The Disproportionality of the Ferry Losses in the Philippines

Many times the question of if our ferries are safe is asked. This is especially true when a ferry has an accident or is lost especially when the casualty count is high. Rather than answering the question straight, if I am asked, I might answer it “it depends” because that is probably the most exact answer to the question anyway but then many will be puzzled by that answer (pilosopo ba?). Read on and you will be enlightened further and maybe your views about the safety our ferries might change.

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Even if a car is new it doesn’t mean it won’t take a dip into the water. Same principle applies with ships. Photo by Zed Garett (happened just today — what a timely photo for my article). Thanks a lot to the photo owner.

But first a clarification. I am purposely limiting this topic to ferries because tackling all the ship types at once will be very heavy and tedious as we have more freighters than ferries and add to that the other types like the tugs, tankers, etc. The ferry losses is the segment that actually raises the hackles of the people of the country who are mainly uneducated on the topic of maritime losses. This relative ignorance is further fanned by our also-uneducated media whose writers and editors cannot even seem to get the ferries’ names right (it seems they are too lazy to verify with MARINA, the maritime authority). Of course, it is well-known that our media is on the sensationalistic side and so oftentimes accuracy, objectivity and balance are lost with that (do these sell anyway?).

Another limitation I also pose here is I won’t include our wooden-hulled passenger crafts in the discussion. Those crafts are really flimsy especially those equipped with outriggers, the motor bancas. This ship type (those are ships because any sea craft having a passenger capacity of 12 is not a boat) lacks the basic safety equipment that even without a storm they can sink like when an outrigger breaks or when the hull develops a leak big enough that water can’t be bailed fast enough. But I would rather not comment on their seamanship or lack of formal maritime education because in my decades of traveling at sea I found that many of them are actually very good in reading the wind and the waves, a nautical skill that is not taught in maritime schools anymore. Also excluded in the discussion are the wooden-hulled lanchas and batels which were formerly called as motor boats which are not called as motor launches.

My topic here is about the disproportionality (or lack of proportionality) of our maritime losses to clarify that our ferry losses are not proportional with regards to the area and to the ship type (the implication is not all sink). Like what I just mentioned earlier, our wooden-hulled crafts especially the motor bancas are prone to losses especially in areas notorious for its dangerous waves like in Surigao. But these sea crafts continue to exist because in many cases these are the most practical crafts for certain routes like the routes to our small islands and islets or the coastal barrios that have no roads (or if taking the roundabout road will take too long). Motor bancas can land even on bare shores which the other crafts can’t do and moreover these can operate profitably on the barest minimum of passengers and cargo something which is impossible in steel-hulled vessels which have engines that are much, much bigger and are heavier.

The liners, our multi-day ships, among our class of ferries are also very vulnerable to losses (a surprise?) and much more than others classes pro rata to their small number. Relative to their small number, we have lost a lot of liners in the past for a variety of reasons – capsizing, foundering, beaching, wrecking, collision, fire, bombing and explosion. And this might come as a surprise to many because in the main it is our liners that are the biggest, these hold the highest of the certificates (and in insurance many have the comprehensive P & I or “Protection and Indemnity”), these have our most experienced and best crewmen supposedly (unlike in smaller ferries where a Second Mate can serve as Captain of the ship) and much pride of its shipping company is riding on them (well, not all, as we had liners that were no more than the average overnight ferry).

But this vulnerability is actually completely true. We lost the SuperFerry 3 (fire in a shipyard in 2000), SuperFerry 6 (fire while sailing in 2000 too), the SuperFerry 7 (fire in port in 1997), SuperFerry 9 (capsizing in 2009), the SuperFerry 14 (firebombing in 2000 but the official report says otherwise). A total of five SuperFerries when only a total of 20 ships ever carried the name “SuperFerry” (it seems it is not a good name?). The St. Thomas Aquinas, the former SuperFerry 2 was lost in a collision in 2013 and the St. Gregory The Great, the former SuperFerry 20 was also lost (taking a shortcut and hitting the reefs and she was no longer repaired and just sold after equipment was taken out). These two ferries were already under 2GO when they were lost. Not included here were the groundings of the Dona Virginia and the Our Lady of Banneux (technically under Cebu Ferries Corporation then but an actual liner) from which they were never repaired and ending their sailing careers).

Sulpicio Lines is much-lambasted and derided by most of our people but actually they have less losses from their “Princess” and “Don/Dona” series of ships in the comparative period as the existence of the “SuperFerries” of WG&A (William, Gothong & Aboitiz and its successor company Aboitiz Transport System (ATS). However, it is true that in passenger casualties the total of Sulpicio Lines is much, much higher because they have the tendency to sail straight into storms like the revered Compania Maritima before them (in terms of ship losses and not in casualties) and that historical company took a lot of losses from those risk-takings too (and more than even Sulpicio Lines).

From 1996 when the WG&A was formed, Sulpicio Lines only lost the Philippine Princess (fire while under refitting in 1997), the Princess of the Orient (capsizing in a storm in 1998), the Iloilo Princess (fire and capsizing while under refitting in 2003), the Princess of the World (fire while sailing in 2005) and the Princess of the Stars (capsizing in a storm in 2008) and the Princess of the Pacific (serious grounding incident resulting in complete total loss in 2004). That is until they were suspended in 2008 when only one liner was left sailing for them, the Princess of the South which did not sink.

In the comparative period, WG&A and ATS employed a total of 24 liners (the overnight ferries of Cebu Ferries Corporation was obviously not included here are they are not multiday liners). Sulpicio Lines had a total of 22 liners in the parallel period so their numbers are about even. But the ship loss total of WG&A, ATS and 2GO is clearly higher and the public was never made aware of this. Maybe some good PR works while it seems Sulpicio Lines never took care of that and all they knew was feeding their passengers well (unli rice or smorgasbord, anyone?). But then however those liner losses are scandalous in number, by whatever measure. Imagine losing more than one liner per year on the average.

Some of the liners of WG&A and ATS were not SuperFerries in name but but the Our Ladies, the two Cities and a Dona from William Lines had perfect safety records as none of them was ever lost. Now, does the choice of name matter in safety? Or the “lesser” ferries do try harder and are more careful? That discrepancy certainly made me think and it might be worth a study.

Negros Navigation was far safer than the WG&A and Sulpicio Lines losing only the St. Francis Xavier in 1999. Do naming of liners after saints enhance their safety? Conversely, do naming of liners with the qualifier “Super” means the ship will sink faster? Questions, questions. But the lightly-regarded and revived Carlos A. Gothong Lines Incorporated (CAGLI) tops them all with absolutely no losses. Now for a company that sometimes have difficulty painting their ships that is something (while the spic-and-span WG&A and ATS which repaints their liners while sailing tops the losses department). Does it mean it is better not to repaint liners well? I observed in the eastern seaboard that the ships that are not painted well have no losses (until the dumb Archipelago Ferries let its stalled Maharlika II sank into the waves in 2014 without rescuing it and thereby breaking the record – that ship was newly painted when it went under so the repainting might have doomed her?). Well, in my earlier thesis and later in this article I find it funny that the ships which are more rusty does not sink as long as it is not a Batangas ship (ah, the disproportionality again). While those that can always afford new paint like WG&A and successor ATS sink. Is a new coat of paint a sign of danger for the ship? Or is it the P & I insurance that did them in? Funny, funny. Negros Navigation when it was already in trouble and lacks the money already did not have one ship sinking. So the illiquidity which Negros Navigation suffered means more safety? Har, har! Whatever, I want to commend them and top honcho Sulficio Tagud for taking the high road and not just let the ships sink just to collect insurance. And last note, in multi-day liner operations before, Aleson Shipping Lines never lost a ship.

Liners sink at a faster rate pro rata compared to overnight ferries (if the wooden-hulled ferries of the past are not counted) and that is a big puzzle to me. And of course nobody will know for sure because nobody studied that as we don’t have the equivalent of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) of the USA which call in true experts and go in depth why the transportation accidents happened. Is it because while on a voyage the liners are practically running 24 hours a days and systems, equipment and personnel are stressed more? Is it because the ships reach their reliability/cycles earlier in terms of hours of usage like the electrical lines which is a cause of fire? Or are their crew simply more tired and believes that their ships with high certifications are less vulnerable to sinking (as if those certificates will keep the ship afloat)?

In the earlier decades and even recently it is known that liners take more chances with storms and maybe because they think they can battle the waves better because they are bigger. There are shipping companies who were known to be more brave (or foolhardy?) in sailing ships when there are storms about and among them the old Compania Maritima and Sulpicio Lines almost surely top the list. Now, however, the field is more level as all Philippine ships are barred from sailing when the center wind of the storm reaches 60kph. And for the smaller ships less than 250gt they are not permitted to sail when the center wind is already 45kph or when the local weather agency PAGASA declares a “gale warning” even though there is no a gale. When the suspensions are in effect better just watch the foreign ships still continue sailing for they are not covered by the suspension and most actually use INMARSAT or equivalent which is just a curiosity in the local maritime world until now when that is already well-established outside of the Philippines (the lousy PAGASA which can’t do localized forecasts seems to be already good for them since it is free while they have to pay for INMARSAT).

Liners also sink faster than short-distance ferries whose sailing durations are all short and whose crews probably know their particular seas and routes more. When to think most short-distance ferries which are always small are captained in the main by Second or Third Mates and whose engine department are headed by Second or sometimes by just Marine Diesel Mechanics who have not even finished college but passed an exam just the same (well, competence in running and maintaining a machine well is not necessarily dictated by diplomas, trust me). Even though liners might be using ECDIS don’t be too sure they will reach their destination better than the lowly short-distance ferry using just what is called as dead reckoning. In truth, ECDIS or whatever better bridge equipment does not guarantee better seamanship or navigation. After all it will not show the wind and wave which only something like INMARSAT can.

So in liners disproportionality already exist. And their international certifications don’t even save them from disasters. So, I advise those who take liners, don’t be very sure and make the necessary precautions like memorizing the different alarms and making sure where your life vests are. And don’t jump to the water too early. Liners are tall and that plunge could hurt you. And when in the water at night tie yourselves together so as not to drift (a whistle is a big help in calling attention if you are drifting). Note the water can be cold at night and hypothermia can set in. Take a selfie too before jumping and upload it. Who knows if it will be your last photo. Your loved ones will sure prize it. Ah, don’t take all I said in this paragraph too seriously.

In overnight ferries there seems to be disproportionality with regards to companies and not to home port (if analyzed pro rata to the size of the fleet which means the size of the fleets are taken into consideration) and to the routes. Well, for practical purposes there are only a few home ports for overnight ferries – Cebu, Zamboanga, Batangas, Manila, Lucena and Iloilo, in that order maybe in terms of sailings (a clarification, there are overnight ships originating from say northern Mindanao but all of those ferries are actually based in Cebu). Analyzing, some overnight ferry companies deserve the Gold Award while some should be suspended from service, maybe.

