10 meters! Her breadth is 4.5 meters which is narrower than the batels and Moro boats. The ship’s depth is 2.8 meters and I would say this is a little deep for her size. Her dimensional weights are 47 in gross tonnage and 35 in net tonnage. She has a passenger capacity of just 90 persons which is even less than the big motor bancas.

The Hijos-1 is also one of our oldest ferries around being built way back in 1966 so that means she is on her golden anniversary. Good she is steel-hulled because if she was wooden-hulled MARINA would have long ago pressured her out of passenger service for being “unsafe”. Well, unless it hit a rock a wooden motor boat or batel/lancha hulls do not leak and I don’t see how a steel-hulled motor launch which has practically the same hull design as our motor boats is any safer.

Like when the steel-hulled Pilar II floundered when hit by heavy swells between Linapacan and Busuanga islands. Of minesweeper origin, her steel hull did not save her from the heavy seas she encountered. Just like motor boats flounder there later also.

But Hijos-1 is lucky all these years as her Balingoan-Benoni route might be short but that narrow strait between the Mindanao mainland and Camiguin island also produces heavy swells that hit the sea crafts there broadside (a member of PSSS hit by that can attest to it). Or maybe there is also good seamanship and familiarity with the seas in her route which is a definite plus for survivability. Whatever, she has a good reputation for being stable if rough seas visit her route.

Hijos-1 is not a RORO and rolling cargo is the great source of revenue these days (or even way back). But she continues to survive financially. I have been told the reason – with only a few crew and a thrifty 440-horsepower Yanmar engine (is this still correct? someone said it is a Cummins but officially in MARINA that’s that) that keeps her above water (and may I add, loyal passengers maybe who are willing to make do with an old sea craft but which perhaps they have grown to love).

Well maybe at even hall-full that will already mean P5000 plus in revenue including from a little of  loose cargo. For sure she will not consume P3000 worth of diesel fuel and motor oil on the route. I think her break-even point might just be a third of the passenger load. The Yanmar engine doesn’t need to push a lot of weight also. There is also a tale that she can carry a small vehicle. I will not be surprised. In some far-off areas they shoehorn that even today in wooden motor boats or on a pair of motor bancas.

The hull of a vessel is easy to maintain (unlike what most landlubbers think otherwise). All it needs is re-plating when it gets thin. Unless there is major damage from having a romance with rocks (true rocks) when beams buckle. Old sea crafts of still-good hulls surrender if their engine finally quit for good. But Yanmar engines are very long-lasting, spare parts are easy to secure and so I hope her engine is still trusty. Well, at the worst there are surplus 420hp truck engines in the market. It might be demeaning but truck engines work in motor boats, big motor bancas and even the Metro Ferry boats in Cebu (though steel-hulled too I did not compare them to Hijos-1 in size because their hull looks more like that of motor bancas to me without the outriggers).

Such a cute little craft. I hope she continues to sail on past her 50 years.

Photo Credit: Janjan Salas

How The GIGO Principle Applied to Myrna S. Austria’s Paper In The Port of Batangas

We all know what GIGO or “Garbage In, Garbage Out” means. The paper of Myrna S. Austria on domestic shipping competition is one such example and I will show the GIGO of her paper in the port of Batangas. [I will also show how it applied later in her analyses on the routes from Cebu and other routes; to tackle all in one article will simply be too long.] Her paper:

http://dirp3.pids.gov.ph/ris/rps/pidsrp0302.pdf

In that paper the figures that were used were for 1998 and 1999 but the paper could have been published in 2003. So for consistency I will use data especially vessel data for 1998, primarily and for 1999, secondarily.

Batangas port in 1998-1999 was one of our busiest port in terms of passenger traffic. In those years Batangas port was behind Cebu port and Manila port (in total passengers but not in vessel departures) but it is well ahead of the other Philippine ports.

The number one route from Batangas is the Calapan route and that route will account for about 80% of the passenger departures from Batangas. Other routes then from Batangas were to the following ports : Abra de Ilog, Sablayan and San Jose (all in Occidental Mindoro); Puerto Galera (in Oriental Mindoro); Coron and Puerto Princesa (both in Palawan); Odiongan, Romblon, Banton and Simara (all in Romblon province) and Masbate.

Actually there might have been a few other routes from Batangas that I might have missed because the creation and deletion of routes was very fast in those days as competition in Batangas was really heated up. This was the era of the entry of many shipping companies which was the result of the deregulation policy and shipping incentives laid down by the Fidel V. Ramos administration. In fact, because of the dog-eat-dog competition in Batangas and the simple excess of bottoms, in a few years after 1998 a lot of shipping companies plying routes from Batangas routes will have collapsed including the biggest, the Viva Shipping Lines/Sto. Domingo Shipping/DR Shipping combine of the controversial Don Domingo Reyes.