It must be noted that one of the biggest overnight ferries two decades ago and which dominated the Visayas-Mindanao waters for nearly a decade, the Cebu Ferries Corporation (CFC), a subsidiary of WG&A and successor Aboitiz Transport System (ATS) did not lose a single ship ever until it they left Cebu for Batangas and became the “Batangas Ferries” and even there their perfect streak continued. Maybe some of their people need to be recruited by other companies or sent there by MARINA to share the experience. They can lecture on the topic, “On How Not To Sink”. Maybe it is not just with the choice of name that they were safe? Or was it in the livery? The only problem it seems is they did not send their Captains to their liners like the St. Thomas Aquinas who made a dumb mistake trying to test the hardness of the ice-classed bow of the Sulpicio Express Siete.

In the Cebu-based regional shipping companies which are operators of overnight ferries it is probably Lite Ferries who is the Valedictorian having lost no ships even though their fleet is already big. Maybe that will come as a surprise to many but whatever they deserve a big round of applause. Another company whose Captains might need to be recruited by other shipping companies or pry open their secret if there is any. Are they better readers of SOLAS? One thing I am sure though is its owner does not belong to the same fraternity as one former Batangas shipping company owner who threatens mayhem if his ship sinks.

There are other overnight ferry companies in Cebu that could have shared First Honors with Lite Ferries but in a tie-breaker Lite Ferries wins because they have the most ships and not by a small margin at that. Others with perfect records are the defunct Palacio Lines (well, some might argue that that is a Samar shipping company but I digress). Now I can’t understand why an overnight ferry company with a perfect safety record will go under as a company. Seems something is not right. Aside from Palacio Lines there are a lot of there Cebu-based overnight ferry companies that have perfect safety records in terms of having no ship losses. Some of these are still extant and sailing and some have already quit the business (it’s a waste, isn’t it, for them to just go away like that).

Among these is the legendary Gabisan Shipping Lines, VG Shipping, Kinswell Shipping, Roly Shipping, Jadestar Shipping, South Pacific Transport and many other smaller shipping lines with just one or two ships (most of these are already gone now but still their perfect records remain). I just don’t know why they can’t catch a break from MARINA as in they are not given special citations and handed more privileges in sailing because after all they have proven they know their stuff in shipping. But no, when MARINA goes headhunting in safety they are lambasted in the same vein as those which had sunk ships as if they are just as guilty. Actually, to set the record straight about half of the overnight ferry companies in the whole Philippines never had any ship losses. This is true even in Zamboanga where Magnolia Shipping Lines, Ever Lines and a lot of other operators with just one or two steel-hulled ferries have perfect safety records. Now, can’t MARINA even for once credit them properly and publish their names because the way I feel at times with media reports and with MARINA statements it is as if all our shipping companies already had sunk ships which is simply not the case. In the liner sector that is true but in the overnight ferry and short-distance sector, combined, most shipping companies never had any ship losses. Don’t they deserve credit and more respect and recognition? But no, they are sunk not beneath the waves but in obscurity and that is one of the purpose of this article, to set the record straight.

In Manila, the old MBRS Lines and its successor Romblon Shipping Line never lost a ship (but the company is dead now anyway, sunk by the intermodal). In Lucena, Kalayaan Shipping Lines might have a perfect safety record too at least in steel-hulled ferries. In Batangas, there are operators of just one or two ferries which have not lost a ship (do they take care not to lose one because that will mean the shutdown of operations?). In Iloilo, did Milagrosa Shipping Lines already lost a ship? In number half of the overnight ferry operators never lost a ship although in the number of ships owned theirs comprise just the minority, to clarify.

It is in short-distance ferries that I noticed a lot more of disproportionalities especially in the recent decades when maritime databases were able to keep track with them (the wooden-hulled short-distance ferries generally doesn’t have IMO Numbers so keeping track of them is difficult but these lanchas or batels were our early short-distance ferries aside from the motor bancas). For this sector or segment I would rather stick to steel-hulled ferries like what I mentioned early on especially since there is no way to track the hundreds and hundreds of motor bancas and their losses which are not even properly reported at times.

There are areas, routes and short-distance companies that have perfect safety records (again, wooden hulled ferries are not included here and that also mean the earlier years). In the eastern seaboard where the typhoons first strike and where it is fiercest the routes and shipping companies there have a perfect safety record ever since the steel-hulled ships first appeared in 1979. This was only broken in 2013 due to the dumbness of a stranger which invaded the Masbate waters (is that part of the eastern seaboard anyway? but Masbate is in Bicol). They withdrew from Bicol after that incident to just sail the more benign Camotes Sea waters. And that is one of the reasons why I was furious at Archipelago Ferries for not coming to the aid of their stalled ship for 6 hours when their good ship was just just two hours sailing away and so the stricken ship slid off the waves (shouldn’t someone be hanged for that?). Because of that the perfect record of the local shipping companies based in the eastern seaboard was broken. I just hope the crewmen of Maharlika Cuatro which failed to respond to an SOS then are not employed in the FastCats now.

Short-distance ferries also does not sink in the Tablas Sea crossings or in the routes to Marinduque from Lucena. However, I do not know what is the curse of the Verde Island Passage that many ships have been already lost there when to think practically the same shipping companies ply the three routes mentioned. To think the Tablas Sea wind and waves could be rougher than that in Verde Island Passage. Did they assign their lousier crews there? Just asking. As they say the proof is in the pudding (and the pudding tastes bad).

I just wonder too about the luck of the Mindanao Sea crossings. The waves there could also be rough and the crossing is longer but none was ever lost among the short-distance ferries running the Dumaguete-Dapitan, Samboan-Dapitan and Jagna-Balingoan routes. Like in Tablas Strait, do the longer route makes the crews more careful? Are the crews there better trained and has better seamanship?

The many routes connecting Cebu island and Negros island and Negros island and Panay island are also safe. Hard to find there a short-distance steel-hulled ferry that sank. That is also true for the steel-hulled ferries connecting Masbate island to Cebu island when the distance there is also long for a short-distance ferry and the wind and waves are no less dangerous. What is their secret there? Is it just that Camotes Sea navigators are lousier? With exceptions, of course because Gabisan Shipping surely will not agree.

I could go to the less obscure, short-distance routes. Just the same I will tell you these are also safe. Never heard of a steel ferry going to Alabat that sank. Or to Dinagat and Siargao islands (sure their motor bancas sink). Or the routes to Basilan from Zamboanga. Not even a RORO to Guimaras have sunk or a RORO to Bantayan island. That is also true for the short-distance connections within Romblon island served by steel-hulled ships (the Princess Camille that capsized in Romblon port in 2003 was an overnight ferry from Batangas). No steel-hulled ferry connecting Leyte and Bohol was ever lost too. And that is also true for the route connecting Siquijor to Dumaguete.

So a lot of our short-distance routes and the ferries plying them are actually safe. Who can argue against a perfect safety record? A little rust will not sink ships nor would a non-functioning firefighting pump (and the ship is not in the middle of an ocean anyway). Those are just a little margins that are not that critical. Does not look good to the eye but to a passenger like me it is more important if MARINA enforces their Memorandum Circular that ferries should feed its passengers if the arrival of the ship exceeds 7am. And I am more concerned if the ship is clean especially the rest rooms and if there is clean drinking water. Besides, trust me, our mariners are not that negligent or dumb that they will leave the ramps unclosed and then sail like what some Europeans did.

So are our ferries safe? Yes, it is except for the liners, some shipping companies and some routes and areas. Never mind if they are old. It is not necessarily the factor that will sink ships (a ship if it loses motive power still has the flotation of a barge). It is actually the lack of seamanship that sinks ships (old ship, new ship can both collide or fail to heed the weather). And trust the short-distance ferries on the fringes and don’t underestimate them. The crew won’t let their ships sink if their families, relatives, friends, schoolmates, etc. are aboard. Well, not all. Be a little wary in Verde Island Passage and in Camotes Sea.

Let us be more objective. Our ferries and mariners are not really that bad, contrary to what hecklers say.

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Roble Shipping Is Finally Sailing To Mindanao

Last month, September of 2017, Roble Shipping has finally sailed to Oroquieta, the capital of the small Mindanao province of Misamis Occidental (which actually hosts a lot of ports and among them are Ozamis and Plaridel ports). It is maybe the first port of call in Mindanao ever for Roble Shipping and it is actually a long-delayed move already for Roble Shipping as their namesake-to-the-city Oroquieta Stars has long been in the news that she will sail for that city and port since late last year (but since then although the ship is already ready she was just sailing for Hilongos in Leyte).

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Source: Oroquieta City LGU FB account

I have been observing Roble Shipping for long already and watched its consistent growth both in passenger shipping and cargo and even in cargo RORO LCTs in the recent years. But I am puzzled with their moves or more accurately their lack of moves in developing new passenger routes that their cousin shipping company and Johnny-come-lately Medallion Transport which with their courageous moves in developing new routes seems to have already overtaken them in passenger shipping (it even reached Mindanao ahead of them when Medallion’s Lady of Good Voyage plied a route to Dipolog).

Roble Shipping is actually one shipping company that has more ferries than routes, the exact opposite of another shipping company I am also observing which is Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI) which in their tepidness in acquiring replacement ferries has more routes than ferries now. Does that mean the two shipping companies needed a merger? Just a naughty thought but that is actually impossible now as Trans-Asia Shipping Lines took the easy way out of their troubles which is selling themselves to the Udenna group of new shipping king Dennis Uy which is flush in money nowadays and might not need any help.

I remember that before Roble Shipping has an approved franchise to Nasipit but they never got about serving that route from Cebu. To think they had the big and good Heaven Stars then, a former cruiseferry in Japan then which should have been perfect for that route. However, that beautiful ship soon caught unreliability in her Pielstick engines and I thought maybe that was the reason why Roble Shipping was not sailing the Nasipit route (which actually had the tough Cebu Ferries and Sulpicio Lines serving it then and might really be the reason why Roble Shipping was hesitant).

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But then calamitous fate befell Sulpicio Lines when they got themselves suspended after the horrific capsizing of their flagship Princess of the Storm, sorry, I mean the Princess of the Stars in a Signal No. 3 typhoon in Romblon. In the aftermath of that Sulpicio Lines sold for cheap their Cebu Princess and Cagayan Princess to Roble Shipping in order to generate some immediate cash and anyway the two ships were suspended from sailing and were of no use to them.

With the acquisition of the two, suddenly Roble Shipping had some serious overnight ships after the Heaven Stars which was then not already capable of sailing regularly especially when the good Wonderful Stars already arrived for them to compete in the Ormoc route. And one of the two was even a former pocket liner, the Cebu Princess. One of the two is actually a veteran of the Nasipit route, the Cagayan Princess which was fielded there when Sulpicio Lines already had a better ship for the Cebu-Cagayan de Oro route (the ship was named after that city actually as it was the original route of that ship) and their Naval, Biliran route bombed.

But no, the two ships just collected barnacles in the Pier 7 wharf of Roble Shipping, not sailing. I thought maybe there were still ghosts prowling the ships as they were used in the retrieval efforts on the capsized Princess of the Stars. Or maybe they wanted people to forget first as denying the two ferries came from Sulpicio Lines is difficult anyway.

The Cebu Princess and Cagayan Princess finally sailed as the Joyful Stars and the Theresian Stars but not to Nasipit but to Leyte (again!). I thought maybe Roble Shipping got cold feet in exploring Mindanao. And to think the service of the once-powerful and proud Cebu Ferries was already tottering then and everybody knows Gothong Southern Shipping Lines won’t last long in the Nasipit route with their Dona Rita Sr. (they eventually quit and sold their passenger ships).

With a surplus of ferries in their only routes which are all to Leyte (Hilongos and Ormoc), eventually their legendary cruiser Ormoc Star rotted in Pier 7. Soon, Roble Shipping got a reputation of laying up a lot of ships in Pier 7 (this is very evident when one takes a ride aboard the Metro Ferry ships to Muelle Osmena in Mactan island). They are all huddled up there including the cargo ships. Maybe as protection for the cold so they won’t catch flu (rust, that cannot be evaded).

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Taelim Iris, the future Oroquieta Stars

Two sisters ships also joined the fleet of Roble Shipping, the former Nikel Princely of Aleson Shipping Lines of Zamboanga and the former Filipinas Surigao of Cokaliong Shipping Lines. The two became the Blessed Stars and Sacred Stars in the fleet of Roble Shipping, respectively. However, although one route was added, the Baybay route of the former Filipinas Surigao (which is again in Leyte) there was no other route except for the route they opened in Catbalogan in the aftermath of the demise of Palacio Lines, the Samar native shipping line. With their small ferries Roble Shipping also tried a route to Naval, Biliran which was formerly part of Leyte. I thought maybe Roble Shipping really loves Eastern Visayas too much that they simply can’t get away from it.

Two more ferries came, the former vehicle carriers TKB Emerald and Taelim Iris which slowly became the Graceful Stars and Oroquieta Stars, respectively (but then the Wonderful Stars was no longer wonderful as she was already out of commission after a fire in Ormoc port). Still the two just sailed to Leyte. And eventually, Roble Shipping quit Catbalogan which is a marginal destination to begin with because of the intermodal competition (trucks are loaded to western Leyte ports and just roll to Samar destinations and passengers also use that route). Roble then transferred the two sister ships Blessed Stars and Sacred Stars to become the Asian Stars I and Asian Stars II of the Theresian Stars, the new shipping company which was their joint venture with a former Governor of Sulu province. The two should have been alternating the the overnight Zamboanga to Jolo ferry route. But nothing came out of the venture and soon the two were back in Cebu. Technically, that was the first venture of Roble Shipping to Mindanao but not under the flag of Roble Shipping.

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Oroquieta Stars just sailing to Hilongos, Leyte

I thought Roble Shipping was really allergic to Mindanao but soon I was disabused of this thought when the news came out that definitely Oroquieta Stars will sail to Oroquieta City after supposedly some requirements were ironed out. That is good as some things will then be tested. Oroquieta is actually too near the Plaridel port which competitor (in Leyte) Lite Ferries is serving and which the defunct Palacio Lines was serving before. Roble Shipping and Lite Ferries will practically be sharing the same market and I do not know if enough cargo and passengers will be weaned away from Dapitan and Ozamis ports but then Dapitan port is nearer to Cebu with cheaper fares and rates.

Oroquieta Stars is fast among the overnight ferries having relatively big engines and has a design speed of 16 knots. I just thought that if it is worthwhile for Cokaliong Shipping Lines to extend their Ozamis route to Iligan, won’t it be profitable for Roble Shipping to extend their Oroquieta route to Tubod in Lanao del Norte or to Iligan perhaps? Tubod can be one of the origins of the Muslim-owned commuter vans which have a route to Cotabato City via Sultan Naga Dipamoro or Karomatan (these vans go up to Kapatagan in Lanao del Norte).

We will have to see if Roble shipping can stick with the Oroquieta route as their competitor Lite Ferries take all challengers very seriously. Funny, but Roble shipping was much ahead of them in the Leyte routes. However, Lite Ferries is very aggressive and is easily the most aggressive shipping company in this decade taking away that mantle from Montenegro Shipping Lines (but then they might just have the same patron saint anyway but the favors and flavors might have changed).

Oroquieta Port

Oroquieta Port by Hans Jason Abao. Might be improved by now.

I wish Roble Shipping all the luck in their Mindanao foray and how I wish they will explore more routes because after all the availability of ferries is the least of their concerns (sabi nga sa bus krudo lang ang kailangan para tumakbo). That could also be their case. Plus franchise and some explorations maybe (well, if Medallion was able to use their cargo ships for that so they can too as they also have a lot of freighters now).

Sayang naman kasi ng mga barko nila.

The Danica Joy

The Danica Joy is a ship that has no number actually and is different from the lost Danica Joy-2 which capsized in Zamboanga Port while unloading its cargo. The Danica Joy is owned by the Aleson Shipping Lines of Zamboanga and she is actually the oldest ship in their fleet now after the retirement of the cruiser ferries Estrella del Mar and Neveen. But the Danica Joy is not really the second ship of Aleson Shipping. It just so happened that she was able to outlast her contemporaries in the fleet of Aleson Shipping Lines and for me that is already a feat on its own. Counting, she will be celebrating her silver anniversary (25 years) this year (2017) in the company.

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The ship Danica Joy was a former ferry in Japan like most of our steel-hulled ferries. She was built by Nakamura Shipbuilding & Engine Works in Yanai yard in 1972 as the ferry Nakajima of the Nakajima Kisen K.K with the IMO Number 7852414. Her route then was to Matsuyama, the biggest city in the Shikoku island of Japan. However, when the new Nakajima arrived for the company in 1994, she was retired and sold to the Philippines specifically to Aleson Shipping Lines which then proceeded to refit and remodel her in Zamboanga City into an overnight ferry with bunks and she was henchforth renamed into the Danica Joy.

The Danica Joy was the first “big” RORO of Aleson Shipping. “Big” because she was not really big in the true sense. It just so happened that she was bigger than the other ROROs of the Aleson fleet then. In the 1990’s Aleson Shipping was already converting into ROROs like most shipping lines then in the country. However, the sizes of the ROROs in the fleet of Aleson Shipping then was the size of the basic, short-distance ferry-ROROs with the exception of the Danica Joy (the Aleson Zamboanga, a cruiser ferry, and an earlier acquisition of Aleson Shipping from Carlos A. Gothong Lines was actually bigger than her but maybe not in Gross Tonnage, unofficially).

The external measurements locally of the Danica Joy is 48.0 meters Length, 11.3 meters Beam and 3.7 meters Depth and officially she has 493 in Gross Tonnage (GT) which is just the same as her Gross Register Tonnage (GRT) in Japan although additional structures were built into her that should have increased her GT. Her Net Tonnage (NT) is 245 and her load capacity is 218 Deadweight Tons. She is powered by two Daihatsu engines with a total of 2,000 horsepower giving her a sustained top speed of 14 knots when she was still new. The Call Sign of Danica Joy is DUJ2051 but she has no MMSI Number.

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The ship has a steel hull with car ramps at the bow and stern leading to a single car deck. She has two masts and two funnels. Her stem is raked and her stern is transom. Danica Joy has two passenger decks in a combination of bunks and seats. She has a Tourist accommodation aside from Economy and the ferry’s passenger capacity is 448 persons. This ferry has actually many sister ships in the Philippines. Among those are the Lite Ferry 6 of Lite Ferries, the former Salve Juliana of MBRS Shipping Lines which came here earlier in 1990, the Lite Ferry 1 and Lite Ferry 2, also both of Lite Ferries and Danilo Lines before (as the former Danilo 1 and Danilo 2). Both the Danilo ships also came into the country before her.

Danica Joy‘s first established route was Zamboanga City to Sandakan in Sabah, Malaysia. This was a response to the launching of the sub-regional grouping BIMP-EAGA (Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East Asia Growth Area) in 1994. It was a ship not only used for cargo which were mainly what is called as “barter goods” in the Philippines but also for carrying people and many of those were migrant workers and visitors to kins in Sabah. On that year, Danica Joy was the only Philippine ferry that has an international route. However, Sandakan was not the exclusive route of Danica Joy as she was also used in local routes.

In 1996 with the arrival of the bigger and faster Lady Mary Joy (which is a dead ship now and has no number too and is a different ship from the current Lady Mary Joy 1), Danica Joy became mainly a local ship and used on the long routes of Aleson Shipping which means Jolo and Bongao but not Pagadian. She was a valuable ship for Aleson Shipping in these long routes, a workhorse in fact because Danica Joy has no pair until the Danica Joy-2 arrived in 1998. The two had no relievers until 2004 when the Kristel Jane-3 arrived (this ship is still in the Bongao, Tawi-tawi route). She and her namesake Danica Joy-2 which is sometimes mistaken for her shouldered on in these routes until Trisha Kerstin-1 arrived in 2006 and Trisha Kerstin 2 arrived in 2008.

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Danica Joy is the ship fronted by the truck (in Zamboanga Port)

But this long shouldering took a toll on Danica Joy (and also Danica Joy-2 a little later) and her engines began to get unreliable after nearly 15 years of local sailing added to her 22 years of sailing in Japan. However, the second-generation owners of Aleson Shipping who seem to be more aggressive than the first generation (good for shipping!)pulled out their checkbook and ordered the rehabilitation of Danica Joy (and to Danica Joy-2 also later). Danica Joy hid for a length of time in Varadero de Recodo and when she reappeared she was a spunky and reliable ship once more. And this is not what is not understood by those who do not know shipping. That when money is poured into a veteran ship, the ship becomes good and reliable once more like her former self.

The next established route of Danica Joy after her re-emergence was the blossoming Dapitan-Dumaguete route to pair with pioneering ship of Aleson Shipping there, the Ciara Joie. As a true overnight ferry, her bunks were appreciated in that route because many of the passengers there already came from distant places like Zamboanga City and having absorbed already the bumps and lack of sleep in the 11-hour ride from that distant city and you still have 8 more hours to go in the Dumaguete-Bacolod sector. One would definitely want to stretch in a bunk rather than take the seats of a basic, short-distance ferry-RORO.

The move of Aleson Shipping to field Danica Joy in that route proved to be good and she was successful there. Nearly a decade after she was refurbished, Danica Joy is still a reliable ship until now. From the time she was fielded the Danica Joy was the biggest ship in the route although the Super Shuttle Ferry 12 of Asian Marine Transport Corporation is almost as big as her. That was true until recently whenthe FastCat of Archipelago Philippine Ferries arrived. But then still her competitors in the route has no bunks to offer the passengers (basically, it is only Aleson Shipping that offers bunks in that route with their other overnight ferry-ROROs that sometimes spell the Danica Joy in the route).

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Danica Joy in Pulauan Port of Dapitan

It seems that the Dapitan-Dumaguete route is a perfect fit for Danica Joy. The 44 nautical miles of the route does not seem to stress the engines of Danica Joy which the last time I saw her was still practically smokeless. Her size is also a perfect match especially in the peak season when added capacity is needed. Her cargo deck which can take in 12 long trucks (more if there are smaller vehicles) can carry the many distributor trucks and fish carriers that teem in the route.