If the paper of Myrna S. Austria is to be believed there were only three routes from Batangas served by sea vessels bigger than motor bancas in 1998 — the Batangas-Calapan route (and that is served only by SuperCat according to her paper), the Batangas-Puerto Galera route (according to her that is served only by Si-Kat, the small Cavite-built fiberglass-hulled catamaran) and the Batangas-Romblon route (which according to her is only served by Shipshape Ferry Inc.). Of course that is very, very far from the truth and actual situation and if you tell that to porters in Batangas port they will probably whistle in disbelief.

Now if her paper is correct (and it is definitely erroneous) then Batangas will only be a minor port as least as far as passenger shipping is concerned (it is another matter in cargo because Batangas hosts refineries and lot of tankers dock there).

If the paper of Myrna S. Austria is to be believed then there is only one RORO ship docking in Batangas in 1998 was the Princess Camille. And there were only three passenger shipping companies – SuperCat (or Philippine Fast Ferry Corp.), Si-Kat (which was misspelled to Sicat Ferries) and Shipshape Ferry (which owns the Princess Camille). And she says Si-Kat goes to Puerto Princesa, Palawan and not Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro which is wrong again. I just wonder how a small catamaran can reach Puerto Princesa from Batangas. Maybe tankers met her along the way?

So in Myrna S. Austria’s paper, Viva Shipping Lines and her legal-fiction companies Sto. Domingo Shipping and DR Shipping simply did not exist when actually it was the biggest in Southern Tagalog during that time with 33 passenger vessels from ROROs to fastcrafts and wooden motor boats (the batels). Most of its ships were based in Batangas with a few in Lucena.

In Myrna S. Austria’s paper, the Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI) also did not exist in 1998 together with its six ROROs and three motor boats. Starlite Ferries and its one RORO also did not exist like MSLI (Starlite added ships in 1999 like MSLI). In the paper, two Atienza clan ROROs also did not exist. That goes true for the motor boats and big motor bancas that go to Banton and Simara (when the paper of Myrna S. Austria lists motor boats and motor bancas in other places including those that just cross the narrow Davao
River).

Why was this so? That happened because the shipping companies mentioned did not bother to report to the Philippine Ports Authority (PPA) and it seems she did not consult the MARINA Database and so she did not see the list of ferries in the Philippines and its routes). I just wonder about ivory tower researchers. All they know is go to government offices when government data has a lot of leaks. They won’t bother going to the ports and see with their own eyes and hear with their own ears.

In her paper I noticed a lot of ports missing and a lot of shipping companies not listed both in passenger and cargo shipping, nationally. Once, I read that the PPA themselves admitted that only about 55% of the companies report to them. I even wonder if that is not a rose-tinted estimate especially in cargo. One of the major reason for this is they are not the maritime regulatory agency (that is the MARINA or Maritime Industry Authority) and maybe the shipping companies felt that reporting to them is not mandatory. Another major reason is there are more private ports than PPA ports and a lot of ports that are under the local government units (LGUs). There are even ports that are not registered or authorized to operate (it is the PPA themselves that pointed that out).

The PPA will also not know the passenger and cargo ships existing since they don’t maintain a shipping database. There are even unregistered ships and there are motor bancas and fishing bancas taking passengers and cargo although they are not authorized by the maritime regulatory agency. So why would they report to the PPA? The so-many Moro boats of Zamboanga, Sulu and Tawi-tawi are in the main unregistered and they number over 200.

In Myrna S. Austria’s paper, the average age of passenger ferries in 1999 was 9.98 years and these were mainly the High Speed Crafts and Medium Speed Crafts. The average age for passenger-cargo ships in 1999 was just 9.27 years (gasp!). Who can believe that!? That only happened because she missed a lot of shipping companies in her research. The true average age of our passenger-cargo ships then was over 20 years. Otherwise Senator Richard Gordon and former MARIA Administrator Maria Elena Bautista won’t be railing against the age of our ships. And I have the database to prove that our ships are really much older than Myrna S. Austria’s data.

The centerpiece of the study of Myrna S. Austria is the use of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index or HHI to measure shipping competition.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herfindahl_index

But what is the use of that measurement when a lot of companies do not bother to report? Almost all the computations will then be go awry and concentration will seem to be very high. There is no sense to that that index if the data is highly incomplete which was really the case.

In Myrna S. Austria’s paper, there were a lot of routes reported to be with “no competition” or only with “mild competition”. Because most shipping companies were not in the data. [I a future article I will list all the shipping companies and ships she was able to list and I will list all the shipping companies and ships she missed.]

In Batangas when Myrna S. Austria’s paper was published in 2003 a host of shipping companies there were already toppling including the biggest (the Viva-Sto. Domingo-DR combine). Others that toppled were Aquajet Maritime, Sto. Nino Maritime Services and Atienza Shipping (not the current one of Silverio Atienza). Some others left Batangas for thereafter for greener pastures(like the Atienza Shipping Lines of Silverio Atienza and ACG Express Liner) and some sold out (like the Shipshape and Safeship combine and Alexis Shipping). Except for one, all of these were not on the list of Myrna S. Austria.