In my eye, the Danica Joy is still fit to sail for many more years and I expect to see her in the route for a considerable more time. I just hope the campaigners against old ferries who have their own vested interests won’t have their way because if they triumph that would mean the end of the 45-year old Danica Joy and that is a shame because she is still a good and reliable ship.

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Montenegro Lines is Challenging in the Zamboanga-Jolo Route

A few months ago, I got the incredulous (at least for me) update that Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI) will be fielding their ship Maria Rebecca in the Zamboanga-Jolo route which is the next foray of the shipping in an exclusive Mindanao route after their Surigao-Dapa, Siargao route in northeast Mindanao (and so the logical next step is a southwestern Mindanao route?).

MV Maria Rebecca

Photo by Arnel Hutalla

A lot of questions come into my mind with their move. First is the question of security. This part of the country has bombings and extortion, of course. Western Mindanao is also known for another kind of taxation, one that does not have receipts. I was wondering, did Montenegro Lines already paid what is “due” them? If not their move is a hazardous proposition especially since they are newcomers and strangers to the place.

The alternative taxation “due” there from businesses probably does not give discounts or grace periods. However, I know the “patron saint” of the company is really strong and influential. Now, how that translates into more lenient or secure terms in that area, that I don’t know. Whatever, their move there is certainly brave. But if something bad happens, I will say it is stupid.

In shipping terms, the more important angle here is that of shipping competition and again I wonder deep about the move of Montenegro Lines. The Zamboanga-Jolo route is actually a crowded route. It is not an underserved route. It might even be an overcrowded route and bringing in a RORO is no advantage either.

The biggest competitor of Montenegro Lines in the Zamboanga-Jolo route is the dominant shipping company of Western Mindanao which is Aleson Shipping Lines, a homegrown shipping company which is even bigger than any Cebu-based overnight ferry company. Practically every night and at least six nights a week, Aleson Shipping Lines will have a ship from Zamboanga to Jolo and vice-versa and six of those will be dedicated ships in the route.

Aside from those, two other competitors of Aleson Shipping Lines with ROROs have up to four voyages to Jolo on the way to Siasi and Sitangkai in Tawi-tawi. These two are the Magnolia Shipping Company and Ever Lines. Actually these two don’t care that much for passengers to Jolo as their bread and butter is cargo. It is the Tawi-tawi route that they care about and they just pass by Jolo for the passengers going further from there.

Like Aleson Shipping Lines, they have ROROs but their rolling cargo is sparse. Cargo to Jolo is basically loose cargo. Trucks and cars are seldom loaded because after Jolo there is not much to go to because of the security situation and because of the ridos. Without proper security those vehicles might just be mincemeat for the extremists that teem in Jolo island. If those can kidnap foreigners that are not even in their land then imagine what they can do to a vehicle chugging along their un-maintained roads.

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Maria Rebecca and an Aleson ferry (Photo by Britz Salih)

Aside from Aleson, Magnolia and Ever with ROROs, the Zamboanga-Jolo route is also home to the Zamboanga cruiser ferries. The shipping companies that operate these are Sing Shipping, Ibnerizam Shipping and Evenesser Shipping and between the three they operate a total of four active cruiser ferries, the Mama Mia, KC Beatrice, Prince Glory and Bounty Cruiser. So on a given night two of the four will be headed to Jolo and two will be headed back to Zamboanga.

Zamboanga is also home to what I call the “Moro boats”, wooden motor boats (before they were wrongly renamed as “motor launches”) that are unique to the area and almost proprietary to the Muslim Filipinos. Several shipping companies operate this kind of vessel between Zamboanga and Jolo and among these the two with the most boats are Katrafar Shipping Lines which operate the Katrina boats and L5 Shipping/Maing Dimdi which operate the Sea Dayang/Sea Sayang boats. Malik Manajil also operates the Karmina boat.

These three operators sail some 8 Moro boats between them although not that regularly because their main load is copra and passengers come as secondary. Most of the time though they will have a boat docked in Zamboanga and at times three or even four of them will be there.

There are also a few unregistered Moro boats that run between Zamboanga and Jolo that use Zamboanga port. Unregistered Moro boats are not novelties in Zamboanga because in truth most of those are actually unregistered with MARINA (Maritime Industry Authority), the local maritime regulatory agency. And in Baliwasan there are also be a few Moro boats running irregularly plus some that sail to the other towns in Jolo island and the other islands of Sulu province. 

Aside from all those mentioned, SRN Fastcrafts, the operator of the Weesam Express fastcrafts also runs the Zamboanga-Jolo route with a day trip of their Weesam Express 1.

So all in all, maybe in a day some eight vessels are due to depart in Zamboanga for Jolo (if none is drydocked) and the Maria Rebecca of Montenegro Lines will be the ninth every other day. Now, is that 49.9-meter ferry already converted into an overnight ferry? By the way, her size is about average of the steel-hulled ferries that sail in the Zamboanga-Jolo route.

So what gives? Sulu only has a population of a little over 800,000 and some of the islands and towns in that archipelago have direct links to Zamboanga. It does not have tourism but it has lots of copra and rubber, crops that can be left behind when there is fighting. Plus, it has cottage industries producing additional millions and those are not the normal kind.

But nine vessels going there in a day? Come on!

A Quartet of Sister Ships

The Lite Ferry 1 and Lite Ferry 2 of Lite Ferries, the Maria Helena of Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. and the Danica Joy of Aleson Shipping Lines share one thing in common which is a common hull design making them all as sister ships. The four were built in different yards and in different years and they have different engines but they share the same superstructure too making them similar from afar though many do not realize that immediately. They also sailed at one time not far from each other and some might even have met in Dumaguete port.

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Among the four, it was Omogo which came first to the Philippines in 1987 from Setonaikai Kisen KK of Hiroshima, Japan to become the Danilo 1 of Danilo Lines. The Sensui Maru of the same Japan company followed in 1989 and she became the Danilo 2 of Danilo Lines. Actually, the two are among our early ferries, a product of the right bet of Danilo Lines on ROROs when they connected the ports of San Carlos and Toledo across the Tanon Strait dividing Negros and Cebu islands. When Danilo Lines was acquired by Lite Shipping Corporation, Danilo 1 became the Lite Ferry 1 and Danilo 2 became the Lite Ferry 2. Officially, however, the two ships still belong to Danilo Lines which was not dissolved yet but everybody knows now they are under Lite Ferries and other ships of Lite Ferries periodically relieve them now in the route and sometimes the two ships are assigned other routes of Lite Ferries.

The third to arrive in the country was the Danica Joy and she was one of the early ROROs of Aleson Shipping Lines when she came in 1994. The last to arrive was the Maria Helena which only came in 2004 after a stint in China with the Qingdao Ferry. Belonging to different companies, the quartet of sister ships have different home ports, the Lite Ferries in Cebu, Danica Joy in Zamboanga and the Maria Helena in Batangas.

Among the four, three were built in 1969 which are the two Lite Ferries and the Maria Helena. The Danica Joy, meanwhile was built in 1972. The Lite Ferry 1 was built by Kanda Zosensho in Kure yard, Japan. The Lite Ferry 2, though having the same owner in Japan was built by a different shipyard in the same year. She was built by Matsuura Tekko in Higashino yard, Japan.

Meanwhile, the Maria Helena was built as the Yanai by Nakamura Shipbuilding and Engineering Works in Yanai yard, Japan for Boyo Kisen KK of Yanai, Japan. She went to China as the Lu Jiao Du 1 in 1993. Lastly, the Danica Joy was built as the Nakajima by Nakamura Zosen in Matsue yard, Japan. [Note: Danica Joy is the same ship as the earlier Danica Joy 1.]

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Photo by James Gabriel Verallo

Lite Ferry 1 has the permanent ID IMO 7005530. Lite Ferry 2 has the permanent ID IMO 6926969. That means her keel was laid ahead of Lite Ferry 1. Maria Helena is also identified as IMO 7535274 and Danica Joy is IMO 7852414. I do not know why the IMO Numbers of Maria Helena and Danica Joy are out of sequence.

The four are not basic, short-distance ferry-ROROs but belongs to the next class higher which are over 40 meters in length (in fact, just below 50 meters LOA). The distinguishing characteristic of the four is the rectangular box at the front or bow of the ship which serves as protection for rain, sea splash and rogue waves. The four looks rectangular from the sides. All except Danica Joy have full two passenger decks here and a single car deck (Danica Joy just have a partial second passenger deck).

The car decks of the four have three lanes and four trucks or buses can be accommodated in each lane (more if it is sedans, SUVs or jeeps). Originally and until now, the four have RORO ramps at the bow and at the stern although all basically just use the stern ramp now for handling rolling cargo hence they dock stern-wise.

All the four have combined bunks and seats so all can be used either as a short-distance RORO or as an overnight ship. All have an airconditioned Tourist class and the usual open-air Economy class. The size of the Tourist class varies among the four, however and so do the passenger capacity. Maria Helena has the smallest passenger capacity among the four at only 310 passengers.

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Maria Helena by John Carlos Cabanillas

The gross tonnage (GT) of Maria Helena might be a little bloated at over 1,000, a pattern I noticed among ships that passed through China (if it is compared to its Japan GT). Meanwhile, the GT of the three others might be a little understated because it was practically unchanged from the Japan GT (when scantlings were added to ships). Until now, the Philippines have no true reliable GT figures (because MARINA does not know how to compute that?).

The four sister ships are equipped with a pair of Daihatsu marine main engines. Three have a total of 2,000 horsepower but the Lite Ferry 2 only has a total of 1,700 horsepower making it the slowest at 13 knots when new. Lite Ferry 1 was capable of 13.5 knots when new while the two others were capable of 14 knots when new. Realistically, they are only capable now of 11-12 knots given their age and the additional metal. Some might even sail at just 10 knots given the demand of the route.

The quartet all have raked bows and transom sterns. All have two masts and two funnels at the sides. However, only Lite Ferry 1 and Lite Ferry 2 have stern passenger ramps which is a trademark of Cebu overnight ferries. This design does not interfere with the car or cargo loading of the ship. This is not possible with Maria Helena because she has no full scantling.

The four have no permanent assigned routes. The nearest to having a permanent route is the Danica Joy in the Dumaguete-Dapitan (Pulauan) route where she was the first short-distance RORO with bunks. Montenegro Lines always rotate their ships but for a time Maria Helena was always in the Bogo-Cataingan route. Meanwhile, Lite Ferries always rotate their ships every so few months.

These four are all starting to advance in years now. However, all are still very reliable. Their metal seems to be still good too. So I don’t see them quitting anytime soon as all are still good ferries especially in the short routes, the routes that loads a dozen vehicles and a few hundred passengers.

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If there is anything that will kill them it will be the wrong proposal being pushed now by some quarters to retire ferries that are over 35 years in age. As if safety in ships is determined by the age of the ships when empirically it is not. Actually, it is vested interests and not just concern for safety that is fueling that push.

Anyway, I hope to see this quartet continue to sail for many more years. They are still capable ferries.

Note: It is possible that Ruby-1 or Ruby-2 of Alexis Shipping that plied the Batangas-Calapan route is also a sister ship of the four. But they are already missing.