The competition then in Batangas was “dog-eat-dog” or in Tagalog, “matira ang matibay”. There was rampant undercutting and underpricing and route schedules are not followed. I personally saw how that went on in Batangas when the rolling cargo rate for AUVs went down from P300 to P75 in 1995. When Viva Shipping Line implemented that nobody can follow suit to P75 because all will simply lose. P75 was just ¾ of the aircon bus fare then from Cubao to Batangas port! That was just like charging P120 in today’s (2016) money, less than a tenth of what they charge now. That was how fierce was competition in Batangas then.

Myrna S. Austria never knew that because maybe she never went to Batangas port (I believe in that otherwise she would have known the other shipping companies existing there) and for sure she is not a Batangas shipping passenger. Because of her was paper laden with great incompleteness in data, the conclusions can only be wrong — at least as far as Batangas, the coverage of this article.

Addendum

The Shipping Companies in Batangas in 1998 and Its Passenger Ships Existing By That Year That Myrna S. Austria Missed In Her Paper:

Viva Shipping Lines:

Marian Queen (IMO 7534402)

Viva Sta. Maria (IMO 6814611)

St. Kristopher (IMO 7036292)

Viva Sto. Nino (IMO 6811528)

Viva Penafrancia (IMO 7331410)

Viva Penafrancia 2 (IMO 7908639)

Viva Penafrancia 3 (IMO 7126009)

Viva Penafrancia 4 (IMO 7104025)

Viva Penafrancia 5 (IMO 6908254)

Viva Penafrancia 8 (IMO 6829197)

Viva Penafrancia 9 (IMO 8426250)

Immaculate Conception (IMO 7607974)

Viva San Jose (IMO 7225398)

San Agustin Reyes (IMO 7020774)

Viva Sta. Ana (wooden motor boat; no IMO Number)

Viva Sta. Ana 2 (woodenmotor boat; no IMO Number)

Viva Maria Socorro (wooden motor boat; no IMO Number)

Our Lady of Lourdes (wooden motor boat; no IMO Number)

Socorro II (wooden motor boat; no IMO Number)

Our Lady of the Holy Rosary (fastcraft; IMO 7914731)

Viva Lady of Lourdes (fastcraft; IMO 8895149)

Sto. Domingo Shipping Lines:

Sto. Domingo (IMO 7314266)

San Lorenzo Ruiz (IMO 7119862)

San Fernando (IMO 7852634)

Sta. Penafrancia 6 (IMO 8426224)

Sta. Penafrancia 7 (IMO 7740099)

St. Lawrence (IMO 7405273)

Our Lady of Guadalupe-Reyes (fastcraft; no IMO Number)

Our Lady of Fatima 7828947 (fastcraft; IMO 7828947)

DR Shipping:

Penafrancia 10 (local-built fastcraft; no IMO Number)

Penafrancia 11 (local-built fastcraft; no IMO Number)

Penafrancia 12 (local-built fastcraft; no IMO Number)

Our Lady of Mt. Carmel (fastcraft; IMO 7828047)

Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc.:

Maria Angela (IMO 7852919)

Maria Gloria (IMO 6726668)

Maria Isabel (IMO 6720509)

Marie Kristina (IMO 6817962)

Maria Sophia (IMO 8948519)

Marie Teresa (IMO 8021969)

Don Vicente (wooden motor boat; no IMO Number)

Don Francisco (wooden motor boat; no IMO Number)

Dona Matilde (wooden motor boat; no IMO Number)

Starlite Ferries Inc.:

Starlite Ferry 5 (IMO 6829484)

Alexis Shipping:

Ruby 2

Sto. Nino Maritime Services:

STO. 1 Ferry (IMO 9171709)

Source: Philippine Ship Spotters Society (PSSS) Database

Anybody can go to MarineTraffic or Vessel Finder and verify such ships with IMO Numbers existed.

Myrna S. Austria missed a lot, didn’t she?

 

Photo  Credit: Edison Sy

The MV Maria Gloria

When Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI) started they were not operators of RORO ships. Instead they were operators of wooden motor boats which were called batel in the Southern Tagalog area. Their batel fleet then consisted of the MB Don Vicente, the MB Don Francisco and the MB Dona Matilde. The first might have been named for the patriarch and founder Vicente Montenegro. The Montenegro Lines batels were dedicated Batangas-Abra de Ilog ships which means that was their only route. However, normally only two of the three will be sailing the route on any given day. Abra de Ilog is the main entry in the north of the province of Occidental Mindoro up to now because it is the nearest to Batangas City, the gateway to the island of Mindoro.