The Blue Magic Ferries and Starhorse Shipping Lines

These two shipping companies are actually successors of the once-dominant Viva Shipping Lines and its legal-fiction companies Sto. Domingo Shipping Lines and DR Shipping Lines which once dominated the seas of the old Southern Tagalog region before four provinces of it were spun out as the MIMAROPA region. These two companies were founded by the sons of the founder of Viva Shipping Lines, the widely-known Don Domingo Reyes or “DDR” to many. This founder was a powerful man during his time as he was the landsman in the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon of the martial law dictator then. Don Domingo Reyes’ main base was Bondoc Peninsula although most people thought it was Batangas City and Lucena as he has his bases of his shipping there and people did not know of Villa Reyes in San Narciso, Quezon where he built his first wooden motor boats that were called batel in the region.

A laid-up Viva Shipping Line RORO by Edison Sy

The Blue Magic Ferries was first to be established among the two. This came into existence when the operations of Viva Shipping Lines, etc. were already winded down and its ships being disposed already. Almost all of the older ships of the Viva Shipping combine were sold and most to the ship breakers. Maybe that will be the logical fate since the Southern Tagalog region has a surplus of ferries then when two Zamboanga shipping companies (the Aleson Shipping Lines and A.S. Sakaluran) and a Cebu shipping company (ACG Joy Express Liner) even tried their fates there (none was successful, however).

Some fastcrafts of Viva Shipping Lines somehow survived and these combined with the remains of ACG Joy Express Line. This company started in shipping with the Sea Cat vessels that first operated out of Cebu and had routes to Bohol and whose founder is a well-known scion of Cebu who is Alvin C. Garcia (hence the initials). From what I can gather, Blue Magic Ferries is a sort of partnership between two sons of Don Domingo Reyes and Alvin C. Garcia.

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Blue Water Princess 2 by JM Litada

Blue Magic Ferries was able to accumulate at least five ferries with two ROROs and two fastcrafts and a catamaran High Speed Craft (HSC). The ROROs were the Blue Water Princess 1 which was known as ACG Joy 8 in ACG Joy Express Liner before. The other RORO was the Blue Water Princess 2 which was the former Asia Brunei of the Trans-Asia Shipping Lines. The High Speed Crafts of Blue Magic Ferries that I was able to verify were the Blue Water Queen, the Blue Water Lady and the Blue Water Lady II. The first was the former Our Lady of Mt. Carmel of DR Shipping Lines which was purchased from Sun Cruises of Manila. The second was the former Sea Cat 25, a catamaran of ACG Express Liner and the last was the former Our Lady of Fatima of Sto. Domingo Shipping Lines.

Blue Magic Ferries based itself in Lucena, an old base of Viva Shipping Lines, their predecessor company (later Starhorse Shipping Lines based itself too in Lucena). From there they operated routes to Marinduque and Masbate which are also old routes of Viva Shipping Lines. Lucena then was not virgin territory and in fact there were many shipping companies operating routes from there including Montenegro Shipping Lines, Phil-Nippon Kyoei and Sta. Cruz Shipping. Meanwhile, Kalayaan Shipping Lines had a route to Romblon. [Note: Phil-Nippon Kyoei and Sta. Cruz Shipping are both defunct now.]

Blue Water Queen

Blue Water Queen by Edison Sy

Trouble first struck Blue Magic Ferries when the Blue Water Princess 1 was hit by storm waves while on a voyage from Lucena to Masbate which was an old route of Viva Shipping Lines. It seems the ship’s rolling cargo slid unbalancing the ship which then tried to seek refuge in western Bondoc Peninsula but capsized when the ship struck the shallows. This unfortunate incident happened in 2007 and it resulted in some casualties. To a beginning struggling company this type of incident can be hard to surmount especially if the company has other problems.

From a TV grab of Sydney Morning Herald

Starhorse Shipping Lines came later than Blue Magic Ferries around 2008 and started by leasing ships from DBP Leasing Corporation, the government’s ship leasing company. They named these into a series called “Virgen de Penafrancia”. That name is not surprising since Viva Shipping Lines originally started with the “Penafrancia” series of batels and then into a series of ROROs called the “Viva Penafrancia”. It was able to secure a route by accepting the promoted but harebrained route of MARINA (Maritime Industry Authority, the Philippines maritime regulatory agency). That route is from Laiya, San Juan, Batangas to Marinduque which does not make sense on two counts. One, the distance is double than that of from Lucena and those who know the sea knows it will not be able to compete in rates and fares with the ferries from Lucena. Second, the direction of the route means the ferry will be broadsided by the habagat (southwest monsoon) waves, the same problem usually encountered by the Lucena-Masbate ships which once nearly capsized a ferry in the Pasacao-Masbate route. Starhorse Shipping Lines was founded by Victor Reyes, the eldest son of Don Domingo Reyes. [Victor Reyes was recently deceased.]

Soon, as expected, Starhorse Shipping Lines was able to secure a transfer to the Lucena-Marinduque route and they chartered more ferries from DBP Leasing Corporation until their series reached the numeral “VIII” (however there was no “III” and “IV” but reports then said they purchased the Don Martin Sr. 6 of the defunct Palacio Lines of Cebu and Samar but this is missing now). So for a time, Starhorse Shipping Lines was able to accumulate more ferries from DBP Leasing Corporation, most of which were LCTs. This time around Starhorse, the successor, emphasized cleanliness and passenger service, two terms that were unknown in the predecessor company. However, they were in the route where the new dominant shipping company of Southern Tagalog and MIMAROPA, the Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. was operating. In the early days of Montenegro Lines, their predecessor company Viva Shipping Line applied the pressure on them, shall we say. This time around, it was already the pleasure of Montenegro Lines to return the favor.

M/V Pinoy Roro-1 Folio

From a folio by Irvine Danielles

Greater trouble erupted for Blue Magic Ferries at the same time Starhorse Shipping Lines started operations. It seems they found out then that they have no Certificates of Public Convenience (CPC or franchise) which supposedly should still be in the possession of the Reyes family. Actually, things are really puzzling for me. From records I can gather, some 24 ships of the Viva Shipping Lines combine were confirmed sold (I can name the 24 individually) and some was as late as 2006. However, the family can show nothing for it in terms of ability to purchase new ships (especially by Starhorse Shipping Lines). And what happened to the franchises? These thing do not disappeared in an instant as it is the residual of any defunct transportation company and can even be sold for cash or hoarded. Were the proceeds returned to a “patron saint”?

Blue Magic Ferries stopped operations in 2008. The Blue Water Princess 2 was sold to Navios Shipping Lines where she became their first vessel, the Grand Unity. Blue Water Lady II was sold to DIMC Shipping of Dumaguete where she became the Delta III. The fates of the other ships are unknown to me. Some might still be laid up and one was reported to be in a Navotas yard.

Starhorse Lines M/V Peñafrancia II

Virgen de Penafrancia II by Arnel Hutalla

Starhorse Shipping Lines isn’t doing too well lately. They have returned to DBP some ships (ironically some is already with their competitor Montenegro Shipping Lines) and now they are down to two, the Virgen de Penafrancia I and Virgen de Penafrancia II which are both LCTs. Heads-on, LCTs are usually at a disadvantage against short-distance ferry-ROROs although their Korean-made LCTs seem to be better than the ordinary LCT.

One of the two, Blue Magic Ferries is now out. I wonder if Starhorse Shipping Lines can hold on and i hope they can. They are trying but sometimes the death of the founder proves insurmountable.

Blue Magic Ferries and Starhorse Shipping Companies are two successor companies I have a hard time figuring out. I wonder if there are smokes and mirrors even in the predecessor company.

LG Flatscreen TV for Entertainment

Starhorse Shipping goodluck charms by Irvine Kinea

As a last note, I have learned that Viva Shipping Lines still have some ships in storage in Lucena and San Narciso, Quezon. Will there be a rebirth? Or is it already too late and the family is too fractured now?

I am still interested in the further developments of these successor companies of Viva Shipping Lines.

The Danica Joy 2

The Danica Joy 2 is unique among local ferries because it is the only one with a foreign route, that is, to the port of Sandakan in Sabah, Malaysia. No other ferry has that distinction. Glan port in Sarangani province might have a connection to Indonesia but it is Indonesian ferries which sail the route. However, soon maybe with the establishment of the Kudat-Bataraza route linking Sabah and Palawan Danica Joy 2 might lose that distinction as a local ferry is slated to do that route. Malaysian ferries are not interested to do a route to the Philippines because the near islands to them are underdeveloped and it is us who needs products as their goods are much cheaper than ours except for “sin” products which is illegal in their land like alcoholic drinks and we have plenty of that. Besides, we are also very well known for piracy and kidnapping, or at least the Abu Sayyaf is.

The Danica Joy 2 is not really a big ship. She is actually much smaller than the Lady Mary Joy which pioneered the route to Sabah at least in the legal realm. What I mean is from Zamboanga, Jolo, Bongao and other islands there are wooden cargo-passenger motor boats called Moro boats in PSSS (Philippine Ship Spotters Society) and junko or lancha in the place which makes run to Sabah. Most of these are unregistered and in all cases they have no ferry franchises from MARINA, the local maritime authority. But it is known by all that they run otherwise how could we have such an big “illegal” population in Sabah and how could be there so many “barter” goods in southwest Mindanao that reach even Cebu and Davao. Many of our islands near Sabah are almost completely dependent on fuel from that Malaysian territory and that dependence even extends to cooking oil, rice, cigarettes and many other grocery products and it is these junko or lanchas that carry them.

Danica Joy 2 also carries back “barter” goods but in limited amounts per passenger otherwise it will already be considered as “smuggling”. Just what constitutes the “legal” amount, well, there is no hard and fast rule in the area but if you ask the Customs and especially the Department of Finance all those should be levied import duties (well, it is their duty to suck as much amount from the citizenry). But Danica Joy 2 is the more “legal” means to buy from Sabah compared to the junko or lancha which suffers seizures of goods now and then (of course the authorities would show “they are doing their job”). I don’t know exactly why but the Sandakan fare of Danica Joy 2 is almost triple compared to Bongao when the difference in distance between them from Zamboanga is not great. Maybe some of the fare is for “protection” and not only from authorities but also from the pirates.

Danica Joy 2 is more like an overnight ship but with her Zamboanga-Jolo-Sandakan route she functions like a multi-day liner. However, her capacity to feed her passengers is limited if compared to the true Manila liners. In southwestern Philippines that is the weakness of the ferries and even their dining areas is limited. That is why passengers bring their own food and the role of food vendors inside the pier becomes important. However, in Zamboanga because it is an ISPS (International System of Port Security) port, the vendors are often harassed and their goods thrown to the sea. They know the faces of the vendors, they can even require IDs but it seems they would rather follow foreign impositions than understand the welfare of the passengers and the vendors (as if they have no social value). These vendors are actually the cheaper offerer of food and drinks to the passengers. Every passenger knows passenger needs are much more expensive aboard the ship.

People in the Visayas will probably understand more the limited size of Danica Joy 2 if I say that she is the sister ship of the Asia Philippines of Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Incorporated (TASLI). However, they have different builders but just the same they really resemble each other. Danica Joy 2 was built by Nakamura Shipbuilding & Engine Works in Yanai yard in Japan as the Orange Hope of the shipping company Shikoku Ferry in Japan in 1982 and she carried the ID IMO 8135253. She is only 62.7 meters in length over-all, 12.0 meters in breadth and 4.5 meters in depth. Her original gross register tonnage was 974 tons. She is actually smaller than almost all of the overnight ferries of Trans-Asia Shipping Lines Inc. and Cokaliong Shipping Lines Inc. For more comparison let it be said that she only matches the Filipinas Dapitan and Filipinas Dinagat in size.dj2-port

After 16 years of sailing in Japan, Orange Hope came to the Philippines when she was acquired by the Aleson Shipping Lines of Zamboanga in 1998. This was amid the great expansion not only of the company but also by competitors in Zamboanga which left some bankrupt later. She was refitted in Varadero de Recodo, the favorite shipyard of Aleson Shipping Lines. In refitting, additional scantling were built and she became a two-passenger-deck ferry and she became an overnight ship featuring an all-bunks accommodation. Her original route was Zamboanga-Jolo which is an overnight route.

With refitting, her gross tonnage only increased minimally from 974 to 998 which is below that of her sister ship Asia Philippines and her net tonnage was declared to be 491. Danica Joy 2 is a medium speed ferry capable of 16 knots when new. This comes from a pair of Daihatsu marine engines with a total of 4,000 horsepower. Now she often sails at 13 knots only. However, there was a time, a few years ago, when Danica Joy 2 was unreliable and sometimes tugs have to be sent out to her rescue. She was then known for announcing her arrival with thick smoke on the horizon (people on the docks can identify her on the horizon with that). But the more aggressive Aleson Shipping scions opened their checkbooks, major repairs were done to the engines and she is now a reliable ship once more with less smoke.

The Danica Joy 2 accommodates 636 passengers in 3 classes – Cabin, Tourist and Economy. The cabins are built locally indicating she was not used for long distances in Japan and the doors were in fact too plain-looking. The Tourist class and the Economy class are the usual Economy that can be found in other overnight ferries with the Economy at the stern also and in two decks which is normal pattern. In Economy there is no bunk number associated with the ticket purchased. Since it does not get full or overfull it is more of a “first come, choose first basis”. The early birds choose the breezier portions, of course.

This ferry has no stern passenger ramps nor of flying passenger ramps on the sides. What it has are side ramps that fold to the side, Zamboanga-style. But it is well-organized since from that ramp one will find a catwalk on the side above the car deck. If a passenger is bound for the Economy section he or she then turns to the stern. If the passenger is bound for Tourist or Cabin he or she heads to the bow. From the catwalk there are stairs to the decks above. For the upper classes upon entering one sees the front desk or information counter (that is rare in a Zamboanga ship). The Tourist section is on the lower passenger deck and the Cabin is on the upper passenger deck.

What is another unusual lay-out for Danica Joy 2 is right after the information counter comes the ship’s restaurant and besides that is the store (it is not a kiosk). Actually it is a clever lay-out because Economy passengers can access those without going through the Tourist section. The ship’s restaurant is a combination of modern and old. Aside from curvaceous plastic chairs there are also the old iron, holed chairs which is an Aleson Shipping trademark. Meals are not part of the ticket and what is served are very basic and instant meals. In Zamboanga, in multi-day ships passengers are advised to bring their own food or seek food from the vendors in the intermediate ports or outside.dj2-rest

I have been to the bridge of this ship. It is a decent bridge with the lay-out and instrumentation of the medium-size ferries of her era and nothing fancy. Behind the bridge, as usual are the cabins of the top deck and engine officers of the ships and on the stern of the uppermost deck is another restaurant, the mess hall for the crew. It is pretty decent and it is called the “McBobords” complete with the arches of McDonald’s.dj2-bridge

The car/cargo deck of this ship is interesting to watch. Unlike all other Zamboanga ships the load is mainly containers as in XEUs (ten-foot container vans) and it is moved by forklifts carried aboard by the ship. The use of container vans is for the security of the merchandise and not for ease of loading and unloading. And maybe to also hide the (barter) goods from prying eyes, greedy hands and smoochers in uniform. Probably the transaction of “grease” is also per container basis and bahala na kung ano ang nasa loob (no more pricing of what’s inside the containers). Everybody knows the cargo from Sandakan is primarily “barter” goods. Semi-finished furniture of good wood is also one of the “imports” from Sabah.dj2-car-deck

Danica Joy 2 became a Sandakan ship only when Lady Mary Joy 2, a much better and bigger ship was sold to the breakers because it was not making making money and it was too big for the overnight Zamboanga routes. But the original route of that starts from Cebu. It failed because Aleson Shipping Lines didn’t realize Visayans are too fearful of Zamboanga and didn’t know the economic possibilities of Sandakan or Sabah. That was the time when the Ramos administration was pitching the BIMP-EAGA integration which simply failed to get off the ground. Besides, the local producers’ lobbies are simply too strong and opposing (well, even now). And our consumers are simply too clueless to realize the potential benefits for them in lower prices and more choices.

Once a week, on her off-Sandakan route, Danica Joy 2 will also sail the Zamboanga-Jolo route, her original route.

Danica Joy 2 will still sail a long time because she is needed in the route. Trade realities might change (as in Zamboanga barter weakened because Manila importers are now permitted to import direct from Singapore) because there are simply too many Muslim Filipinos in Sabah and they need a transport to Zamboanga for that.

For me the social function is the more important function of Danica Joy 2, not the trade function.

dj2-stern 

The Long-Careered Delta III

The people of Central Visayas know this fastcraft because for a number of years she was sailing from Dumaguete to Siquijor which was probably her most successful route locally. She would leave at early morning and people at the port and at the Dumaguete Boulevard would watch her powerful wakes and wash that only a High Speed Craft can make. She also have that striking livery which was unlike other fastcrafts.

When I first saw her in Dumaguete, I was deceived. It did not enter my mind that Delta III was a fastcraft I once probably knew and might have even ridden. But thanks to the PSSS collaboration with grosstonnage.com of Angelo Blasutta which was a very good database when it was still functional, I was able to trace who she was. I must admit though that there are still a few uncertainties in her career especially since one company that owned her in the past, the Viva Shipping group had name and ownership changes in the fastcrafts they owned.

Another faction in my deception is the livery made her seem bigger, I think, and the truth is I did not think she would have survived the downs of the shipping companies which once owned her. Add to add her age. Fastcrafts are not known to live very long unlike the conventional ferries. In most cases, when the engines go that is also the end of this kind of craft. High speed engines also do not last as long as low speed engines (in metallurgical engineering they it is the total number of revolutions made that determines when the engine will give way). Another angle is the engines might still be alive but the revenues might no longer be enough for the fuel consumption That is quite true in High Speed Crafts whose engines are no longer efficient. And that is the reason why so many High Speed Crafts built in the 1980’s and 1990’s are on the market today because they are no longer profitable to operate.

Delta III is one of the oldest fastcrafts still running locally. She was built by Sumidagawa Shipyard Company of Tokyo, Japan in 1979 and she was first known as Shiokaze and her ID was IMO 7913945. grosstonnage.com says she was once known too as Marine Star and that was probably when she was still in Japan.

This fastcraft is not big although she is bigger than the smallest fastcrafts around like the Santander Expresses or the FastCraft Aznars which sail near the seas where Delta III sail. She is 26.7 meters in length over-all and she measures 25.9 meters in length between perpendiculars. Her breadth is 5.8 meters and she has a depth of 2.6 meters. Her dimensional weights are 152 gross tons and 43 net tons and her deadweight tonnage is 14 tons. Two of her sister ships were the Sachikaze and Oikaze which both went to Sun Cruises of Manila as the Island Cruisers and which then went to Viva Shipping Lines in 1994 to battle the newly-arrived SuperCats then in the Batangas-Calapan route. She is also sister ship to the Sazanami which went to Viva Shipping Lines also.

The Delta III has an aluminum alloy hull and she has a raked stem and transom stern. She has a single mast and and one passenger deck in serrated arrangement. Her original powerplant were most likely Detroit Diesels of over 2,000 horsepower and the original speed will be about 25 or 26 knots.

In 1995, she came to the Philippines to Viva Shipping Lines as the Our Lady of Fatima II. She was one of the six fastcrafts that came into the fleet of Viva Shipping Lines combine. There are confusions though in the maritime databases because of the renamings and the situation that not all fastcrafts and even those from Japan have IMO Numbers.

When Viva Shipping Lines began spiralling down in 2002 because of overcompetition, internal troubles and loss of patronage, she went to the fleet of the Blue Magic Ferries which was a successor company to Viva Shipping Lines and owned by the scions of that company. This company is headquartered in Lucena City, Quezon and is using the old base there of Viva Shipping Lines. Blue Magic Ferries tried to continue sailing from Lucena in alliance with the rump of ACG Express Liner, a Cebu shipping company which tried its fate in Batangas but which also lost. In Blue Magic Ferries Shiokaze was known as the Blue Water Lady II. Along this way, the fastcraft was re-engined to twin Caterpillar engines of 2,200 horsepower which lengthened her life and she was again capable of 25 knots.

In 2007, the struggles of Blue Magic Ferries intensified when their RORO ferry Blue Water Princess which came from ACG Express Liner capsized off Bondoc Peninsula of the province of Quezon in foul weather while doing a Lucena-Masbate route. In 2008, Blue Magic Ferries stopped sailing because of a franchise problem supposedly emanating from a dispute between the scions of the founder of Viva Shipping Lines.

After a lay-up in Lucena, the Blue Water Lady II was sold to DIMC Shipping of Dumaguete where she became the Delta III. She plied a regular route between Dumaguete and Siquijor even though at times DIMC Shipping had problems with competition. This was exacerbated when the invading ROROs of Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. came which was later followed by the ROROs of Aleson Shipping Lines. DIMC Shipping then earned bad repute by outright cancelling of trips when there are only a few tickets purchased for a trip and citing some weak reasons.

In 2014, DIMC Shipping quit and sold their last vessel, the Delta III to a Siquijor-based competitor, the GL Shipping Lines which was successful despite of “foreign” vessel entries to the island. She was renamed then as the GL Express 2. In a sense too, she is a replacement to the sunk GL Express of the company, the former Canoan Jet which in actuality was just a Medium Speed Craft already then. 

Where is this long-careered fastcraft headed? Honestly, I don’t know. All I know is I want her to continue to survive and continue sailing. As things stands now, she might already be in better hands as GL Shipping, to which Siquijodnons seem to have parochial loyalty. This company is thriving especially since she has the shorter route to Siquijor, Siquijor compared to competition.

GL Express 2 is now one of the oldest fastcrafts still existing in the country, a longevity earned despite going through many ownership changes. May she sail more in the future.