Suddenly, on September 1994, a RORO ship arrived for Montenegro Lines without notice. This was the MV Maria Gloria, the first ever RORO (Roll-On, Roll Off) ship for Montenegro Lines. The ship was also fielded in the Batangas-Abra de Ilog route and at first it competed with their own batels which means one of them has to give up its schedule for MV Maria Gloria. When that ship arrived it was still the time of the complete dominance in Southern Tagalog of Viva Shipping Lines and its legal fiction companies and they were very jealous of any newcomer including in scheduling. This company used to bully their competition and underhanded tactics are routinely ascribed to them. In fact, they are simply feared and many of their wannabe competitors got bankrupted. So when MV Maria Gloria arrived and she was a RORO, the field Viva Shipping Line is very jealous of, there were questions in Batangas how long she would last.

Well, MV Maria Gloria lasted and in 1996, Montenegro Lines added another ship, the MV Marie Kristina, a small, basic short-distance ferry RORO. In 1997 Montenegro Lines added the MV Maria Angela, the MV Maria Isabel and the MV Marie Teresa. From then on Montenegro Lines was adding ships every year and their route system grew. In 2002, it was the turn of Viva Shipping Lines and cohorts to become bankrupt and they quit sailing routes one by one. Montenegro Lines grew to become the country’s shipping line with the most number of passenger ROROs (albeit they were generally small and mainly running short-distance routes).

MV Maria Gloria is not a short, basic short-distance ferry-RORO. She is a tad bigger at 42.9 meters by 11.0 meters. One characteristic of this type of RORO is they have their bridge or pilot house on a deck above the passenger deck whereas small, basic short-distance ferry-ROROs have their bridge on the same level as the lone passenger deck. MV Maria Gloria has scantling behind her bridge which serves as a short but another passenger deck. And unlike the small, basic short-distance ferry-ROROs which a lone RORO ramp at the bow, she has RORO ramps at the bow and at the stern. Another difference with the small, basic short-distance ferry-ROROs which have only one engine and one propeller, this type have two engines and two propellers (and also two funnels). She also have that square box at the bow which limits the ingress of rain water in the car deck which makes it slippery. It is also a protection against rogue waves coming at the front.

The MV Maria Gloria started as the MV Tenyo Maru in Japan of the Shimabara Tetsudo (“tetsudo” translates to “railway”) and might have been used in the Shimabara Peninsula east of Nagasaki, Japan. This ferry was built by Kanda Shipbuilding Co. in their Kure yard in Japan in 1967 (so she is just short of one year before she turns “golden” or 50). A steel-hulled ship, she has only one mast with a raked stem and a transom stern. She has three RORO lanes in her car deck with an approximate length of 40 meters. The ship has about 400 lane-meters of rolling cargo space. That will be good for about six long trucks and buses at the sides if there is no obstruction and about eight or nine sedans in the middle. However, in loading, seldom is there an ideal combination of rolling cargo load.

The MV Maria Gloria is a two-class accommodation ship with an airconditioned Tourist accommodation at the front of the middle deck with benches. The rest of the passenger accommodations is open-air Economy. All the accommodations are just sitting as the MV Maria Gloria is just used on short-distance routes connecting the near islands. The total passenger capacity of the ship is 413 persons. Her original Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) in Japan was 356 tons but her Gross Tonnage (GT) went down to 267 in the Philippines even though scantlings at the bridge deck were added. The Net Tonnage (NT) is 104 locally and her loading capacity is 140 tons in Deadweight Tonnage (DWT). The ship’s Depth is 2.5 meters which is really not deep.

The MV Maria Gloria is equipped with two 6-cylinder Daihatsu marine diesels with a total of 1,400 horsepower which gives her a top speed of 11.5 knots. She has a normal complement of 24 and her local Call Sign is DUE 2090. Internationally, her permanent ID is IMO 6726668. Originally, in 1994, the ship’s registered owner was Jovanlyn Trading and General Merchandise, an outfit I have not heard of and she was the only ship of that unknown company. In 2000, her ownership was transferred to Montenegro Shipping Lines, Inc. (MSLI). Maybe at the start she was made to look as if she was only chartered.

Montenegro Lines has the long-time custom of rotating their ship assignments every few months or so. And so like here fleet mates, MV Maria Gloria has already been around, so to say, which means she has already run the gamut of the so-many routes of Montenegro Lines. The only routes she has not been to are the eastern seaboard routes of Montenegro Lines and their Iloilo-Palawan route. Most of the time she held Mindoro routes including her original Batangas-Abra de Ilog route. Lately, she is based in Dumaguete port and she is doing the Siquijor route for the company.

From what I heard, Montenegro Lines takes care well of this ship. That is a normal custom for first ships of a company. Of course, there is no connotation here that she is the “flagship” of the company.