The Short-Lived Return of Madrigal Shipping Company to Passenger Shipping

The Madrigal Shipping Company is a shipping company with a long history although few are still familiar with the name. They started before World War II with the name Madrigal & Company and was probably the Philippines biggest shipping company at that time if listing is limited to Filipinos. However, they were mostly in cargo shipping unlike the rival Compania Maritima of the Fernandezes which concentrated on passenger shipping. The founder of the company, Vicente Madrigal was considered the top Filipino industrialist-businessman then by the reckoning of many and probably is the richest Filipino then. He was also politically very well connected to Malacanang and is a political heavyweight himself being a Senator of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. The Madrigal Shipping Company was connected to the many businesses of Vicente Madrigal and it moved their goods like abaca (Manila hemp), coal, ore, copra and also sugar. However, when World War II happened Madrigal Shipping Company lost their entire fleet save for one. Most were captured by the Japanese which were then subsequently lost to American attacks.

After World War II, the company was renamed to Madrigal Shipping Company and started shipping again in 1946. The company has a mixed passenger-cargo and cargo fleet and the latter has the bigger ships. The passenger-cargo ships of the company was smaller and it might have something to do with the routes it was sailing. Madrigal Shipping Company concentrated its branch of passenger shipping on routes to Bicol and Northern Luzon. The route to Bicol would extend to as far as Larap port in Jose Panganiban town in Camarines Norte and the Northern Luzon route would call on Salomague (in Ilocos Sur), Batanes and Aparri. They also had a passenger-cargo ship that would go round the entire Luzon starting from Manila to Northern Luzon before proceeding to Bicol ports and round the Sorsogon tip of Luzon on the way back to Manila.

The passenger-cargo fleet of Madrigal Shipping Company cannot be called luxury liners by any means as they were simply basic passenger-cargo ships. They can even be described as primarily cargo ships with passenger accommodations and the accommodations are generally of one class only, the Economy class. Half of their passenger fleet consisted of former “Y” ships, the smaller cousin of the ex-”FS” ships which were former tankers. In the postwar shipping fleet of the Philippines only they and Luzon Stevedoring Company (LUSTEVECO) operated ex-”Y” ships but the latter operated them as they were originally were – as tankers. In Madrigal Shipping Company, their ex-”Y” ships were converted in passenger-cargo ships with cargo holds. These ex-”Y” ships seemed to be the replacement ships for the Madrigal ships commandeered by the US for the war effort. The other half of the postwar passenger-cargo fleet of Madrigal Shipping Company consisted of old ships from Europe. The company has a penchant for buying old ships from Europe just like another major shipping company, the Manila Steamship Company.

In 1955, in the aftermath of the capsizing and sinking in Babuyan Channel of their ex-”Y” ship Cetus which was trying to beat a typhoon, Madrigal Shipping Corporation sold all their ex-”Y” ships to North Camarines Lumber Company (no typographic error; this is also a shipping company). I wonder if this has a connection to their reputed superstitiousness. However, it was a favorable sale from the Bicol point of view since North Camarines Lumber Company also has the same passenger routes to Bicol and so no ship was lost on that region. Maybe Madrigal Shipping Company made sure of that as the patriarch Vicente Madrigal was actually born in Bicol and had many businesses there.

However, they held on to their other passenger-cargo ships but of course their routes and frequencies were affected by the sale since they did not purchase replacement passenger-cargo ships. In cargo shipping they were still strong and still buying cargo ships but in passenger-cargo shipping this sale of ex-”Y” heralded their slow retreat. This retreat might also be in anticipation of paradigm changes. Even in those days it is easy to foresee that the rail and the trucks will challenge the ship in Luzon in due time. Being in politics (the daughter Pacita of Vicente Madrigal succeeded him in the Senate) and conversant with government plans they might even have the inside track in foreseeing the future. By the 1970’s only one passenger-cargo ship was still sailing for Madrigal Shipping Company, the Viria and before the end of that decade they were already out of passenger shipping. However, the cargo shipping of the company remained but it also declined in due time. It however sprang a surprise later when together with a Taiwan shipping company it bid for the state-owned National Shipping Company of the Philippines which was then being privatized.

In 1988, to the welcome surprise of many Madrigal Shipping Company came back to passenger shipping as the A.P. Madrigal Steamship Co., Inc. This time it was truly liner shipping and not just like the basic passenger-cargo shipping of before. They did that when they fielded the Madrigal Tacloban in 1988 (this was later known as the Madrigal Romblon), the Madrigal Surigao in 1989 and the Madrigal Masbate in 1990. The notable thing about the three is they were all cruiser ferries and the negative thing is by that time nobody is buying or fielding cruiser ferries anymore because it was already obsolescent and the RORO (Roll On, Roll Off) ships have already proven their superiority over the cruisers (well, maybe not in safety or stability).

The first two ships were actually sister ships named the Tai Shan and the Nam Shan and they were originally Hongkong ferries. They were acquired by A.P. Madrigal Steamship Co., Inc. as bareboat charter with option to purchase from Cortes Shipping of Zamboanga. Tai Shan became the Madrigal Tacloban here while Nam Shan became the Madrigal Surigao. Madrigal Tacloban‘s applied route was Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban while Madrigal Surigao‘s applied route was Manila-Maasin-Surigao. It was also a welcome move by many since these routes are exactly the same routes just recently vacated by Escano Lines which went out of passenger shipping (they however stuck to cargo-container shipping).

However, some shipping lines including Sulpicio Lines Incorporated and Aboitiz Shipping Company opposed their applications because of the so-called “prior operator” rule which was the usual “basis” for opposing a new entrant to a route. Actually, the two mentioned shipping companies were fearful because A.P. Madrigal Steamship Co., Inc.’s ships were better than their ships in those routes (however, Aboitiz Shipping Company had long ago abandoned their Catbalogan and Tacloban route). And besides Sulpicio Lines Inc. had no Catbalogan/Tacloban ship at that moment because of the sinking of Dona Paz. But however the opposition at the start, A.P. Madrigal Steamship Co., Inc. was eventually allowed by MARINA, the maritime regulatory agency to sail the applied routes.

Even then, there was actually already a problem in these routes as these are also the same routes slowly being threatened already by the intermodal trucks and buses borne by the short-distance ferry-ROROs that were already serving as the “bridges of the sea”. Maybe this was the reason behind what was cited by Aboitiz Shipping Company that they experienced a 60% drop in passenger volume. However, as cruisers that can’t carry much cargo (they were even described as “pure cargo”) maybe Madrigal Shipping Company thought that won’t be much of a problem for them. Maybe they were just intent on beating the competition with superior ships, in their view. Their ships have more beautiful lines anyway. And as bare-boat charters their risk is not high as they can just return the ships if they did not turn in a profit.

Madrigal Tacloban (Madrigal Romblon) and Madrigal Surigao were sister ships and both were built by Niigata Shipbuilding & Repair Incorporated in Niigata, Japan in 1972. The two both measured 78.6 meters by 12.1 meters by 5.6 meters in L x B x D. The LPP was 70.0 meters but Madrigal Surigao had a higher GT at 2,147 while Madrigal Tacloban had 2,136. The NT was 1,035 and the DWT was 312 tons. Both had two masts and two passenger decks on a steel hull with semi-bulbous stem and a retrouvaille stern. They were not equipped with cargo booms. The sister ships were both equipped with twin Niigata diesel engines with a combined 5,100 horsepower that propelled them to a top speed of 17.5 knots. The two ships looked identical.

Another ferry, the Madrigal Masbate came to A.P. Madrigal Steamship Co., Inc. from Taiwan Navigation Company Ltd. of Taipei but this ship was actually homeported in Kaohsiung. This was a beautiful ship with magnificent and modern lines that was built as the Tai Peng by Hayashikane Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Limited in their Nagasaki shipyard in Japan in 1971. The ship measured 77.5 meters by 12.6 meters by 5.5. meters with an LPP of 70.0 meters. She had a GT of 1,992, an NT of 743 and a DWT of 474 tons. The ship had two masts, two passenger decks with a steel hull with a raked stem and a cruiser stern. She was powered by a single Kobe Hatsudoki marine engine of 4,900 horsepower which gave her a top speed of 17 knots.

When all three were already sailing, the renamed Madrigal Tacloban which was now Madrigal Romblon was doing the Manila-Odiongan-Malay (this is better known as Caticlan now) route. Meanwhile, Madrigal Surigao was running the Manila-Odiongan-Maasin-Surigao route. And it was Madrigal Masbate which was sailing the Manila-Catbalogan-Tacloban route. Although they were already set by 1990, the Madrigal ferries, however, did not sail long. This was already the era when more liners were coming fast including great liners with four passenger decks, a passenger capacity of well over 2,000 with a true gross tonnage of 10,000 and over and of speeds nearing 20 knots and with hotel-like accommodations, amenities and service.

And A.P. Madrigal Steamship Co., Inc. was unlucky to bet in routes that were already being eaten up by the intermodal form of transport where trucks, buses and private vehicles are transported between island by the short-distance ferry-ROROs and whose travel times are shorter with flexibility of routes and ubiquity of departures. Moreover to some former ship passengers travelling by intermodal bus it is a new adventure and tourism too to places they have never seen before. To the traders and shippers, the intermodal option meant no more hassles with North Harbor port and the crooked Manila policemen. That also meant no more pilferage and delays and they are no longer at the mercy of the arrastre.

After just a few years, A.P. Madrigal Steamship Co., Inc. quit passenger shipping (however, they were still in cargo shipping). The sister ships Madrigal Romblon and Madrigal Surigao were sold to the breakers and they were broken up in 1994. It was an early death as the ships were only 22 years old. It was also a premature death because if they waited a little longer they might have gone to Sampaguita Shipping Lines which soon geared up to buy former liners to be used in the then-developing Zamboanga-Pagadian route and the Zamboanga-Jolo or Bongao route. They would have better choices than the ships they acquired from WG&A, the former Tacloban City and the former Iligan City as they were newer and have sailed far less nautical miles.

Madrigal Masbate was far luckier than the sisters. In 1994, another Zamboanga shipping company that was buying better overnight ferries (and the shortcut to that is to buy hand-me-down liners), the SKT Shipping Line (later the Kong San Teo shipping company or KST Shipping Line) purchased the laid-up Masbate Madrigal. She was fielded in the premier route to the east Zamboanga then, the Zamboanga-Pagadian route. Appropriately, she was named the Pagadian City. She was by far the best ship in the route, the most beautiful and the most gorgeous ever to call on Pagadian port, as the locals would concede and included in the comparison were the Manila liners which called on Pagadian port in the 1950’s and 1960’s.

Zamboanga City was actually a beehive of acquiring new ferries in the mid-1990’s including new-build fastcrafts. They actually had the most acquisitions of Malaysian fastcrafts then which was equal in number to the Cebu HSCs. Bullet Express and Weesam Express plus the fastcraft Sea Jet actually all originated in Zamboanga and just migrated to the Visayas. In 1996, the latter great Aleson Shipping Lines of Zamboanga was also gearing up. It was actually a dogfight then in Zamboanga between Sampaguita Shipping Lines, SKT Shipping Lines and Aleson Shipping which was latter won by the latest-named. Too unfortunate Madrigal Romblon and Madrigal Surigao were not snagged up in Zamboanga then.

After this episode, Madrigal never went back to liner shipping again. Well, I hope they will try again. After all we have almost no liners left now. They will be applauded this time if they do.

[Photo Credit: Manila Bulletin through Gorio Belen]

The Dumaguete-Dapitan RORO Connection – A Connection That Took Too Long in Coming

Dumaguete and Dapitan have been blessed with relatively good ports (by Philippine standards) since decades ago because they have Manila connections. True liners and Manila passenger-cargo ships like the former “FS” ships called on them regularly in the past. But what puzzled me is the short-distance RORO connection between them took too long to materialize. Looking at the map, this is the obvious connection point between Mindanao and Negros (and Cebu by extension through the Negros-Cebu connections) because of the relatively short distance (the second shortest after Leyte-Surigao but that is too far away). Compared to the Sorsogon-Samar, Leyte-Surigao and Batangas-Mindoro short-distance ferry connections, the Dumaguete-Dapitan short-distance RORO connection came many, many years too late.

If there was ever a RORO connection before between the two ports, it was the ROROs of the overnight ferries serving the Cebu-Dumaguete-Dapitan route. However, the peculiarity of the Cebu overnight ferry companies is that they stress break-bulk cargo (like those in sacks and cartons) and loose cargo (those not in containers like pieces of GI sheets or rolls of wire) and not rolling cargo (which means vehicles) or containerized cargo. So these Cebu overnight ferry companies like Trans-Asia Shipping Lines, Cokaliong Shipping Lines or George & Peter Lines, to name a few that called on Dumaguete and Dapitan ports didn’t see the need for short-distance ferry-ROROs loading trucks. Maybe that was the reason they did not acquire that type of ferry. But actually it is that type that was really fit for the Dumaguete-Dapitan route and just shuttling between the two ports like what is the practice now.

The Cebu overnight ferry companies which were established later than the three were the ones which saw the need for short-distance ferry-ROROs. The prime example of that is Lite Ferries which had a passenger-cargo LCT at the start and later acquired ROROs in the 40-meter and 50-meter class for dual short-distance and overnight ferry operations. And maybe that is the reason why Lite Ferries is flying high now because they were able to tap a business and a paradigm overlooked by their overnight ferry competitors. Probably this is the reason too for the fast success of a late entrant, the Medallion Transport which started with basic short-distance ferry-ROROs and doing a lone short-distance route. Later they branched into overnight routes using small ROROs. Now they already have true overnight ferry-ROROs.

In comparison, in the Sorsogon-Samar, Leyte-Surigao and Batangas-Mindoro short-distance ferry connections, the shipping companies there started as short-distance ferry companies. They were then able to specialize in this kind of service and type of market which means they carry vehicles almost exclusively including the intermodal buses. Their passengers are mostly passengers of the buses loaded on them. The intermodal trucks they load especially the wing van trucks are long-distance carriers and those eventually developed into the competitors of container shipping with the support of this short-distance ferry-ROROs which became the “bridges” between the islands.

If these short-distance ferry companies have a near-contemporary that tried in that Dumaguete-Dapitan route it was the obscure shipping company Jones Carrier Inc. But that company did not last long as it had too many diverse routes, its ships were too small and old and maybe they were undercapitalized and not strong enough for the long run needed to establish and hold and a new shipping connection. And most likely the presence of the three overnight ferry companies from Cebu also impacted them. On the other hand, I also wonder why the “locals” Maayo Shipping, DIMC Shipping or Tanjuan Shipping which all have routes to or near Dumaguete did not try that route. Or maybe even the nearby Millennium Shipping which just sold its LCTs to Maayo Shipping rather than compete. At the start of a company or route in those earlier times an LCT is enough like what Lite Shipping did in the Argao-Loon route connecting south Cebu and mid-Bohol. But maybe except for the Millennium Shipping of the Floirendos, maybe it is capitalization and lack of vision that was the problem of these Dumaguete ferry companies.

Looking back, maybe it was overnight shipping company Palacio Lines which could have taken advantage of the opportunity offered by the short-distance RORO shipping in this route. They were not unfamiliar with Dumaguete as they had a ship then going to Dumaguete from Tagbilaran and Cebu but it was a cruiser ferry. They were then using their first ROROs on overnight routes much like what the Cebu overnight ferry companies as in concentrating on breakbulk and loose cargo. Maybe if they only looked north and south of them, they might have gotten the idea that short-distance ferry-RORO service is the wave of the future. After all they were a shipping company from Calbayog City in Samar and a little north of that was the Sorsogon-Samar short-distance ferries and down south to them were the Leyte-Surigao short-distance ferries that were both making good. But then they seemed to have been also be too protective of their route to Oroquieta which is not far from Dapitan.

Actually, if one analyzes, it might not only be the overnight ferry companies which might be at fault in the late RORO connection between Dumaguete and Dapitan. For after all, as a general principle, if there is a demand then a supplier responds. But then maybe the shippers were also not aware that there is a better mode than the one they were used to. Actually, the goods from Mindanao sent over that connection eventually find their way to Cebu, the biggest market after Manila. But for too long I noticed the shippers tend to rely on Zamboanga and Ozamis ports. Of course, the bad roads then in the Zamboanga provinces was a hindrance along with the presence of some banditry. So before, Dapitan might have looked too far and unsafe for those from Zamboanga City. And those from Baganian Peninsula, Pagadian and Panguil Bay were too used, too dependent on Ozamis port, their old port of departure (well, with Ozamis, they have a Manila and Dumaguete connection, too).

It took a push from President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo for the Dumaguete-Dapitan connection to come true and hold. Half of the push needed was actually the cementing of the roads of Zamboanga Peninsula. The roads should have been completed much earlier since AusAid (Australian Agency for International Development) is funding the road construction but that stalled for many years because AusAid only wanted to employ Korean construction companies, for quality reasons. However, the local politicians wanted local contractors (for “percentage” reasons, of course). A compromise was worked out and the roads were finally completed (though the Filipino-built sections were obviously substandard). Moreover, the military took control of the mountain pass near Vitali and security was improved after that. After those, travel at night was already possible and that was key to using Dapitan port especially from Zamboanga City. Soon, Dapitan port no longer look too distant. Passengers, instead of waiting for the ship that was not daily even then were soon taking the bus to Dipolog to connect to Dapitan. The trucks followed suit soon, too.

The shipping companies which pioneered the RORO connection between Dumaguete and Dapitan were actually “foreigners”, which mean they were not natives of the area. The first two in the route were the Asian Marine Transport Corporation (AMTC), a Cebu shipping company and Aleson Shipping Lines, a Zamboanga City shipping company. Later, Montenegro Shipping Lines Inc. (MSLI) also came and they are a shipping company from Batangas. The common characteristic of the three is they have a good understanding of short-distance ferry shipping, an understanding which was clearly lacking in the earlier Cebu overnight ferry companies. And all three have the type of ROROs needed here, the basic, short-distance ferry RORO which the old Cebu overnight ferry companies simply didn’t have.

Today, all these three shipping companies are still in the Dumaguete-Dapitan route and thriving, adding ships and frequencies. Now, Montenegro Lines and Aleson Shipping have even invaded the Siquijor route using ROROs from Dumaguete and so maximizing their ships and personnel stationed there. Meanwhile, DIMC Shipping, Maayo Shipping and Tanjuan Shipping all seem to have steam and two of them are obviously floundering while another, the Maayo Shipping company was selling off excess ships (the coming of a competitor in their route is the primary reason for that). Palacio Shipping is even gone now as in they are already defunct and their ships have been sold already. Well, talk of a wrong bet, lack of vision and maybe even too much conservatism.

Why would the Dapitan-Dumaguete route hold? Actually, there is plenty of cargo emanating from that portion of Mindanao and going to Central Visayas. After all Cebu is the second biggest market after Manila and it has sea connections to many islands for further distribution of goods. One of the biggest and most valuable produce being sent from way back by Zamboanga Peninsula to Cebu is fish, the frozen and the canned varieties. Most of the frozen fish emanate from the many “pulo”. This is what they call there Basilan, the Pangutaran group, Jolo, the Tawi-tawi group and the many other islands off Zamboanga. The Sangali Fishport, the regional fishport is also located in Zamboanga City and it is there where many basnigs, trawlers and purse seiners fishing in the Moro Gulf unload their catch. Zamboanga City meanwhile is host to seven canneries. Dapitan is now the ports of choice in bringing the frozen fish through fish carrier trucks. However, a ship is still preferred for canned fish as it is heavy. Meanwhile, Spanish sardines in bottles also became a hit produce in the Dipolog area and they use Dapitan port in bringing their goods to the Visayas.

There is also plenty of freshwater and brackish fish from the fishponds of Zamboanga Sibugay especially those located in the marshes of Sibuguey Bay. Meanwhile, fishing vessels catching off Zamboanga del Sur, Lanao del Sur and Maguindanao unload in Pagadian and Tukuran ports and fish carriers pick them up these catches. Practically all of them now use Dapitan port to bring the fish destined for Negros island and Cebu province instead of Ozamis port. This portion of Mindanao has finally discovered the superiority of the intermodal truck (including the intermodal fish carriers) which can deliver goods along the way and not be dependent on distributors or wholesalers. That flexibility and ubiquity was also discovered by the company and distributor trucks from Cebu. Instead of just relying on distributors based in Ozamis City like before, their trucks now normally roll to up to Ipil, the capital and trade center of Zamboanga Sibugay and along the way they deliver their products to the markets, stores and groceries. Now, there are even intermodal buses with routes from the Visayas to Zamboanga City. First to roll was the Bacolod-Zamboanga Ceres Lines bus and recently they also have a Cebu-Zamboanga bus service too.

In recent years, it is obvious that the Dapitan-Dumaguete route has impacted the Cebu-Zamboanga and Cebu-Sindangan routes heavily. There is now just one regional passenger ship left sailing the Zamboanga-Cebu route, the Zamboanga Ferry of George & Peter Lines where before Trans Shipping Lines Inc. (TASLI) and George & Peter Lines put emphasis in that route. There is also one liner of 2GO from Dumaguete and Manila, a liner route that was previously abandoned. Meanwhile, Cokaliong Shipping Lines has already abandoned the Cebu-Sindangan route.

Intermodal trucks rolling long distances to other parts of Mindanao and Negros island also use this connection and some even go as far as Panay island. This is especially true after the liner service to Southern Mindanao was halted by Aboitiz Transport System (ATS). With that halt, the shippers of Southern Mindanao also began rolling their trucks. Private vehicles running to or from Cebu to Mindanao also use this connection since the rolling rate from Cebu to Ozamis, Iligan and Cagayan de Oro is very high (rolling sea rates by kilometer is far, far higher than rolling a vehicle in the highway). And again, rolling cargo is not the specialization or priority of the overnight ferries. For many, this western route is preferred over the eastern route that passes through Leyte and Surigao unless the destination or origin is eastern Mindanao or southern Mindanao.

Unless threatened by the direct Samboan-Dapitan route (or a possible Samboan-Dipolog route), the Dumaguete-Dapitan route will continue to grow.

That we will have to see in the future.