With the easiness to change hull plates now and to acquire replacement engine room and bridge machinery, she seems to be destined for a lot more of life. That is also true for the main engine which can easily be replaced now even with brand-new ones like what were done for several ships of the Montenegro Lines fleet. It is really much easier to preserve an old ship now that to acquire an expensive brand-new one. So it seems the “related” Montenegro Lines and Starlite Ferries Inc. have different approaches.

A dozen years from now I expect MV Gloria will still be easily around and sailing. Montenegro Lines is one of the best locally in preserving old ships and it is not their wont to be included in the list of maritime hull losses (they only have one there in the last 22 years).

Long live the MV Maria Gloria!

[Photo Owner: Ramiro Jr. Aranda]

The MV Nikki (a.k.a. MV Lady of All Nations)

When the deadly-for-shipping decade of the 1980’s ended (technically, it ended only at the end of 1990), we still had a few former FS ships sailing. Maybe it was because we really lacked ships them and getting loans was really difficult and interest rates were very high. Maybe, the penchant of Filipinos to squeeze the last ounce of life from mechanical things was also a factor. We are also sentimental in letting go of things that have served us for so long.

One of the last former FS ships still sailing then was the MV Edward of William Lines. The ship was running the short Manila-Tilik (Lubang Island) and Manila-San Jose (Occidental Mindoro) routes. She is running this route but at times it is another former FS ship, the MV Don Jose I, which is in that route. However, it is the MV Edward which is remembered more in the big town of San Jose. She was actually the last on the route, too. This route is a steel-hulled ferry monopoly at that time by William Lines Inc. after other liner companies withdrew or were gone from shipping. They were also able to block the entry of a new competitor. Beside the steel-hulled ferry there were also wooden motor boats (the batel) plying the route but they concentrated on cargo and do not have very regular schedules (it will depend on how full they were and also on the weather).

In 1992, with the coming of the new administration of President Fidel V. Ramos and his call for shipping modernization, there seems to be a sudden realization by the shipping companies still sailing former FS ships that they finally have to go. There were just a few former FS ships still sailing then and their lives were prolonged by retiring other FS ships and cannibalizing them for parts. Their ranks was also further diminished by the very strong Typhoon “Mike” (Typhoon “Ruping”) that visited Cebu in November 1990 which was very deadly for Cebu shipping.

Instead of acquiring a new ship for the Manila-Tilik and Manila-San Jose routes, William Lines instead decided to withdraw from the route. But, instead of holding on to their residual rights on the route, William Lines instead welcomed and helped a successor in the person of Dr. Segundo Moreno who was previously not in shipping. Dr. Moreno established the shipping company Moreta Shipping Lines and he purchased the MV Ariake Maru No. 6 from Japan. With this changeover, San Jose and Tilik was able to re-establish their regular connection to Manila. This was important as they were dependent on the national capital for manufactured goods and Divisoria and Navotas were the main markets for their agricultural and sea products.

Unlike the former FS ships, MV Ariake Maru No. 6 is a RORO (Roll-on, Roll Off) which means she can load vehicles. Even when used in break-bulk cargo, her main use, a RORO is easier to load and unload and forklifts ease the operation especially in handling heavier cargo. It also means a RORO is less dependent for the services of manual laborers, the porters. MV Ariake Maru No. 6 was actually not bigger than the former FS ship she was replacing but a RORO has a taller cargo deck.

MV Ariake Maru No. 6 has the permanent ID IMO 7632307. She was built by Hayashikane Shipbuilding & Engineering Company in their Nagasaki shipyard in Japan in 1977 for Ariake Ferry. She measured 54.0 meters by 12.8 meters with a Gross Tonnage (GT) of 695, which are all about the same as an FS ship. However, her DWT (Deadweight Tonnage) of 284 tons was way less than the 711 tons of MV Edward, a lengthened FS ship measuring 62.9 meters by 9.8 meters. She was equipped with two Niigata diesel engines with a total of 2,400 horsepower. Her original top speed in Japan was 13.5 knots.

Arriving for Moreta Shipping Lines, she was renamed the MV Nikki and she was converted into an overnight ferry equipped with bunks with a local passenger capacity of 440. She was two-class ship: an airconditioned Tourist with free linen and pillow and a better toilet and bath and an open-air Economy with no free “beddings” (linen). She was considered by her passengers to be more comfortable than the former FS ships she was replacing. As to speed, she was not faster than the former FS ships which only had less than ½ of her engine power at 1,000 horsepower.

Maybe her lack of speed was due to what I heard that she has a spoon hull. That means the design of her hull is similar to a bathtub. Maybe in Japan she was only used for very short-distance routes where the shape of the hull will not matter. Incidentally, this hull is similar to the hull of the barges and LCTs. Assigned to the 120-nautical mile Manila-San Jose route she can’t meet the promised 12-hour sailing time especially when swells are around. Two years after fielding, she settled on a 14-hour sailing time for her route. So sailing at 6pm means a stomach already looking for food once one disembarks.

In Moreta Shipping Lines, the Tilik and San Jose routes destinations were also split into separate routes. However, when the MV Kimelody Cristy arrived for Moreta Shipping Lines in 1994, MV Nikki became a dedicated Tilik (Lubang) ship. There her lack of speed did not matter as Lubang island is just a short distance from Manila. A 10pm departure to that port is already assured of a dawn arrival. 

Moreta Shipping Lines and MV Nikki did good sailing for about a decade or so. But in due time, their Mindoro routes were slowly taken over by the intermodal trucks and buses that was using the short Batangas-Abra de Ilog (Occidental Mindoro) route. As always, the advantage of the intermodal were 24-hour departures and direct delivery to the particular towns or barrios. With such changes, Moreta Lines had to develop other routes and they tried the Panay island routes abandoned by WG&A. But soon, they found out there was nothing much left there and the intermodal was already ascendant there, too.

The staple route of Manila-Tilik by MV Nikki was affected in another way. Slowly, the motor banca to Lubang from Nasugbu in Batangas became a competitor. With a combined bus and banca, daytime trips became possible with direct disembarkation (unlike the RORO which only dock in Tilik port). The syndrome was much like how the motor banca drove out the RORO in Puerto Galera. Tilik port is not located in either town of Lubang or Looc and the local road was not good either.

By the last half of the 2010’s, the ships of Moreta Lines were barely sailing. At times, only one of their three ferries might be sailing. Reading the writing on the wall, they started cargo shipping in 2009. Not long after, they decided to get out of passenger shipping altogether, sold their passenger ships and used the proceeds to acquire more cargo ships. They then became a pure cargo shipping line (this trying to survive as a shipping line was one characteristic missing in their benefactor William Lines Inc. which decided to go down quietly).

MV Nikki came to Medallion Transport in 2012 which was soon followed by the MV Love-1 of Moreta Shipping Lines also. The two ships were used by Medallion Transport to develop new Medallion routes between Cebu and Leyte together with two other ships (always less one because one is used in Masbate). In Medallion Transport, the MV Nikki was renamed to MV Lady of All Nations and she was used to grab traffic from a competitor in the Cebu-Bato route. Medallion Transport was already sailing this route before but they were just shoehorning short-distance ferries in this overnight route (it has also day trip on the reverse). With the fielding of MV Lady of All Nations, Medallion Transport finally had a true overnight ship in this route, their pioneer route to Cebu from their original home port of Bato, Leyte.

MV Lady of All Nations is still the Medallion Transport mainstay in the Cebu-Bato route. The competition is suffering because it is using single-class cruisers (admittedly, they are faster, however). Meanwhile, Medallion Transport retrofitted MV Lady of All Nations to have Cabin class and Deluxe class (which approximates the Suite class). So, she is now a four-class ship. Five, if the Sitting Economy, a Cebu-Leyte and Cebu-Bohol fixture is included. Her fares starts at P245 per person which is very cheap for a 55-nautical mile distance. Actually, the Cebu-Bato route is known for having the cheapest fares between Cebu and Leyte. The Tourist fare of Ormoc will actually be already Cabin class in MV Lady of All Nations.

In her last drydock in 2014, two years after coming to Medallion Transport, the MV Lady of All Nations spent some time in Star Marine Shipyard in the shipyard row of Cebu in Tayud off Cansaga Bay and the one nearest to the Cansaga bridge. I heard included in the works done in her were upgrading in the engines. It seems it showed as after the drydocking, the MV Lady of All Nations became a faster ship.

She does two departures in a day and this means much more revenues for a medium-distance regional ferry. As such, she approximates in the a day a sailing distance from Cebu to the likes of Surigao, Dapitan, Dipolog, Iloilo, Masbate, Calbayog or Catbalogan. At nighttime, she leaves Cebu for Bato arriving there at dawn. She leaves at mid-morning in Bato to arrive in Cebu at mid-afternoon. She is the favorite there since she a bigger and more comfortable ship than her competition.

It seems it will be a long time before the competition will come out with a ship that will displace her in the Cebu-Bato route. Her main competition are actually the slightly better ships to Hilongos, another port north of Bato and on a parallel competing route to Cebu-Bato route. Maybe that was the reason why Cabin and Deluxe were added to her since the ships in Hilongos have Cabins and Suites. However, with slightly lower fares and the advantage of a shorter distance to the Southern Leyte towns, she has competitive advantages of her own. And with the short distance to Leyte her speed is not that much of an issue and being nearer to the farther destination then that cancels out the speed disadvantage (but this is not applicable to a very slow ship of a competitor in the Hilongos route, a cousin of theirs).

Acquiring her seems to be a genius stroke for Medallion Transport. She is a definite asset for the company. What a definite change of fortune by being a castaway in another route that lost (well, that is also true for MV Lady of Love – an advanced preview)!

Photo Credit: James Gabriel Verallo

The Sweet Lines Ships That Went to Viva Shipping Lines

Sweet Lines was a Central Visayas shipping company of Bohol origin so Bol-anons were rightly proud of her. It also had a cargo liner company (which means fixed routes and schedules) named Central Shipping Company aside from cargo ships too in the Sweet Lines fleet. Sweet Lines started from Visayas-Mindanao routes till they graduated to liner shipping. They were able to do that by acquiring half of the fleet and franchises of the General Shipping Company which moved out of passenger liner shipping in the middle of the 1960’s. From such move, Sweet Lines was able to get routes and ships to Manila.

For a generation Sweet Lines did well in liner shipping. They had all the trappings and signs then of a successful liner company including Japanese agents and big liners. One thing that distinguishes them from competition was that they have a strong Visayas-Mindanao shipping then, as a result of their origins (long before Lite Ferries they dominated Bohol routes). In this regard, they were comparable to Carlos A. Gothong Lines Inc. (CAGLI) after the complete split of the original Go Thong shipping company when Lorenzo Shipping Company parted ways with them. However, Sweet Lines was stronger than them and they had true national presence while CAGLI didn’t have that after 1978 since it was Lorenzo Shipping Company which held the Southern Mindanao routes after their final split. Besides, Sweet Lines had its own cargo shipping company which even dabbled in Asian routes for a while. In passenger shipping, they were even ahead of Aboitiz Shipping Company but the latter had a strong cargo and containerized operation which was ahead of Sweet Lines and Central Shipping.

It seems Sweet Lines did not survive well the crisis decade of the 1980’s. I am one of those which did not foresee their fall. There were some distant nasty rumors then but I found it hard to believe as there are always unfounded rumors in shipping. But then they did not acquire great liners at the start of the 1990’s when even Aboitiz Shipping Company (which had a reputation before of not buying decent liners) also bought theirs when the new administration in Malacanang of President Fidel Ramos laid out incentives for shipping purchase and modernization. That was only then when I began to have the feeling they were sliding, a feeling I got before when the old liner shipping company Escano Lines went out of passenger shipping.

When I was in Mindoro I tend to watch liners passing by. That was my pastime and it was really such a great sight and pleasure for a ship lover. There, I already noticed the liners of Sweet Lines were already being outgunned by the new and newer great liners of the competition. The passing Sweet Lines vessels were generally older, smaller and slower compared to the competition and I was not the only one who noticed that.

Sometime in 1994 I heard from dock hands in Mindoro that the brown ships of Sweet Lines seem not to be passing by. On that place, we actually didn’t know the reason why. Cebu is far from Mindoro, there is no connection between the two places as the Cebu ships just pass by without calling. Later, we heard the news that Sweet Lines stopped sailing but it was more of an unconfirmed news. A few speculated they might have just dropped their Manila route.

One day, I think it was in the month of September, I arrived nighttime in Batangas port. I noticed three brown ships tied at the far end of the quay. I asked what ships were they (it was actually dark – Batangas port was not yet developed then). The porter told me those were Sweet Lines ships sold to the Viva Shipping Lines (VSL). We were hurrying as the last bus going to Manila at 11pm is leaving so I just thought I will see them again when I come back to Batangas.

At that time, Viva Shipping Lines was the dominant shipping company of Southern Tagalog (there was no separate region of MIMAROPA yet). It had two sister legal-fiction companies, the Sto. Domingo Shipping Company and DR Shipping Company. Together, all three operated over thirty vessels including wooden motor boats called the “batel” in that area. They were so dominant the other shipping companies feared them. Below-the-belt and bullying tactics were routinely ascribed to them also. As to financial muscle, nobody doubted they were capable of buying three moderately-sized second-hand ferries.

Actually, the three vessels from Sweet Lines fit exactly the ship size needed by Viva Shipping Lines. The three vessels were also badly needed and in fact after they were fielded Southern Tagalog routes still lacked ships. That was how deep were our shortage of bottoms then in the short-distance routes when the new short-distance RORO mode was already beginning to fly. This shortage was actually the result of the calamitous decade of the 1980’s for shipping when we lost so many shipping companies, so many ships including the retirement of the former “FS” ships.

The Viva Shipping Lines had two base ports – Batangas and Lucena – and they had routes to various ports of Mindoro, the Romblon islands, Marinduque and even far-off Masbate. Their wooden motor boats (the batel) also had routes to the various island-towns in the Sibuyan Sea and to Occidental Mindoro. They also had semi-scheduled routes to Burias island and to various ports in the the southern coast of Bicol from Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon province. From Bondoc Peninsula their motor boats ranged up to Marinduque and Lucena. The origin of Viva Shipping Lines was actually Bondoc Peninsula, specifically Villa Reyes in San Narciso, Quezon.

Later, I was asked in Philippine Ship Spotters Society (PSSS) what happened to the ships sold by Sweet Lines to Batangas and what happened to them. This got me interested again in the three brown ships I saw in Batangas and to which I have sailed with the the subsequent years.

The three ships were of moderate size in the Sweet Lines fleet but in Viva Shipping they were already among the largest. The three were the Sweet Pride, the last ship ever acquired by Sweet Lines, in 1991; the Sweet Pearl, acquired in 1989; the Sweet Marine, acquired in 1988. They became the Viva Penafrancia 5, the Viva Penafrancia 3 and the Viva Penafrancia 8, respectively. Later, the Viva Penafrancia 5 and Viva Penafrancia 8 became very well known in Batangas and Calapan.

Sweet Pride was originally the Seikan Maru No. 5 of Higashi Nippon Ferry in Japan. She was built by Taguma Zosen in Innoshima, Japan in 1968 with the ID IMO 6908254. She measured 68.0 meters x 14.2 meters and 1,500gt with 2 x 1,300hp Daihatsu engines and 15.5 knots in speed. As Viva Penafrancia 5, she had a sitting passenger capacity of 900.

Sweet Pearl was originally the Ashizuri of Sukomo Kanko Kisen KK in Japan. She was built Usuki Tekkosho in Usuki, Japan in 1971 with the ID IMO 7126009. She measured 69.7 meters x 13.6 meters and 1,275gt with 2 x 2,000hp Niigata engines and 16 knots in speed. As Viva Penafrancia 3, she had a sitting passenger capacity of 802.

Sweet Marine was originally the Taikan Maru No. 3, also of Higashi Nippon Ferry in Japan. She was built by Shimoda Dockyard Company in Shimoda, Japan in 1968 with the ID IMO 6829197. She measured 60.0 meters x 12.8 meters and 913gt with 2 x 750hp Daihatsu engines and only 11 knots in speed. As Viva Penafrancia 8, she had a sitting passenger capacity of 762. This ferry was the sister ship of Asia Brunei (now Grand Unity of Navios Lines and formerly Blue Water Princess 2 of Blue Magic Ferries), Asia Indonesia (now Grand Venture 1 of Navios Lines) and Filipinas Dapitan of Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc. I just wonder if in Batangas they realize that the ships of Navios Lines were sister ships of a ferry they once knew as Viva Penafrancia 3.

In the Sweet Lines fleet, the three were overnight ferry-ROROs and they were relatively big for that role in those days. In Viva Shipping Lines the three were converted to and became workhorses in the short-distance ferry routes of the company. In general, the three were not used for the overnight routes of Viva Shipping Lines.

The Viva Penafrancia 5, Viva Penafrancia 3 and Viva Penafrancia 8 all had successful careers in Viva Shipping Lines. Moreover, the three also became tools in the shipping wars for the continued dominance of Viva Shipping Lines in Southern Tagalog. When the three came for the company in 1994, Viva Shipping Lines still had complete dominance in the region. That was the time there was still lack of bottoms in the Southern Tagalog routes.

However, before the end of the last millennium there were already so many ferries in Batangas. Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI) was growing fast along with the new entrant Starlite Ferries Inc. There was also a slew of smaller shipping companies trying their luck in the area. The overcrowding was also exacerbated by the fast arrivals in the area of the High Speed Crafts (HSCs), both the catamaran and the fastcraft type and they had their own wars too. The area soon degenerated in a dog-eat-dog world or as the Tagalogs would say, “Matira ang matibay”.

As they said, no thing lasts forever. And events revealed that it was Viva Shipping Line which was “hindi matibay” (but of course, “patron saints” have their darlings too). In the early 2000’s, Viva Shipping Lines hit rock, so to say and they were in trouble. Maybe aside from “patron saints”, passenger resentments might have also tipped the scales. They gradually quit sailing and as they did that they left their ships in anchorage in Batangas Bay, in Lucena (they have a shipyard there) and in their original base of San Narciso, Quezon. They then put up their ships for sale.

In 2003, Viva Penafrancia 8 was sold to a Ernesto V. Mercado, a ship breaker followed by Viva Penafrancia 3, also to the same breaker in 2004. Meanwhile, Viva Penafrancia 5, the most regarded of the three was laid up in Elfa Shipyard in Navotas, Metro Manila. She might not be there now and she might have gone to the shipping heavens, too.

And that was the career of the three Sweet Lines ships that went to Viva Shipping Lines. They all died before their time not because they were not good. It was their companies that was not good enough for them.

Note: There was another Sweet Lines ship that went to Viva Shipping Lines in 1988, the second and Japan-built Sweet Faith, the ex-Hakodate Maru No. 11. She became the San Lorenzo Ruiz in Sto. Domingo Shipping Company. This transfer had no connection with the collapse of Sweet Lines, Inc.